Review of Master Plan for Delhi 2021

Master plan is a long term planning, generally for 20 years. It is also a comprehensive planning for service area as per likely spread of city in next 20 years. It describes all works required in next 20 years in phased manner. The designs and estimates are prepared approximately. It finalizes some of the main parameters so that advance action can be taken.
Master Plan for Delhi 2021
Master Plan for Delhi 2021

"A Master Plan is the long term perspective plan for guiding the sustainable planned development of the city. This document lays down the planning guidelines, policies, development code and space requirements for various socio-economic activities supporting the city population during the plan period. It is also the basis for all infrastructure requirements." defined in Master Plan Preparation Committee
  • Master Plan for Delhi 2021 is consistent with the provisions of Delhi Development Act, 1957. Prepared by Delhi Development Authority and approved by the Central Government under Section 11A(2) of Delhi Development Act 1957 and notified on 7th February 2007 (The Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part II–Section 3 Subsection (ii) No. 125 (Magha 18, 1928) vide S.O. 141-(E).
  • Plan has all the required sections:
■    Introduction
■    Regional and Sub Regional Frame
■    Population and Employment
■    Delhi Urban Area 2021
■    Shelter
■    Trade and Commerce
■    Wholesale Trade
■    Industry
■    Government Offices
■    Environment
■    Conservation and Heritage
■    Urban Design
■    Transportation
■    Social Infrastructure
■    Physical Infrastructure
■    Mixed Use
■    Landuse Plan
■    Development Code
■    Plan Review and Monitoring
■    Maps
■    Annexures: Perspective Plans of Physical Infrastructure and Gazette notificaiton
■    List of members
Land Use Plan-MPD 2021
Source: Master Plan for Delhi-2021
  • Plan is based on the long term vision statement ‘to make Delhi a global metropolis and a world-class city, where all the people would be engaged in productive work with a better quality of life, living in a sustainable environment.’
  • Plan considers the character of the planning jurisdiction and its suitability for particular uses, judged in terms of such factors as trends in land and population development.
But the population of Delhi in 2001 was 138 lakh as against the MPD-2001 projection of128 lakh. Thus, we can say that the projected population was not in tune with the population growth that took place. Hence,
  • Plan has well demarcated zoning to make the development a comprehensive in nature to absorb the needs of the different areas of the city.
The NCT of Delhi has been divided into 15 Zones from A to H and J to P, of which 8 Zones are in the urban area, one in Riverbed and remaining 6 in the rural area. So far, Zonal Plans in respect of 11 zones (including sub cities of Dwaraka, Rohini and Narela) have been notified with the approval of the Government of India.
  • Plan will, in accordance with present and future needs, best promote public health, safety, morals, order, convenience, prosperity, and general welfare.
The experience of the past two Master Plans shows that projections regarding various basic infrastructure services have been made with reference to the population growth projections and the increased urbanization requirements. However, the infrastructure provisions especially those related to water and power have not matched the pace of development.
  • Methodology of the plan preparation is more participatory in nature as compared to other plan preparation exercises.
Keeping in view the democratic procedure and statutory obligations, the Draft Plan was  prepared after obtaining the views of the public. It also included extensive consultations at the pre-planning stage by involving local bodies, Government of NCT of Delhi, public sector agencies, professional groups, resident welfare associations, elected representatives, etc.
12 study groups set up with experts and stakeholders on various aspects such as shelter, demography, conservation, transportation, industry, environment, mixed use, infrastructure, trade and commerce etc.
The Draft Master Plan was notified for inviting public objections / suggestions through Gazette Notification dated 16.03.2005 and public notice in newspapers on 08.04.2005. In response, about 7000 objections / suggestions were received, which were considered by the Board of Enquiry which met on 17 occasions and also afforded personal hearing to about 611 persons / organizations.
Plan includes any areas outside of the municipal boundaries that, in the planning authority's jurisdiction, refered as planning area.
POLICY ZONES
The Regional Plan 2021 has been drawn up with reference to the following four Policy
Zones:-
  1. NCT of Delhi.
  2. Central National Capital Region - Central NCR
iii. Highway Corridor Zone
  1. Rest of NCR.
  • Plan includes maps, plats, charts, and descriptive, explanatory, and other related matter and shall show the planning authority's recommendations for the physical development of the planning jurisdiction.
  • Plan includes classification and allocation of land for different landuses and purposes pertinent to the future development of the planning jurisdiction.
  1. The following critical areas have been the focal points of the Plan:
(a) Land Policy:
The land policy would be based on the optimum utilisation of available resources, both,public and private in land assembly, development and housing.
(b) Public Participation and Plan Implementation:
  • Decentralised local area planning by participatory approach;
  • Performance oriented planning and development, with focus on implementation andmonitoring.
(c) Redevelopment:
Incentivised redevelopment with additional FAR has been envisaged as a major element of city development covering all the areas;
  • Planned Areas: Influence Zone along MRTS and Major Transport Corridor; underutilised / low-density areas; Special Area; shopping / commercial centres; Industrial areas / clusters and resettlement colonies.
  • Unplanned Areas: Villages; unauthorised colonies and JJ Clusters.
(d) Shelter:
In 2001, about 702 sq km of area was estimated to have been built up, accommodating about 138 lakh population. To accommodate the projected population of 230 lakh by the year 2021, a three-pronged strategy is recommended:
  1. i) To encourage the population to deflect in the NCR towns;
  2. ii) To increase the population holding capacity of the area within existing urban limit sthrough redevelopment; and
iii) Extension of the present urban limits to the extent necessary.
  • Shift from plotted housing to group housing for optimal utilization of land;
  • Private sector participation for development / redevelopment of housing;
  • Removing unnecessary controls (like height) for optimum utilization of land and to facilitate creation of 'signature' projects.
  • Enhancement of ground coverage, FAR and height for all categories of residential plots.
(e) Housing for poor
  • In-situ slum rehabilitation, including using land as a resource for private sector participation;
  • In order to prevent growth of slums, mandatory provision of EWS housing / slum rehabilitation in all group housing to the extent of 15% of permissible FAR or35% of dwelling units on the plot, whichever is higher.
  • Housing for urban poor to the extent of 50-55% of total;
From the past experiences of the planning for the housing need of the urban poor and slum improvement, the plan has shown a dismal picture.
  • Recategorisation of housing types, developent control norms and differential densities to make EWS /LIG housing viable and economical.
(f) Environment:
  • Special emphasis on conservation of the Ridge.
  • Rejuvenation of River Yamuna through a number of measures including ensuring adequate flow in river by release of water by riparian states, refurbishment of trunk sewers, treatment of drains, sewering of unsewered areas, treatment of industrial affluent, recycling of treated effluent and removal of coliforms at STPs.
  • Provision of lung spaces / recreational areas and green belt to the extent of 15 to20% of land use.
  • Multipurpose grounds: A special category for marriages / public functions.
The previous Master Plan proposals for retention of Green Belt have not been maintained and a considerable part has already been utilised for both, planned and unplanned developments.
The development taking place in the cathcment area of Yamuna is also a cause of concern and there is no strong policy measures to contain it.
(g) Unauthorised Colonies:
Unauthorised colonies, which are to be regularised as per government policy, should be effectively incorporated in the mainstream of urban development. This requires provision of infrastructure development, services and facilities for which differential norms and procedures have been devised.
(h) Mixed Use:
  • To meet the growing demand of commercial activities and overcome the shortfall of available commercial space, a liberalized provision of Mixed Use in residential areas has been adopted adhering to the requisites of the environment, while achieving better synergy between workplace, residence and transportation.
  • 2183 streets have been notified by the GNCTD vide notification dated 15.09.06 for local commercial and mixed-use activities.
  • Small shops of daily needs have been permitted on ground floor, in residential areas.
(i) Trade & Commerce:
  • District & Community Centres are proposed to be developed as facility corridors along major transport networks to prevent unintended and unplanned ribbon development and for better synergy between public transport and work centres.
  • Development of Integrated Freight Complexes / Wholesale Markets at the urban periphery.
  • Mandatory provisions for service and repair activities.
  • Informal shops, weekly markets, handicrafts bazaars, used books / furniture / building materials bazaars to be developed.
  • Enhancement of FAR.
There is existance of non-hierarchial commercial centres like Malls which are not accommodated in the develpment controls and guidelines leading to unregulated growth and shilfting of such develpment of other urban centres like NOIDA and Gurgaon.
(j) Informal Sector:
  • The informal and organised sector is a major source of employment in the economicfabric of the city for which the following approach is proposed:
  • Earmarking of 'Hawking' and 'No Hawking' Zones at neighbourhood and clusterlevels.
This exercise of alltoting the hawkers zone is not yet implemented inspite of the the fact that it was proposed in the earlier Master Plan and there was a Central Government Guideline for earmaking of Spaces for Hawkers and Street Vendors.
  • The weekly markets to be identified and planned / developed.
  • New areas for informal trade to be developed and integrated with housing,commercial, institutional and industrial areas.
  • Provision of common basic services like toilets, water points, etc.
  • Institutionalizing designs of stalls, push-carts and mobile vans.
  • Involvement of NGOs envisaged.
(k) Industry:
  • Environment as a major concern and listing of prohibited industries.
  • Modernisation / up-gradation of existing industries including non-conforming industrial centres.
  • Special provisions for service and repair centres.
  • Inclusion of new activities like IT industry, etc.
  • Enhancement of FAR.
The issue of industries in Delhi has been a subject of extensive debate, controversyand concern over the past decade. This has centred mainly on the aspects of pollution andnegative environmental impact of industries, the existence and continued growth of industriesin non-conforming areas and the issue of classification and permissibility with reference tohousehold industries. Serious concern has been expressed regarding the continued existenceand further proliferation of industries in contravention of Master Plan provisions.
(l) Conservation of Heritage:
  • Identification of heritage zones and archaeological parks.
  • Development of Special Conservation plans for listed buildings and precincts.
(m) Transportation:
  • The proposals include the following:
  • Unified Metro Transport Authority
  • Synergy between landuse and transport
  • A new parking policy including private sector development of parking facilities, increase in norms for parking space, multi level parking and underground parking.
  • Integrated multimodal public transport system to reduce dependence on personalised
vehicles.
  • Road and rail based mass transport system to be a major mode of public transport, optimal use of existing road network and development of missing links.
  • Restructuring of existing network through expressways, elevated roads, arterial roads,distributor roads and relief roads.
  • Provision for introducing cycle tracks, pedestrian and disabled friendly features in arterial and sub-arterial roads.
(n) Health Infrastructure:
  • Health facilities proposed to achieve norms of 5 beds / 1000 population
  • Enhancement of FAR for hospitals and other health facilities.
  • Nursing Homes, clinics etc. also allowed under relaxed Mixed Use norms
(o) Educational Facilities:
  • Rationalisation of planning norms with enhanced floor area.
  • Locating new school sites adjacent to parks / playgrounds.
  • Provision for vocational and other educational facilities.
  • Schools and training centres for mentally / physically challenged with differential development norms.
(p) Disaster Management:
  • Disaster Management centre provided in each administrative zone.
  • Building regulations for safety of structures as per seismic zone.
  • Land Use zoning as per microzonation.
Delhi Master Plan is among the few master plans which talks or tries to take care of the disaster mangement in the city planning aspect.
(q) Provision of Sports Facilities:
  • Provisions for sports infrastructure for local, national and international events.
  • Incentives provided for sports facilities and swimming pools in schools, clubs.
(r) Focus on Infrastructure Development:
  • Perspective Plans for Water, Power, Drainage & Solid Waste Management of Service Agencies part of MPD-2021. Alternative Sources of energy and new technology. ThePlan gives emphasis on energy conservation, efficiency and exploring alternative sources of energy.
  • Realistic standards of water supply for equitable distribution.
(s) Urban Design:
  • Emphasis on the controlled development in many areas.
  • Provision for visual integration and experinece of space. Delhi Urban Arts Commission is doing a good job in ensuring implementation of urban design parapeters.
  • Plan includes the general location, character, and extent of streets, railroads, airports, bridges, waterways, and waterfront developments; sanitary sewers and water supply systems; facilities for flood prevention, drainage, pollution prevention, and maintenance of water levels; and public utilities and structures.
  • Plan includes recommendations as to the general character, extent, and layout of redevelopment or rehabilitation of inner city areas; and the removal, relocation, widening, narrowing, vacating, abandonment, change of use, or extension of streets, grounds, open spaces, buildings, utilities, or other facilities.
  • For a local unit of government that has adopted a zoning ordinance, the Master Plan includes a zoning plan for various zoning districts controlling the height, area, bulk, location, and use of buildings and premises. The zoning plan shall include an explanation of how the land use categories on the future land use map relate to the districts on the zoning map.
  • Plan includes recommendations for implementing any of the master plan's proposals.
  • Plan Monitoring and Mid Term Plan review is a good feature and Mid Term Review is going on from last year.
By Shashikant Nishant Sharma
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About Editor SNSharma

Author, Planning and Publishing Consultant
http://www.pen2print.org/