Food Security and Agroforestry in relation to Chepang and Tamang Community: A Sociological Study Of Central Nepal.

 Raju Chetry and Uma Kant Silwal

Abstract                                                                                                                                                                 

Agroforestry and food security are inter-se related, due to livelihood and income of the person's growth from its practices. Agroforestry is the most cost effective practice nowadays in the context of the world, it also helps the environment from erosion. This practice reduces poverty, also helps nutrition from its consumption. This paper argues that Agroforestry intervention and some other development activities not only raise the food security situation of the study area rather lift up the social and cultural trend of the study area within Nepal. This paper brings a wider knowledge of food security in relation with Agroforestry; it also shows a relation and practice of Chepangs and Tamangs in Central Nepal. Some potential benefits of this practice may be rejoined to other communities for enhancing food security situation, more specifically by development agencies within the working area. The other objective of this study was to keep an insight of the food security situation of the area and its possible reason behind.
Key Words: Agroforestry, Food Security, Ethnics, Coping strategy and Livelihood.


  1. Introduction
Food security is defined as “when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (FAO, 1996). In 2009, this definition was amended, and the concept was extended and specified by adding that the “four pillars of food security are availability, access, utilization, and stability” and stated that “the nutritional dimension is integral to the concept” (FAO, 2009b). The strength of this definition is its comprehensiveness and imperative for “concerted actions at all levels” (that are “individual, household, national, regional, and global levels”) and “coordinated efforts and shared responsibilities” across institutions, societies, and economies to tackle food insecurity effectively (FAO, 1996).Poverty is regarded as the major obstacle to achieve food security at the household level so that “poverty eradication is essential to improve access to food” (FAO, 1996) (Eckerand, 2012). Shifting cultivation is the traditional land-use for farmers from various ethnic groups in Nepal, and is practiced in about 20 districts (Regmi et al., 2003). The Chepangs of central Nepal are one of the ethnic groups known for practicing shifting cultivation, but also for being among the most marginalized communities (Kerkoff, 2006).Food security is a major concern, and a study in Kharsang village, where 47 percent of the population was Chepangs, showed that 97 per cent of the people suffered from varying degrees of food deficiency during 3-9 months per year (Balla et al., 2002). The land is hardly fit for permanent cultivation, the ability to practice shifting cultivation contributes to their subsistence, but this practice might lead to periods of food insecurity. The search for wild and uncultivated foods might therefore be an important supplement for livelihood, support (Aryal et al., 2007).
In north western Makawanpur, shifting cultivation is observed in slopes and stony red soils in the sloping uplands. The  practice  of  chorea  is  observed  mostly  on  slopes  greater than 30 degrees, with 57percent  of the  land  in  the  range of  31  to  40  degrees,  where  it  causes  serious  problems  of  soil  erosion and landslides.  Recently,  shifting  cultivation  has  also  become  a  major  concern  because  it  is associated with  deforestation,  loss  of  biodiversity,  threat of  forest fire, emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, and soil erosion. The use of kerosene  for  lighting  and  of  fuel wood  for  cooking  also  raises environmental  concerns, (Federico and Bhuju, 2009).
Agroforestry and Food Security

Forest is an important source of cash income. However, only the food self-insufficient household resorts to the collection of commercial forest product for cash income generation. Income, thus generated is utilized to purchase food from the market. Promotion of commercial forest product seems to be a promising alternative to improve the food security situation of Chepangs (Piya et al., Forest and Food Security of Indigenious People:A Case of Chepangs in Nepal., 2011).Agroforestry offers many benefits for agricultural producers and society at large, the role of Agroforestry as an environmentally benign and ecologically sustainable alternative to traditional farming that also offers a number of ecosystem services needs to be fully explored. In addition to poverty alleviation, Agroforestry also offers proven strategies for carbon sequestration, soil enrichment, biodiversity conservation, and air and water quality improvement for not only the landowners or farmers, but for society at large. (Jose, 2009)
Agroforestry systems have huge potential to contribute to three pillars of sustainable development: ecological sustainability, economic sustainability and social sustainability through the positive transformation of landscapes and the livelihoods of rural Tanzanians (Kideghesho et al., 2012)
As in traditional agricultural adoption, the major influences on adoption concern household preferences, resource endowments, market incentives, farmers will invest in Agroforestry when the expected gains from the new system are higher than the alternatives for the use of their land, labor and capital. Early adopters will tend to be those relatively better-off households who have more risk capital available in terms of higher incomes or more resource endowments (land, labor, capital, experience, education) to allow investments in uncertain and unproven technologies (Mercer, 2004).
In, 1994 a study of Padampokhari VDC within Makwanpur district. Shaktikhor and Darechowk VDC within Chitwan district shows an impact on improving livelihood such as leasehold lands are being restored with trees, grass, forage and horticultural crops, income of the Tamangs has increased progressively. This has a two-fold effect on reducing the time for fodder collection and income generation from forage seed and lemongrass, and selling increased milk production. The income and time saved during fodder collection have allowed parent's today their school going children. Hence, parents encourage to children to finish up their school assignment before involving them in household activities. Thus, their involvement in household chores is limited and they do not hamper their study by collecting forest products from degraded forest lands (Gautam et al., 2003).Chepangs had lived a semi-nomadic life. Today, agriculture is the mainstay of their livelihoods. Due to the barren, rugged and infertile land, and primitive agricultural practices, productivity are very low. Therefore, they do not get enough food. Most of the Chepangs normally can survive only for five to six months from the maize and millet they produced. Almost, 50 percent of the cereal is fermented to make and which is an integral part of their food culture that eliminates wastage. (Bastakoti et al., 2008).Shifting cultivation is the traditional land-use for farmers from various ethnic groups in Nepal, and is practiced in about 20 districts (Regmi et al., 2003).The Chepang of central Nepal are one of the ethnic groups known for practicing shifting cultivation, but also for being among the most marginalized communities (Kerkoff, 2006).Food security is a major concern, and a study in Kharsang village, where 47 percent of the population were Chepang, showed that 97 percent of the people suffered from varying degrees of food deficiency during 3-9 months per year (Balla et al., 2002). Because, the land is hardly fit for permanent cultivation, the ability to practice shifting cultivation contributes to their subsistence, but this practice might lead to periods of food insecurity. The search for wild and uncultivated foods might therefore be an important supplement for livelihood, support (Aryal et al., 2007).
 Food Security Situation and Ethnics
The population of Chepangs in Nepal total about 52,000 (0.23 percent of Nepal’s population) and they are considered to be one of the less developed communities with only 13.9 percent being literate (CBS, 2003). Chepangs are the ancient settlers of the study area with 350 households recorded in the VDC (Chepang District Profile 2006). Chepangs have traditionally lived as semi-nomads depending on shifting cultivation farming systems supplemented by hunting and gathering of uncultivated foods (Chepang 2006, Manandhar 2002).The major crops are maize (Zea mays L.), and finger millet (Eleusin  Coracana (L.) Gaertn.). The household production is generally sufficient for about 5 month's subsistence per year and only 1 percent of the Chepang have sufficient food for the whole year from their own agricultural production (Gurung, 2006).During the rest of the year they depend on wage labor work and uncultivated foods (Regmi et al., 2006) (Aryal et al., 2009).Marginalized ethnic communities of Nepal are mainly Chepang, Bankariya and Raji people. They are living in a scattered condition in Chitwan, Makawanpur, Surkhet, Dhading, Bardiya and other districts as well. They are mainly depending on forest based food varieties for their livelihood. They have their own unique culture and are not familiar with other communities/caste of people (RSN, 2013).Chepangs, also called ‘Prajas’, are regarded as one of the marginalized and socio-economically deprived indigenous ethnic communities. They have depended enormously on the natural forest resources over a long period of time. Forests is the most important source for them in terms of foods, fibers, fodders, medicines, housing materials and various other needs, shifting cultivation (Khoriya) is the only feasible way to farm the steep slopes inhabited by them (Limbu, 2011).Chepangs not only harvest grains from their khoriya but also pay great cultural and religious respect. Khoriya has played great role in food security in the months when Chepangs don’t have food to eat. They collect wild foods such as gita/vayakur (Doiscorea bulbifer) and other edible plants from fallow kept fields (Sharma, 2011).There is a direct relationship between Agroforestryry sale and a decline in poverty. The Food security situation of Chepangs within the northwestern corridor of the Makwanpur has improved in a situation due to support by various development organizations between 2010 to 2011 (DFSN, 2011) (Chetry, 2014).Restrictions on hunting, gathering, and clearing of forest patches for khoriya cultivation led to the transition of their livelihoods to sedentary agriculture. Currently, although agriculture forms the major source of their livelihoods, it is not sufficient to provide food for the whole year. Chepangs thus depend upon a diversified livelihood strategy comprising of agriculture, livestock, wage labor, collection and sale of NTFPs, skilled and salaried jobs, handicrafts, and remittance (Piya et al., LIvelihood strategies of indigenious nationalist in Nepal:A case of Chepang, 2011b). Although Chepangs have come a long way from forest based hunting-gathering nomadism to sedentary agriculture, the contribution of forest resources to their livelihoods has remained significant. A comprehensive study done by (Gribnau, 1997) in Chitwan district reports that Chepang household obtains 7 per cent of their cash income from forests. In, another study by (FORWARD, 2001), it is reported that NTFP from a source of cash income for 11 per cent, 5 per cent, and 3 per cent of the sample households in Chitwan, Dhading, and Gorkha districts respectively. A recent study by (Magar, 2008) in Chitwan district shows that NTFPs contribute 18.14 percent of the total household income, and average income earned from NTFPs was higher for poor households compared to medium and rich households. Most of the Chepang households suffer from an acute shortage of food and nutrition. Women and children suffer from malnutrition and other nutrient deficiencies. The family consumption status shows that they take minimum vegetables (Regmi et al., 2004)
 Agroforestry and its uses
As per the private forest nationalization act 1957, all the forests that had been used in the past under the traditional rights were included under the government owns. This puts a restriction in the hunting and gathering activities, thereby negatively affecting the traditional system of the Chepang livelihoods. Chepangs had no legal ownership of land where they practiced khoriya, and most of them remained as uncultivated patches within the forest area, which now came under the government ownership) (Piya et al., 2011).A comparative study between Chepangs and Gurungs in Gorkha, Dhading, and Kaski district within Nepal has shown the result that uncultivated plant species used for consumption at times of food shortage, have the potential to become valuable staple foods and important alternatives to the usual food crops cultivated by farmers (Aryal, 2007).Chepangs are one of the most disadvantaged tribal communities in Nepal. The majority of the households practice shifting cultivation system as a major land use system. Chepang households covered by the survey are dependent upon NTFPs for their livelihoods for the domestic purposes like fodder, fuel wood, litter, food, and medicine. On an average, NTFPs contributed 13.2 percent to the total income of the households, ranging from 0 percent to a maximum of 60.3 percent. The income generated from NTFPs thus varied greatly across the sample households (Piya et al., 2011)
According to visiting over a Laitak village in Dhading district of Central Nepal it was found that Chepang are the predominant ethnic group in the area and they depend mainly on shifting cultivation system for their survival. They are economically and politically marginalized compared to other ethnic communities. The introduction of banana and other vegetables and fruits in the farm and home garden helps farmers to increase their income status as well as increase the diversity of nutrition (ICIMOD, 2009)
The main objective of this study was set to-
  1. a) Find out the food security situation of both (Chepangs and Tamangs) groups within the study area.
  2. b) Analyze the main reason behind food Security.

  1. Materials and Methods
Study Area
Ward no 2, 4 and 6 of Bharta Punyadevi village development committees (VDC) under Makwanpur district were purposively selected to conduct this study because as per DDC most of the Chepangs and Tamangs within Makwanpur reside under the area of the northwestern part of the district. Since, the researcher is doing Ph.D. in the relevant topics of Agroforestry and livelihood of Chepangs, so this study and analysis were equally important to find out the situation of food security and possible reason behind it. Researcher applied a purposively sampling of 87 households, 46 from Chepangs and 41 Tamangs households were interviewed between a periods of December 2014 to February 2015 by standard questionnaire through Primary based random sampling within the community. For a better interpretation of the data and facts three Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was conducted in the three different locations of the same wards. This FGD and 3 case studies (one from each ward) were proved the situation of food security and Agroforestry plantation of the study areas.
                         (Satellite map of study area)
 Respondent Selection and Pretest
A total of 86 households (25.81 percent of Whole sample as per CBS 2011) was selected out of which 45 households belonged to Chepangs and 41 households was for Tamangs groups. This household data collection was done in ward no 2, 4 and 6 respectively, similarly a total of 3 FGD (Focus Group Discussion) were done aiming to cover the food security situation and its possible program intervention in the entire area. Therefore FGD was done in the same wards. Most importantly, 15 households each of Chepangs and Tamangs were selected through random sampling method within the study area that did Agroforestry plantation. As a part of questionnaire pre testing, 3-5 respondents from the same vdc were inquired by using standard questionnaires. Few changes in the questionnaire were made upon the feedback and information obtained from the pre-testing.         
Data Collection
The period covers for data collection is between second weeks of December to the end of February 2015. Data collection was done through several visits to the concern sites as well as some consultation was done in between January to February 2015 with the stakeholders in the district such as  DADO, DDC, PLAN, MDI, CCDN, DFO and local media. Since the questionnaires were prepared in national languages, Nepali for easy execution of the interview, One local enumerator of the same community was hired for easy understanding of their context and local languages as Tamangs and Cheangs both used their local languages in their day to day lives.                      
Data Analysis
SPSS Volume-20   was used to interpret the quantitative aspects of the findings of this study. A total of three FGD was conducted and this data was matched with the household's information which was linked with each other to show the food security situation of the study area. A descriptive analysis was more emphasized to elaborate the data, since this is a comparative study between Cheapangs and Tamangs, moreover, Chi-Square test and Correlation analysis was done to show the distinguish between both the group. This test was applied to show the relationship and differences between them.                  
  1. Results and Discussion
 Food Security Situation of both Groups:-
Table-1

According to Table-1 reveals that 49 percent have land between 5-10 kattha (measurement of international unit) for cultivation, These lands are mostly, uplands and depends of rainwater for irrigation, Only 1 percent household planted a combination of wheat, maize and millet, but On the other hand 99 percent households respond that they planted maize, millet and paddy, Maize is the main crop of this area, millet usually goes for brewing (alcohol) business and for consuming. Most of the households respond that overall production is normal compare to last year this season, some 9 cases of losses recorded by Tamangs family, this causes mainly due to early plantation and lack of rainfall during their germination. As a result the overall production of such family was deteriorating, but on the other hand rest of the household had normal production causes due to right time plantation and timely rainfall support. In case of household food stock, number of households having maize grain stock in higher than those having paddy and millet, since rice is usually prepared from paddy and both groups in those areas does not sale the paddy rather they consume it after converting into rice. According to Makwanpur district crop calendar paddy is harvested in Kartik (October-November), maize in Shrawan(July-August), and millet in Ashoj(September-October) so, this trend of crop calendar indicates that Maize stock is still lasting in the household's level which is very the common in this area. In case of food sufficiency 56 per cent households acknowledge looks a sufficiency for in between 4 to 6 months as a highest majority of the surveyed community, similarly as per the data suggest that food sufficiency from own production is higher among Chepangs than Tamangs community. Hence, overall availability looks sufficient only for a few months from their own production.
According to Table-2, around 64 per cent of the households have access to credit equally, but the majority of the population is paying an interest 24 percent, after getting credit from local merchants or relatives. Nearest market Manahari is (4 hrs walking distance for both sides and 2.5 hours by vehicle due to poor road connection). Although foreign employment is  a major source of income for many in this country, Only 7 percent people in the study area out migrated to third country such as
Malaysia and Saudi Arabia for earning as a better opportunity for livelihood .88 per cent replied that their using major source of income was sale of agricultural products (including Agroforestry product), 49 percent respond that they are earning a range of 10001 to 15000 Rupees/months, Similarly 26 per cent have an income range of 1501 to 3000 Rupees/months, among which Chepang majority is leading in earning than Tamangs. From the above facts, it is clear that access is sufficient to this community which indicates that food security access (social, economic) is sufficient and continues.
Table-3
According to Table-3 reveal that 98 per cent people self-consumed their own produced vegetables and grains, it was also seen that most of the grains (millet) were used for brewing related work (sale) and also for consumption. As a part of utilization, most of the households were found consuming rice as the first consumable foods and maize as the second important food. As a part of cash expenditure 56 per cent respondent replied that there are monthly expended ranged from using 1501 to 3000 Rupees/month as cash, among which Chepangs had higher in expenditure than those of Tamangs, Similarly 23 percent respondent had expenditure of Rupees 50 to 1500 per month as cash expenditure. For all the cases 55 percent expenditure goes to food purpose 30 percent for non-food items and rest 15 percent food used for miscellaneous items  such as fuel, schools fees, recharge card, health, bills, and debt .Overall utilization shows that an average range of  of 3001 to 5000 the middle range of expenditure which fulfils the foods and non-foods items .This implies that household food stock from own production(grains) is available and the cost of food goes to rice, flesh, pulses, spices, vegetables, milk, sugar etc. Similarly non-food items implies a cost of school fees, stationary, agricultural tools, fertilizers, seed, utensils, celebration, social events, transportation etc. 40 percent reply that self-produced small animals(hen, eggs) mostly consumed whereas 45 per cent reply that they do some time sell and sometime consume based on situations. 57.5 percent reply that they eating rice as staple food mostly and 42.5 percent said maize. Similarly, 97 percent response that they use liquor from self-home made using own produced grains(Millet and Maize) and rest 3 per cent said that they purchased from markets for drinking, it was calculated that an average of 40 kg grains used for preparing liquor for drinking per months per households, Similarly, it was crossed checked through observation method that approximately 1.5 Quintals(150 kg) millet grains used for preparing liquor in a normal marriage ceremony of both groups .Likewise in a social gathering such as festival season an approximately 70 kg  grains used during festival periods and most adversely near about 2.5 Quintals(250 kg) millet grains used for preparing liquor in funeral rites of each groups as a most prestigious and ancestral rituals with a compulsion of serving drinks compulsory to all invitees and relatives of the events, from the FGD and consultation as well as from the quantitative household data it was found that Tamangs family have higher amount of food grains utilizing for liquor in all season than Chepangs.                         
Discussion
According to NeKSAP food security meeting stated that food security situation of north western part of Makwanpur is "Minimally Food Insecure" during a period of second trimester (mid-Nov 2014 to mid-March 2015) as all six vdcs Kankada, Raksirang, Dandakharka, Kalikatar, Khairang  and Bharta Punyadevi have sufficient food stock of millet and income from the sale of Agroforestry products such as broom grass(Thysanolaena maxima),banana(Musa acuminate),honey and livestock sale(hen, eggs) (DFSN, 2015)
 Reason behind Food Security
Social and Economic factors: According to Focus group discussion and households quantitative data it was found that all 87 households have  agroforestry  practice among which collection of broom grass spices was high, an average of 300 spices and a maximum of 600 spices planted by this community, similarly a total of  60 households(35 from Chepang and 25 from Tamangs)were planted a main of 50 to a maximum of 250 banana trees.Saling product at household level was broom grass which cost 60 Rupees/kg, Similarly a dozen of banana cost 20-24 Rupees(2 Rupees/Piece), similarly a cost of local poultry cost 550 Rupees/Kg(alive) discussed within the community through  FGD and household interview. The cost of the single egg started from 15 Rupees/piece. Similarly, it was observed and verified that a minimum of 1-2 people from each interviewed HH were affiliated in local committee such as Agroforestry committee, School management committee, Cooperative groups, Women's groups, Shaving and credit groups which Indicates that a high level of trainings regarding agroforestry plantation is provided by development agencies, among that Manahari Development Institute(MDI), DOFC, District Forest Office(DFO), Women Skill Creation Centre (WOSCC), Share and Care(NGOs) played a vital role in development support, MDI provided agroforestry spices, trainings and other livelihood supports whereas Development of Forest Community(DOFC) provides agroforestry support(Seed and trainings as well as leasehold forestry) both,
DFO provided a limited coverage of Agroforestry support. Similarly, WoSCC provided trainings and some seed support to prioritize the women of both groups in order to detract the poverty. Agroforestry plantation was first initiated by MDI, DFO, DOFC in large scale on this sector. A total of cultivable land in Bharta Punyadevi is 654 hectares, among which 207 hectares land is used for Agroforestry plantation (banana-41 hectares, broom grass-104 hectares) (DADO, 2014) ,this shows that one third land is being used as  Agroforestry plantation which lead to the inference that the demand for plantation is high, and is continuing in this sector.
 Stability
As the data show that the majority of the respondent among both groups have sufficient food stock from owning for 4-6 months, few have 7-10 months sufficiency. Therefore, for this rest of the month people rely on certain coping strategy such as taking loan, purchasing food from market, sailing of cattle's, working as wage labours, eating wild foods for a short time as a normal coping strategy. However, other coping strategies that are above than normal are skipping meals, reducing amount of food. Depending on wild food for a longer period could be seen than 10 per cent of the population as stated by FGD/ DADO/ DOFC reports. During rainy seasons as household food stock is almost depleted and working opportunity became very limited to both the community. Therefore, rainy season (July-August) is the most critical period for all marginalized people, mostly due to continuous rainfall, growing season of crops (not grown enough to harvest), limited wage opportunity and high risk of disaster. This causes initiation of high coping strategy among both groups. Nearest highway based market has adequate stock to meet the demands and market is functionally without any disturbance, In case of Makwanpur, poverty mapping indicates the same event of insecurity among Chepangs in a rainy season period where people will have limited wage opportunity due to arrival of rainy season and depletion of own household stock as well as no development activity by institution (DDC, 2005)
According to District Agricultural Development Office, Makwanpur insecurity and coping strategy embark in between Baisakh to Ashad months(mid-April to mid-June) due to depleted food  stock and growing season of grains in own land, lack of work opportunity in rainy season and limited development opportunity as well as the year ending periods of government fiscal years. In this case, insecure population act coped with situation as taking a loan (cash, food), sailing of cattle's, eating less preferred food, out migration to gradual higher one. From the above phenomena,  it can be said that stability of food security among both groups exist due to availability of market access, income opportunity, consumption and with a normal coping adaptation show that overall survey community is food secured for a certain period of time.

  1. Conclusion
In the context of Nepal, Agroforestry is the main livelihood source of Chepangs and Tamangs. Beside this the following conclusion was drawn to the basic of survey data and fact, linking with secondary data and discussion made with FGD in the study area:-
  • Food sufficiency and availability exist for both the community for certain months. A few months of food security reside with normal range of coping strategy.
  • Access ability found in both groups, as local merchants and other institute is available to provide cash support as well as market access. Market access is continuing throughout the year, but in a distance.
  • Sale of Agricultural product (including Agroforestry) is the main source of income among both groups, which indicates that people rely fully on selling product in nearby in order to purchase desirable food items.
  • Agroforestry plantation is practiced in all the interviewed houses with a situation of at least 1-2 people technically well oriented by the supporting agencies. Most of the Agroforestry users are involved in the local committee as a part of empowerment from the result of development intervention. Utilizing of own foods and vegetables is the main priority of the community, purchase from the nearest market applied when their food commodities have been out of stock.
  • The largest amount of cereal grains is utilized for preparing of liquor following birth, death, marriage rituals as per social norms and tradition.
  1. Recommendations
Following recommendation are drawn based on the evidence of the above phenomena:-
  • Some high value quickly cash generated Agroforestry spices such as Kurilo(Asparagus recemosus),Chiuri(Diploknema Butyracea) and fodder grass could be a better intervention of this community as they have sufficient knowledge of plantation, Similarly, some fruits intervention may do as orange, lemon could be a better from income perspectives, It is requested to MDI, DOFC, DDC, DFO and all relevant local organizations in this area to provide such spices and promote accordingly.
  • All local based agencies are requesting to do coordination with each other for intervening there resources in order to safe from duplication, Support of Chiuri( could be supported by DFO, Approximately 250 households (excluding survey community) could start practicing agroforestry plantation if they got support and trainings by any of the agencies, DFO is highly encouraging to intervent Chiuri(Aaesandra butyracea),Orange, Cinnamon(cinnamomum tamala),Pineapple plantation support to all needful community of this area.
  • Most importantly, it is advised to MDI, WOSCC, DOFC and DEO to start a campaign to save the local household grains pointing the benefits and importance of self-produced grains which is being wasted for social and ritual purpose, A food security based trainings and save food campaign is required to do in the study area, DEO could better lead, a role through locals schools and WOSCC, DOFC, MDI, and DADO with other agencies could assist them in such campaign on which a training should be must focusing on consumptions and distribution.
  • It is recommended to conduct a mobile joint service by concerned development actors for providing their support in local levels and in this way local people will receive service from administrative to market at the local level (food, citizenship, birth registration, marriage certificate, foods, non-foods, financial facility, etc.)
  • It is suggested to all presence development actors(MDI, DDC, DOFC, DFO) to ensure direct market linkage of community product(brooms, vegetables, pulses, grains, hen, eggs and so on),in this way sale and income situation of the community will be stabilized
Acknowledgement
I am very much thankful to all household surveyed respondents of Bharta Punyadevi VDCs, participants of FGD, District Agricultural Development Office, District Development Committee, District Forest Office, Manahari Development Institute, DOFC staff members who help me a lot to conduct this study. I am also thankful to the members of Women Skill Creating Centre who help me lots for this study. I also would like to pay my deepest gratitude to Dr. Shyambhu Man Amatya who guide and supported me much to finalizing of this article.
Annex: Some photo of study area:-
(Farmers of Bharta  collected brooms for sale, 10 February, 2015)  (Banana plantation in sloping land at Bharta, Ward 9-January 2015, Coordinates:-27.61°N 84.91 ° E)

 

References

1)Aryal. (2007). Uncultivated Plants: an option from livelihood support of the people in mid-hills of Nepal. Sweden: Swidesh Boidiversity Center.
2)Aryal et al. (2007). How can research and development help upland farmers improve their farming systems? Experiences in participatory technology development. In A. G. L Gebbie (Ed.), NAFRI (pp. 287-302). Laos: NAFRI.
3)Aryal et al. (2009, December 2). Uncultivated Plants and Livelihood Support –A case study from the Chepang people of Nepal. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, 7(i1547), 14.
4)Baets, S. G. (2007). Portrait of Agroforestry in Quebec. Agricultural Science. Quebec: Agricultural and Agri Food,Canada.
5)Balla et al. (2002). Degraded Lands in Mid-hills of Central Nepal:A GIS appraisal in quantifying and planning for sustainable rehabilitation. LI-BIRD. Pokhara: Li-BIRD.
6)Bastakoti et al. (2008). FOOD INSECURITY AND DEPENDENCY OF CHEPANG COMMUNITIES ON WILD EDIBLE PLANTS. Sustainable Forest Management and Poverty Alleviation, 21, 8-10.
7)CBS. (2003). Statistical Year Book of Nepal (Vol. 1). Kathmandu, Bagmati, Nepal: Central Bureau of Statistics(CBS).
8)CBS. (2011). Nepal Living Standard Survey(Chapter II). GON, Statistics. Kathmandu: Government of Nepal,Central Beauro of Statistics.
9)Chetry, R. (2014, July). Agroforestry plantation Elevates Poverty:A Sociological study on Chepangs of Central Nepal. (N. Kumar, Ed.) Journal of Indian Research, 2(3), 57-65.
10)DADO. (2014). Agricultural progress and statistical book of 2013-2014. (DADO, Ed.) Hetauda, Narayani, Nepal: Planning section,District Agricultural Development office(DADO).
11)DDC. (2005). Poverty Mapping. Hetauda: District Development Committee.
12)DFSN. (2011, April 21). District Food Security Situation of Makwanpur. (D. A. Office, Ed.) DFSN Report of First Quarter 2011(05), p. 7.
13)DFSN. (2015). Food Security Bulletin. Ministry of Agricultural Development(MOAD), Food Security. Hetauda,Makwanpur: DFSN Secreateriate.
14)Eckerand, B. a. (2012). The Food Security systemA New conceptual Framework. Development Strategy and Goverane Division. Washington,USA: The International Food Policy Research Institute(IFPRI).
15)FAO. (1996). Rome Declaration on World Food Security and World Food Summit Plan of Action. Italy(Rome): FAO(Food and Agricultural Organization).
16)FAO. (2009b). Declaration of World Summit on Food Security. Rome: FAO(Food and Agricultural Organization).
17)Federico and Bhuju. (2009). From Shifting Cultivation to Sustainable Livelihood Creation: Strengthening Marginalized Communities through Institutional Development and Microfinance for Agroforestry and Energyefficient Technologies  . Makwanpur: Institute for GLobal Environmental Strategy.
18)FORWARD. (2001). Formulation of a Comprehensive Praja Development Programme. Bharatpur: Forum for Rural Welfare and Agricultural Reform for Development.
19)Gautam et al. (2003). Community based leasehold approach and Agroforestry technology for restoring degraded hill forests and improving rural livelihoods in Nepal. Environment and Society. Germany: Rural Livelihood Forest and Biodiversity Project.
20)Gribnau, C. P. (1997). Can Orange tree blossom on barren Lands? (In Nepali). Kathmandu: Praja Community Developmnet Programme.
21)Gurung, G. M. (1990). Economic Modernization in a Chepang Village in Nepal. Report, Kathmandu.
22)ICIMOD. (2009). Report of the Shifting Cultivation Inception and Sharing Workshop. Kathmandu: IFAD.
23)Jose, S. (2009, April 7). Agroforestry for ecosystem services and environmental benefits:An overview. Agroforestry for ecosystem services and environmental benefits:An overview, 76:1-10.
24)Kang, B. G. (1984). Alley cropping: A stable alternative to shifting cultivation. Ibadan,Nigeria.
25)Kerkoff, S. a. (2006). Debating shifting Cultivation In Eastern Himalayas:Farmer Innovation as lesson for policy. ICIMOD. Kathmandu: International Center for Integrated Mountians Development.
26)Khadka, R. (2010). Transition from slash-and-burn ( khoriya ) farming to permanent Agroforestry in the middle hills of Nepal; an analysis of costs, benefits and farmers' adoption. Master Thesis, Noragic, Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Norway.
27)Kideghesho et al. (2012, April 04). Mainstreaming Agroforestry Policy In Tanzania Legal Framework. (D. M. Kaonga, Ed.) Agroforestry for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services – Science and Practice, 3, 13.
28)Limbu, P. T. (2011). Chepang Food Culture:Contribution of wild Edible and Neglected plant Spices. POkhara: Li-BIRD.
29)Magar. (2008). Contribution of Non- Timber Forest Product in the livelihood of Chepang Community. Kathmandu: SNV.
30)MDI. (2008). SGP-Manuals. Hetauda: MDI.
31)Mercer, D. E. (2004). Adoptation of Agroforestry Innovation in the Tropics:A Review. Adoptation of Agroforestry Innovation in the Tropics:A Review, 311-328.
32)Piya et al. (2011, JUne). Collection and Marketing of Non Timber Forest Product by Chepang Community In Nepal. The Journal Of Agricultural and Environment, 12, 10-21.
33)Piya et al. (2011, JUne). Collection and marketing of non-timber forest products by the Chepang community in Chitwan district of Nepal. MPRA, 14.
34)Piya et al. (2011). Forest and Food Security of Indigenious People:A Case of Chepangs in Nepal. Forest and Food Security of Indigenious People:A Case of Chepangs in Nepal., 17 (1), 113-135.
35)Piya et al. (2011b). LIvelihood strategies of indigenous nationalist in Nepal:A case of Chepang. Journal of International Development and Cooperation, 2(17), 99-113.
36)Regmi et al. (2003). Shifting Cultivation Practice and Innovation in Nepal. Li-BIRD, Research and Development. Pokhara: Li-BIRD(Unpublished).
37)Regmi et al. (2004). Home Gardens: An Opportunity to Minimize Pressure on Slash and Burn System and Option for Improving Dietary Diversity of Chepang Households. Biodiversity International and Swiss Development Corporation. Pokhara: Li-BIRD.
38)Regmi et al. (2006). Homegardens: An Opportunity to minimize pressure on slash and burn system and options for improving dietary diversity of Chepang households. (pp. 35-47). Pokhara: Li-BIRD and SDC.
39)RSN. (2013). Food and Nutrition Security of the Forest DependentHouseholds from the Forests of Nepal. Food and Nutrition Security. Kathmandu: RSN(Renaissance Society Nepal).
40)Sanched, A. (1995). Science in Agro Forestry. Kenya: Kluweir Academic Publication.
41)Sharma. (2011). Understanding the Chepangs and Shifting Cultivation: A Case Study from Rural Village of Central Nepal. Village of Central Nepal, 5, 247-262.
Share on Google Plus