Call for Papers 2017

Send papers for publication to editor@edupediapublications.com or edupdediapublications@gmail.com Pen2Print® Journals

FACTORS AFFECTING THE TEACHING BASIC TECHNOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE.

MKPUGHE CHRISTIANA IFEYINWA (DR)
TECHNOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT

ABSTRACT

The research assessed the challenges of teaching Basic Technology in Secondary Schools in Ika South Local Government Area of Delta State. Five research hypotheses were formulated. There is a significant relationship between laboratory facilities and the learning of Basic Technology, there is significant relationship between teachers’ experience and qualified teachers and the quality of teaching Basic Technology. There is no significant relationship between students’ gender attitude and students’ interest in the learning of Basic Technology which is enhanced into improved facilities. Recommendations were made based on the findings.
Keywords:  The key words are Basic Technology, Technical Education, Electrical Electronics Technology, Metal Work Technology, Wood and Work Technology.
INTRODUCTION
During the pre-colonial era in Nigeria, technology and Technological development was informal. It witnessed the people unique cultures and the existence of Local craft such as Local-smilting, iron smelting, weaving, pottery, basket and work with hinds and skins, feathers, metal and wood. Technological development in the country witnesses a minor boom when the missionaries and colonial masters came into the country. During this period, technological development was to intensify their grip on us. As they came into the country with radio set, television set, cellular phone, gun, many of which has not been heard of or seen in Nigeria. This remain so for a very long time even when our colonial masters had gone, but in the 1 980s and 1 990s, series of meetings were held by African countries having realized that Africa, one of the world richest regions of terms of natural resources is lacking behind technologically, they have seen only little of the profit from the exploitation.
In 1995, to be specific, 33 of the 48 least developed countries of the continent were in Saharan Africa to discuss the way forward on technology. They were of the view that the region is blessed with vest mineral wealth, great agricultural capacity and rich diversity of plants and animals but they lack the technology know-how to tap this resource. Having underlined this problem, they made a commitment to science and technology in Africa, with this declaration they went back home with the view to working towards the improvement of the science and technology in their countries. The present day Nigeria society and delta state in particular strives to be self-reliance in technological development and advancement. In order to achieve this, science subjects such as Physics, chemistry, Mathematics, Integrated science, introductory Technology, Technical drawing, Biology, Agricultural science are taught iii secondary schools knowing fully well that without a strong foundation in these subject areas, there will be no major advancement in technology in this country.
Government also went forward to ensure that polytechnics, Monotechnics, Universities of Technology and Agricultures as well as colleges of technologies are established to train Nigerians in technology and technologically related course. Technology therefore has been referred to in advanced learner’s Dictionary of current English as the systematic application of knowledge to practical tasked in industry or the application of science to industrial methods. Also according to Romiszowski (1989) it is the creative application of science to industrial (or any practical) purpose. The two definitions seem to be similar as science can be regarded as anybody of tested knowledge, which may be expressed in the form of set general principles Technology can also he seen as systematic process for delineating and analyzing problems, devising and implementing, managing, controlling and assessing and evaluating solution problems. Technology is also defined as cultural tradition development in our human communities for dealing with our physical, biological environment. Basic Technology as a subject has some courses embedded in it to make up the course. We have electrical electronics Technology, metal work/auto-mobile Technology, Auto-electrical, welding and fabricating, wood word Technology, Chemistry, part of home Economics/Agric-science all these make up introductory syllabus from year one to year three (J.S.S.). This course is to make the child or student to be technological oriented and to introduce them to some Engineering courses and equally make them practically oriented.
Statement of the Problem
Basic technology as a subject can make a nation develop scientifically and technologically. For a student to read course like Engineering, Geology, Computer science and Architecture, she must have a sound introductory knowledge of Technology, a student should earn credit pass in junior secondary (J.S.S) Examination and equally obtain credit passes in five subjects, which must include Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics. A lot of problems are faced by the teachers of introductory Technology in secondary schools in Delta State.
Research Hypotheses
  1. Is there any relationship between laboratory facilities and teaching learning of Basic Technology?
  2. Is there significant relationship between teachers experienced and student’s performance in Basic Technology?
  3. There is a relationship between students gender attitude and student interest in the teaching learning of Basic Technology.

Purpose of study
The purpose of this study is to identify the problems facing teachers and students in the teaching and learning of Basic Technology in secondary schools in Ika South Local Government Area of Delta State. To determine the extent to which students are technologically conscious since the world is becoming a global village. Also, to suggest possible ways of overcoming the identified problems facing the teaching and learning of Introductory Technology in secondary schools.
Significance of the Study
In order for the students and the society to be more technologically literate, there is need to identify the challenges students face in learning technology in schools. The finding of this study will be beneficial to Government, parents, teachers and the society at large. It will serve as a guide to school administrators and education planners when making decisions that will affects the teaching and learning of Basic Technology in schools located in Ika South Local Government Area of Delta State. It will also help teachers to be aware of student’s attitude towards learning basic technology. This study will also assist Government to appreciate the crucial role of technical teachers in the teaching learning process and be encouraged.

Scope of Study
This study reviewed and assessed the challenges of teaching Basic technology in secondary schools in Ika South Local Government Area of Delta State study assumed that if there are enough learning periods and practical classes for the students, they would excel in Basic Technology.
Factors affecting the teaching and learning of Basic Technology
This research work focused on the educational problem, which affects the teaching learning basic Technology in secondary schools in Ika South Local Government Area of Delta State. The review was organized under the following headings:
  1. Laboratory facilities
  2. Method of Teaching
3        Experience and qualified teachers.
  1. Finance
  2. Performance of students in Mathematics and other Science related Courses
  3. School environment
  4. Shortage of relevant textbooks
  5. Lack of enough learning periods

Laboratory Facilities
Most of our Schools are faced with inadequate laboratory facilities, Experimentation and problem solving types of activities are indispensable n science teaching. In classical times Psychologists thought that science was best taught through memorization and repetition then science content was chosen on the basis of how well it would discipline and exercise the mind.
In more resent times, however, cognitive psychologists have argued that content of the science programme, that is, what is to be taught is as important as how to teach it. The laboratory has always been the most distinctive feature of science instruction and continues to occupy a central role in all of the new science curricular. It is however noted that laboratory work is not one kind of activity but a range of activities from experimental investigation to confirmatory exercise and skill learning. Laboratory work is instrumental in bridging the gap between abstract ideas and reality.
The major reasons justifying workshop practice are:
  1. It Act as Assistance to Learning:- It is believed that laboratory workshop Practice results in better understanding of scientific principles, the building and reinforcing of scientific knowledge and principles. If increases motivation and fosters the growth of student’s confidence in their ability to understand science.
  2. True to the Nature of Science:- Science involves empirical and sometimes complex theoretical concepts that even secondary school students may fail to grasp such concepts without props and opportunities for manipulations afford in the laboratory.
  3. It’s Helps to Develop Desired Trails and Appreciation:.. As a result of performing their own laboratorr exercise, students become much more aware of variation in experimental result. This makes them to gain a better awareness of what is involved in observing, hypothesizing, experimenting he nature of the scientific method and how scientific knowledge has been accumulated.
4              It is also Necessary for Problem Solving/Enquiry Approach: laboratory/workshop practice will enable students develop the ability to devise new experimental method of answering/solving problems. “states that the major assistance needed by serving science teachers in order to function effectively include: provision of science laboratories in schools, development of skills in improving Laboratory equipment, provision of science teaching resource in the focal environment.
Ajila and Olutula (2007) The importance of laboratory equipment stated, “that most schools’ laboratory workshop are poorly equipped. He stressed that expensive nature of science equipment, the difficulties encountered in purchasing them and the persistent problem of hack of fund has worsened the situation.
The problem of inadequate laboratory or workshop facilities is worthy of the grasp of the most theoretical concepts in the sciences. With these problems facing most of our schools laboratory, what attempt should we make as teacher of basic technology to make basic Technology learning pleasurable and effective? Studies have shown that if science is to be properly learnt the teachers must look for resources beyond the classroom to teach her students or the inadequate science resources will create an undesirable atmosphere of learning, because majority will be mere on lookers learning about science and not understanding science. He suggested that it is desirable that teachers should deavour to improve the quality of teaching through improvisation so as t make learning a bit more pleasurable and effective, Akpan 2007.
Infact, in most of our school laboratories or workshops scientific equipments and machines are lacking and as such the study of Basic Technology become more theoretical instead of practical. At times even if these equipment/machines are there, there are no competent or qualified operators of such machines who can teach the students, Akpan 2007.
Method of Teaching
The method of teaching a teacher used can stimulates the student’s interest in any particular subject. Technology has been defined and performed to produce a change in student’s behaviour. General teaching methods can be referred to as a set of teaching behaviour that are recurrent, occur in a unified and sythematic manner. They also apply to a variety of teaching subjects or units of material content, Okoro 2006. Teaching methods can be seen as the various ways of exposing students to the required learning experiences, Research indicates that the criteria of class size and instructional objectives could be used to derive the teaching method of learning, classroom teaching, discussion, discovery, teaching individual and individualized teaching concept mapping, and conventional teaching.
The issue of which teaching method or combination of teaching methods could be best adopted to help students attain set instructional objectives is dependent on the aim the teacher want to achieve, general. ad specific objectives of the topic, the individual learning characteristics, variables such as mental age, intelligence, motivational levels, and home background. Studies have shown that students learn faster with some teaching methods and equally achieve higher scores with some methods, while other students achieve significantly higher scores if other method were used. These teaching methods include:
  • Discussion method
  • Project method
  • Demonstration method
  • Question and answer method
  • Concept mapping method
  • Discovery method
  • Lecture method
  • Experimentation or practical method
  • Play way method.
Abimbade (1997) says it is essential for any teacher teaching any of the science subjects to be acquainted with various teaching methods that will help students achieve their learning objectives. He said that several method abound which science teacher could employ to ensure effective learning. Basic Technology teacher should apply diverse methods to pass the message across to the learner.
Experienced and Qualified Teacher In Basic Technology
The impotence of experienced and qualified teacher in the school system cannot be over emphasized. This is because quality of teachers in the school system determines to a great extent the quality of the system. Professional teachers in particular are crucial to the formulation and successful implementation of educational policies in any country. High quality science teacher is one who competently achieve the objectives of science education. The presence of these characteristics to a high degree marks it out as a thing of high quality. On the other hand, the absence or deficiency of the essential characteristics to a high degree relegates the thing to a low quality status. Ballou 2005. Based on this,, one can say that the characteristics of Technology teacher relates to those attributes that enhance the fitness and efficiency of that teacher in performing the duties that are associated with Basic technology teaching. Difficulties arise when the teacher cannot reasonably teach to achieve the predetermined objectives of the subject Studies categories high quality teacher into three. First, there are the commandingly authoritative teachers who assist their students to achieve a great deal of learning.
They set a very high standard in their classroom; initiate and implement procedures, which maximally keep students on the learning task. The second category comprises those teachers with an infections enthusiasm for their subject, students and for teachings. They are able to generate a substantial amount of enthusiasm for learning, in most of their students regardless of the types of teaching method used. The third group are the dedicated, caring, empathetic as well as sympathetic teachers who demonstrate a great deal of concern about the interest in the progress and welfare of their students. They do not maintain a master- servant relationship with their students.
Bennier (2005) stated that no adequate training could take place without qualified competent and committed teachers to handle the programme. In other words, for a teacher to be effective in his work he must he trained as to possess the theoretical and practical construct of the subject matter. Research has that insufficient member of science teacher in Nigeria is a major cog in the wheel of science development. in most secondary sáhools, graduates of other disciples like engineering, industrial mathematics, geology, chemistry, physics are constrained to teach Basic Technology. This is because graduates are not well grounded in the subject matter; they find it difficult to have a through command of the substantive field of the subject. Also, they lack the basic teaching techniques that make teaching and learning effective and efficient. It is therefore important to note that inexperience and poorly motivated Basic Technology teachers who are academically and professional ill-equipped for this job are likely to have problems or great difficulty facilitating students learning, such teacher cannot he expected to promote and sustain qualitative science education in the classroom Because of lack of qualified and competent teachers in Basic technology, we are faced with poor performance in Basic Technology, even when there teachers in some cases, they lack the technical know how. Most of them find it difficult to operate their lathe machine; which means they still need re-orientation. Dovrat Committee (2005)
Students’ Poor Performance in Mathematics and Other Science Related Courses.
Another challenge teachers face is students’ performance in mathematics and other science courses, “mathematics is the foundation of all science” and so there is need for mathematician to examine carefully and establish the reason for the obvious poor state of mathematics education in the country. Physical science such as physics and chemistry lean heavily on a good knowledge of mathematics. Infact that there are some concepts in physics :hat students cannot easily understand unless they have a basic knowledge of mathematics principles guiding. the concept, In most schools there are no teacher to teach mathematics and some science courses, and where there arc teachers their discipline may not be mathematics. Abamdade and Udousoro, (1997) Fapohunda (2002).
Usually, science teachers are co-opted to teach mathematics where there are no mathematics teachers. Some of these teachers co-opted to each mathematics might have had contact with mathematics some years pack. Studies over the years have shown that there is a short faH of trained secondary school teachers in mathematics. This goes to show that there is a decline in the standard of mathematics at primary and secondary level in the dine in the learning of mathematics at the primary, secondary and even tertiary levels through the country and it should be a source of concern to all. Many argue that mathematics itself has not been very appealing in most Nigeria schools, be they primary, secondary or tertiary, reasons why many students run away from it. inspite of students’ attitude towards the subject, mathematics among ether science subjects is considered bedrock of all technological and scientific development. And it can be applied in many fields of study such as engineering, medicine, geology, surveying, astronomy and the natural science. Habour — Peter 2001, Badmus, 2002 and Obodo, (2004) Agwagah, (2004) Agwagah, (2000) Gambari 2010, In the light of the above, it becomes imperative that student should encouraged to pay more attention to mathematics and other related science subjects instead of shying away from it.
School Environment
The environment where the child, learns is also of uttermost importance. Before a child can have an effective learning, the school environment should be conducive. The physical and social environment interacts with human learning to some extent. This factor can affect teaching learning of Basic Technology in schools. Ajila and Olutula It has been observed the inadequacies in the contemporary Nigerian secondary schools and stressed that the education undertake. has exceeded the financial resources”. This is evident in schools with uncompleted, un-maintained and unrepaired buildings, ill-equipped libraries, laboratories and workshops - where they exist and lack of science teaching textbooks problem of inadequate learning environment should be of concern to the teacher, parents and Government. It is evident in school’s with uncompleted. un-maintained and un-repaired buildings, ill-equipped libraries, laboratories and workshop where they exist lack science and Basic Technology textbooks.
It is common to find as many as 100 students in a classroom laboratory designed and built for 30..40 students. in such a situation, it would be hard to deny that good teaching and learning are no compromised This, type of environment is unhealthy for teaching learning Basic Technology. In some of schools there is no electricity supply so, maty of our practical works that requires electricity are hampered. in realization of these situations, emphasized that conducive classroom environment that brings about the achievement of the goals and objectives of science education. Olutola (2007) emphasized that the environment of a school affects students in several ways. He was of the view that environment of school can help or hinder, inspire or inhibit learning. That is, it can create an atmosphere of dignity excitement, motivation or discouragement. a conducive learning environment is needed for effective learning to take place conducive school environment facilitates productive learning.
Shortages of Relevant Introductory Technology Textbooks
In most of our schools, there are shortages of relevant Basic Technology textbooks to :e.ach and most of the ones that are available are foreign in approach and context Simsek (2013), Tran and Lewis (2012) emphasizes that lack of relevant textbook and teaching aids will make teaching of the subject meaningless. He was of the view that the use of relevant textbooks and teaching aids will enhance the understanding of the subjects. This problem becomes more compounded today as most school have no science library where students could go to read and check up for these science textbooks. Even when these textbooks are available, they cannot be readily afforded because of hi cost of science equipments material and textbooks Ajila and Olutola (2007).
Lack of Finance
Finance is very necessary in running of the any school system without it activities become to bankrupt Most of the time, we are faced with lack of finance to purchase practical materials, even when the schools, provide at times, they are not enough. So, the students are levied so as to be able to support the schools for their practical (Denir et al, 2012)
Lack of Enough Learning Periods
Basic technology is a cumbersome course which has some other courses or subjects integrated into it for example we have Electrical/Electronics Technology, Metal work Technology, Wood work and Auto Mechanical and Auto electrical, Mathematics, chemistry, Physics, Home economics and Agric. If one will be able to cover the scheme of work, one needs a lot of time and enough learning periods. Focused on the educational problems which influences the teaching-learning the problems include Lack of Laboratory Facilities, Poor method of teaching, inexperienced and unqualified teachers, Poor students’ performance in Mathematics, Students’ Poor attitude towards Basic Technology, shortage of relevant textbooks and school environment.
Design of Study
The design of study employed, is the survey method. Survey study is a descriptive research method. It is aimed at discovering relative, incidence, distribution and inter-relationship of educational, sociological, physiological, political and economical variable, This survey gathers information about variable and individuals. The researcher therefore examines the opinion, attitudes or feelings of individual about a particular problem.
Population of Study
The population of this study comprises of all schools in Ika South Government Areas of Delta State.
Sample of the study
The study was carried out in randomly selected schools as a representative sample of population of the study. The randomly selected schools include:
  1. Ogbemudie Mixed Secondary School
  2. Agbor Technical College
  3. Ihu-yase Mixed Secondary School
  4. College of Education Agbor Staff Model School Agbor.
These schools are:
  1. Co-educational institution
  2. Non-co-educational Institution
  3. School that offer Basic Technology
  4. Private Schools
  5. Schools that have attempted Basic Technology at J S. S. Examination.
Instrumentation
The instrument used for this study was a questionnaire. It consists of two sets; that of the teachers and the students. The teachers questionnaires consist of twenty items. It. is divided into section A and B. section A consists of personal data of the respondents while section B deals with the questions based on the hypothesis formulated. Respondents were provided with responses from which they were required to choose only one.
The response mode is as follows:
Strongly Agree                      (SA)
Agree                                      (A)
Disagree                                 (D)
Strongly Disagree                 (SD)
The students’ questionnaires, also consist of two sections A and B. section A deals with the respondents personal data, while section B deals with the questions based on the research questions just as in the teacher questionnaire.
Administration of Instrument
The entire questionnaire was administered by the researcher through a visit to the sampled schools. This enabled the researcher to get f responses from the teachers and students. In each school, students were given questionnaire to fill, teachers questionnaire was also given to the teachers to fill, the questionnaires were collected by the researcher. About two hundred questionnaires were distributed, about one hundred and eighty were correctly filled.
Method of Data Analysis
The data collected were tabulated and analysed using the chisquare test of contingence.
Its formula given as:
X2            ∑(O - E)2
      E
Where    X2            =              Chi-square
                ∑             =              Summation sign
                0              =              Observation data
                E             =              Expected Data
This test has a level of significance of 0.05 with degree of freedom as one (1) and two (2) where necessary.

PRESENTATION OF RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This has to do the with analysis of data with respect to the questionnaires already administered on the population. The analysis, presentation of results and discussion will be pointed towards verifying the null hypothesis earlier formulated
Table Ia. Distribution of Findings
X2 = 0.5 + 0.69 + 0.85 + 1.28
X2 = 3.33
The hypothesis accepted the calculated value is higher that the expected value.
Summary of Findings
Having analysed the data collected with the aid of questionnaire, the following finding were made:
  1. There is a relationship between laboratory facilities and learning of basic technology.
  2. There is a significant relationship between teacher experience and the quality of teachers in basic technology
  3. There is no relationship between students gender and students interest in the learning of Basic Technology.

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION.
Introduction
Based on the data presented and analysed in Chapter four, this
Chapter discussed the results of the research work. Conclusions were also drawn. Based on this, the various findings were outline and their implication examined. The researcher made recommendations and suggestions for further studies.
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
Hypothesis One
                The hypothesis tested the relationship between laboratory facilities and learning of Basic Technology. The finding reveal that there is a relationship. This findings is in line with the Abimbade (1997) which indicates that there is a relationship between method of teaching and teaching question, that the use of instructional model enhances visual imagery, stimulates learning and assists the teacl1 to properly convey the topic content to the learner to achieve better performance.
Hypothesis Two:
                This hypothesis tested the relationship between experienced and qualified of teachers and learning of Basic Technology. The findings showed that there is a relationship. The findings of this study are in line with the findings of (Abimbade and Udousoro, 1997) Fadohumda 2002) one who can completely achieve the objective of science education. In other words such a teacher should be experienced and qualified. Most science educators are of the views that in any educational system, that quality of teachers to a great extent determines the system itself. This second hypothesis is fully supported as it was proved statistically that experienced and qualified teachers enhance teaching learning of in-Basic Technology.
Hypothesis Three
                There is a relationship between students gender attitude and students interest in the learning of Basic Technology. The findings showed there is no relationship. The finding supports Spencer (2004) Osernmwinyem (2009) and Iwendi (2012) Finding the found differences in performances of males and females in sciences Osemmwinyem (2008) said that when interest is associated with knowledge, values and things the teaching approaches becomes simulating and serves as inducement to students to continue working and the learning of Basic Technology; so, Government as well as meaning individuals should come to the aid of schools by donating science Laboratory facilities to them. There is also a strong relationship between experienced and qualified teachers and the earning of Basic Technology. Government should employ more teachers to teach Basic Technology and sent them to schools, so as to improve the teaching learning of Basic Technology, Teachers should use appropriate Teaching methods.
Recommendations
The following recommendations are made based on the findings and conclusions of this study;
  1. There should be emphasis on science and Technology at the primary school level so as to have a good background.
  2. There should be science and Technology classes from primary school to junior secondary school level.
  3. Government should organize in- service training programmes for teachers of Basic Technology as well as award scholarship to encourage teachers in that field.
  4. Teachers should use divers teaching methods to suit the prevailing class-room situation
  5. Practical or workshop practice should be encouraged.
  6. Government should give incentives to Basic technology and science teachers (workshop allowance) so as to stimulate their interest in teaching.
  7. Workshops and Laboratories should be built and equipped. Also, competent Technology teachers should be employed.
  8. Government should from time to time send money to schools for practical purpose.
SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDIES
  1. A similar study should be carried out in other local government areas of Delta State, and their results compared.
  2. Study should be made to find out the challenges of teaching electrical electronics courses the six technical colleges of Delta State.
  3. Studies on new methods of teaching science and technologically oriented courses should e investigated on.
REFERENCES
  1. Abimbade, A (1997), Principle and practice of educational technology. Ibadan: International Publisher Ltd
  1. Abimbade, A & Udousoro, UJ. (1997) The place of computer assisted instruction in mathematics education. In Olarenwaju, A (ed). Proceeding of Ajumogbobia memorial conference 1997 (40 Annual Conference of Stan) UNESCO Pp, 238-248.
  1. Agwagah, U.N.V (2000) Influence of gender influence of students in their achievement in secondary school mathematics. Abacus, 25 (1) 102112. (17).
  1. Ajila, C and Olutola A (2007) impact of parents’ socio-economic status on university students academic Z/è, Journal of Education students 7 (1) 31-39.
  1. Akpan ,B.B (2008) Nigerian the future of science education. Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN,), Ibadan, Nigeria: Oluseyi Press Limited.
  1. Ballou, D and Bodgurski M. (2000) Reforming teacher preparation and what the evidence? Teacher college Records J 02 (1) 5-22.
  1. Bennier, D.C (2005): The near impossibility of testing for quality. Journal of Teacher Education 56(3), 205213.
  1. CESAC, (1985) Introductory Technology for Junior Secondary Schools textbook Lagos: Longman Nigeria Ltd.
  1. Denir, S, Klinic and Dogan A (2013) The effect of curriculum for Developing Efficient studying skills on Academic Achievements and skills of learners. International Electronics Journal of Electronics elementary Education.
  1. Dewer, J (2005) Education Dictionary New York.
  1. Committee (Israel) Task force for the Advancement of Education in Israel (2005). National plan for education Jerusalem: Government of Israel.
  1. Gambari, A.L (2010) ffect of instructional models on the performance of junior secondary schools students in geometry in ininna, Nigeria. Deisu Journal of Educational Research and Development, 9 (1), 54-56
  1. Harbour-peters, V.F.A. (2001) Note worthy points on measurement and evaluation Enugu: Swaap Press Ltd.
  1. Iwendi, B.C (2072) Effects of gender and age on the mathematics achievement of secondary school students in Minna metropolis, Nigeria. Jost MED, 9(1), 215-223. Available online.
  1. C.I. (2005) Challenges of Teaching Introductory. A project work presented to Delta state university Abraka in partial fulfillment of the requirements for B.Sc (ED) Technical Education (Electrical Electronics Technology) Degree.
  1. G.C. (2004) Principles and practices of mathematics education in Nigeria Enugu: Fioxtone press.
  1. Okoro O.M. (2006) Principle and methods in vocational and Technical Education. Nsukka: University Trust Publishers.
  1. Ommwinyem, A.C (2009). Effects of learning on retention and achievement in secondary school mathematics in Abuja, Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D thesis University of Nigeria. Nsuka.
  1. Simsek (2013). Efc1s of cooperative learning methods on social studies undergraduate students’ achievement in political science. Energy Education Science and Technology part B: social and Educational studies 5b (l).619-632
  1. DJ (2004) Engagement with mathematics courseware in traditional and online earning environments: Relationship to motivation, achievement, gender, and gender orientation. Unpublished Ph.D dissertation submitted to the faculty of Graduate school of Emory University.
  2. Tran, V.R and Lewis R. (2012) Effect of cooperative learning on students at An Giant University in Vietnam internal Education studies 5 (1), 8599.
  1. Vanwyk, M.M. (2010) The effect of Team-Games-Tournaments on Achievement, Retention and Attitudes of Economic Education students, University of the free state, South Africa 2010 EABR and ETLC conference proceedings Dublin, Ireland.
Share on Google Plus

0 comments:

Post a Comment