Call for Papers 2017

Send papers for publication to editor@edupediapublications.com or edupdediapublications@gmail.com Pen2Print® Journals

Role of Emotional Regulation in Marital Satisfaction

       
      Hira Shahid, Student, Department of Psychology
Hazara University Mansehra, Khyber Puktunkhwa Pakistan
 
   Dr. Syeda Farhana KazmiChairperson, Department of Psychology, Hazara University, Manserha, Khyber Puktunkhwa Pakistan
Role of Emotional Regulation in Marital Satisfaction

      
Acknowledgements
I am thankful to all Married couples who were the sample of this study I appreciate their cooperation. I also like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete my research work. Finally I deeply thankful to my parents who very sincerely and morally supported me and give a great hope and courage and I make my research possible under the shelter of their prayers. I greatly acknowledged for their contribution who have supported me throughout the research work and without their effort this endeavor would not have been possible.                
                                                                                            No funding was provided for this research.
 
                      Role of Emotional Regulation in Marital Satisfaction
                              
 
Abstract
The present study was designed to explore the role of emotional regulation in marital satisfaction. The objective of the study is to assess the relationship between emotional regulation and marital satisfaction. Another objective of the study is to expect emotional regulation as the significant predictor of marital satisfaction and has gender differences in this respect. The sample consisted of 200 married couples chosen from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa through convenient sampling technique. Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test and ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale along with demographic sheet were administered to the spouses for data collection. The scales were found highly reliable with alpha reliability coefficient 0.779 for EMS, and 0.813 for SSEIT. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed
 
that there was a significant positive correlation between Emotional Regulation and Marital Satisfaction.  Regression analysis showed that Emotional Regulation was found the significant predictor of Marital Satisfaction. T-test analysis revealed that gender differences were found among spouses in the context of emotional regulation. Male spouses were found more emotionally regulated than the female spouses in their marital life.
Key Words: Marital Satisfaction, Emotional regulation and Spouses.
 
Introduction
            The family has always been one of the most significant component parts of each society in the history of the world that plays a key role in the development and consolidation of the society. For the establishment of family marriage is a cornerstone (Omidvar, Fatehi, & Ahmadi, 2009). According to Berne, Steine, and Dusay (1973) marriage is reciprocal and complex relation between two human beings who has a fundamental role in fulfilling man and woman’s emotional, psychological and physical needs. Marriage is a mutualism of a man and woman, who took an oath of allegiance and changed themselves consequently. It is not necessary that all marriages will enjoy the same fortune so some of them end with separation and some prove very prosperous and successful. Therefore, many researchers have unveiled that a perfect marriage will provide ground to people to enjoy a healthier and happier life (Withe & Rogers, 2000).
 
Marital Satisfaction
Marital satisfaction is a mental state which shows the premeditated advantages and expenditures of marriage for a specific person. Martial satisfaction manifests a complete appraisal of the current situation in existing relationship. For the sake of evaluating and showing how satisfactory, happy and strong a relationship is, one of the most often used definitions is marital satisfaction. Marital satisfaction will not be obtained ad lib but it looks for lots of the efforts of the couples. Social cognitive perspective gestates marital satisfaction as an attitude toward the partner or relationship (Shackelford & Buss, 2000).
            The researches which were done on spouses relationships seem to state that the component of emotional regulation can be crucial and exercised influence on marital satisfaction.Strong and cordial relationship demands effective communication skills such as: empathetic listening, show respect and patience acceptance to the point of view of other person, demonstrate understanding of what the partner has experienced, and also prove through facial expression complete awareness of her/his needs (Gottman & Levenson, 2002). Marital satisfaction is an accommodation between the present or prevailing situation and the expected or ideal condition (Winch & Spanier, 1974). Marital satisfaction means espousal of the expectations of person from wedlock and he himself undergo in life, which is also significant (Madden & Janoff-bulman, 1981). Some of the authorities define marital satisfaction as a discipline to the natural life cycle. Particularly, for instance, Alice (n.d.) conceives that there are number of ways to specify, delineate and report marital satisfaction. Eddins (2011) points out twelve different characteristics of successful marriages such as adaptability, flexibility, tolerance, research findings, communication, admiration and respect, companionship, spirituality, values, commitment, affection, ability to deal with crises, stress, responsibility, unselfishness, empathy and sensitivity, trust and fidelity.
            In a nutshell, above mentioned comprehensive discussion helped us to recognize that the role of positive communication and emotional regulation is very significant for a successful, satisfied and pleased married life. Rauer and Volling (2005) is of the view that positive emotional expression has quite a limited effect on marriage function but negative expression put strong impact on love, conflict and ambivalence. Observational studies on marital conflict have clearly pointed out the importance of emotional responses of patterns on marital satisfaction and firmness (Hasani, Mokhtaree, Sayadi  & Mosavi, 2012). We try to regulate our feelings to fit in with the norms of the situation, based on many, sometimes conflicting demands upon us.
 
Emotional Regulation
Emotional regulation or emotional intelligence is our capability to deal or handle our emotions instead of being dealt by them. It is stimulating efficaciously rather than impetuously. The key is to learn to be more intelligent emotionally and responsive to situations rather than reactive. As such, spiral2grow’s wing of Psychotherapist and Coaches NY of New York City teaches the skills needed to manage our emotions (reduce suffering and promote positive emotions) (Ratson, n.d.).
 
Emotional Regulation Overview
            Emotional regulation teaches essential skills to deal emotions in a positive way. It makes us capable to know how our emotions work and equip ha with the skills which is required to deal emotions instead of being dealt by them. Emotional regulation represses our exposure to negative emotions and ramps up emotional experiences
.
            Number of reliable results has provided by prior observational research. First, negative emotional behavior such as to express anger, sadness, contempt and other negative emotions. This seems to be the best differentiator between satisfied and dissatisfied marriages (Schaap et al., 1988). Second, the emotions expressed in succession during marital interaction discriminate between happy and unhappy couples. The negative expression of one spouse is compared with negative emotion of the other’s spouse and this pattern is called negative effect reciprocity. The temporal sequential stability also characterizes as unsuccessful marriages. Third, differences between satisfied and dissatisfied couples are mostly enounced when couples involve in attempts to settle conflicts (Gottman, 1979).
            In terms of emotional behavior, wives were more emotional expressive than husbands. Spouses exhibited greater emotions such as greater negative emotion, anger, contempt, sadness, whining, joy and positive and negative affect as listeners. They were also likelier to involve in positive affect continuance. The behaviors displayed at higher levels than wives so far as defensiveness is concerned. The results are consistent with a large number of literatures on marital interaction because it has been found that women are more confronting and negative in attitude then men in a relatively young marriage. Besides this, men are tending to be more defensive and found likelier in pursuits to escape from conflicts in several areas, spousal differences were only discovered in unhappy marriages. In several domains, spousal differences were discovered in unhappy marriages. Total speaker emotion, negative speaker emotion, contempt and negative listener emotion. Wives expressed more emotion than husband in unhappy couples. Hence, it shows that gender differences in negative emotion are especially exasperated in unhappy marriages (Christensen & Heavey, 1990; Gottman & Krokoff, 1989; Gottman & Levenson, 1988; Notarius & Johnson, 1982; Schapp, 1982).
            In perceptions, gender differences decrease with age (Hyde & Phillis, 1979; Keith & Brubaker, 1979) we found no interaction between gender and age. These findings of Zietlow and Sillars (1988) indicate that gender differences in marital interactive behavior are retained in the later stages of life cycle. However, one caution is that the older couples are still comparatively young. Besides this, we hope to observe marital interaction before and after retirement and our sample was delimited who had not yet retired. Therefore, it is definitely possible that gender differences will lessen as couple’s progress into later life as they more time together. Gilford (1984) they cope with increasing frailty especially husbands and march forward to later life transitions (Troll & Bengtson, 1982).
 
Four Factor Model
            Salovey and Mayer (1990) yielded four factor models which comprise of the following four categories of adaptive abilities: assessment of emotions in self and other, expression of emotion, regulation of emotion and utilization of emotions in solving problems. These 4 areas are also known as four-branch model. The first and second category comprises the elements of assessment and expression of emotion in the self and assessment of emotions in others. The element of assessment and expression of emotion in the self is further divided into the sub-elements of verbal and non-verbal and applied to others into the sub-elements of non-verbal perception and empathy. The third classification of emotional intelligence, regulation, has the elements of emotional regulation in the self and in others. The fourth classification, utilization of emotion, consist the elements of flexible planning, creative thinking, redirected attention and motivation. Although, emotions are the nucleus of this model, it also covers social and cognitive functions associated with the expression, regulation and utilization of emotions.
            Mayer and Salovery (1997) developed a revised model. The revised model pertains the following four branches of emotional intelligence such as perception, appraisal and expression of emotion, emotional facilitation of thinking, understanding, analyzing and employing emotional knowledge and reflective regulation of emotions to further emotional and intellectual growth. The perception, assessment and expression of emotion are regarded as the most basic processes and the reflective regulation of emotions postulates the most compound processing. In addition, each branch is linked with it stages or levels of capabilities which individuals master in successive order.
            This revised model looks to be an outstanding process oriented model. Nonetheless, the original model of Salovey and Mayer (1990) presents itself better to conceive the several dimensions of the existing state of individual for measuring emotional regulation.
            Emotional regulation requires patience and practice (Ratson, n.d.).
 
Literature Review
Couples get not marry because they can manage problems easily but they do so because they
find comfort and sol cement in the company of another. The capability to reenact to support and sustain a rearing environment may ward off declines in marital satisfaction maybe because conflicts are less eventful when they take place (Bradbury & Karney, 2004).
Sokolski and Hendrick (1999) reports marital satisfaction having intrapersonal qualities such as affection, erotic satisfaction and obligation. In them also involved interpersonal qualities concerning to couple interfaces such as: communication, gender roles, self-disclosure, equality, spousal sharing and spousal support.
Bradbury and Karney (2004) indicated that hypothesis which lean to focus on the role of negative behaviors during conflict resolving and the mode in which couples speak and respond to each other as accountable for marital satisfaction. Wives likely to step down high intensity negative affect in successful marriages whereas husbands were mainly responsible for stepping down low intensity negative affect whereas (Gottman et al., 1998).
Craddock (1994) challenged the belief that couples would enjoy time together by studying the relationship between married couples and their privacy patterns. He especially looked at how the couples opt intentionally chosen time alone. The study presented marital satisfaction can be affected by differences of couple in their seclusion preferences.
One hundred and sixty couples were selected for study on marital satisfaction and pleasantness arousability –dominance temperament scales. Marital satisfaction interlinked with couples who had similarity in pleasantness and dominance. People who were happier in marriage and vice versa reported more pleasantness (Blum & Mehrabian, 1999).
Research of Clements and Swensen (2000) point out that as compared to women, men report higher levels of marital satisfaction. Conflict resolution and emotional support are mainly responsible for marital satisfaction which leads to whole global functioning (Greef & De Bruyne, 2000).
Feeney, Noller, and Roberts (1998) say that emotions and marriage are inextricably entwined. Indeed, some of the most passionate emotional reactions take place in the perspective of close ties (Bowlby, 1973).
Rauer (2005) is of the view that emotional expression has negligible influence on marriage function but negative expression has strong influence on love, conflict, and marriage contradiction.
Emotional regulation is an ability of a person to empathize and acknowledge his or her emotional experience, to involve in healthy strategies to manage discomfort able emotions when necessary, ant to carry on a suitable behavior (Pedneault, 2009).
Ahmad and Reid (2008) conducted a study which pointed out that greater attachment with traditional marital beliefs were mutually related with lower levels of interpersonal listening and marital satisfaction.
McNulty and Karney (2002) propose that both anterior expectations and actual communicational behavior may have novel effects on assessment of spousal problem solving interfaces.
Fintness (2001) highlighted that emotional perception, understanding and reasoning about emotions and regulating or managing emotions are significant in marriage.
Couples are normally suggested to ameliorate their communication skills to strengthen harmony and debar conflicts (Yalcin & Karahan, 2007).
Cate and Lloyd (1992) figured out that psychologically unhealthy individuals are less marital satisfied as compared to those individuals who were healthy psychologically i-e emotionally stable.
Individuals who appreciate, support and proud on each other in their respective strives and achievements. They express appreciation openly and build self-respect of one another and fulfill emotional needs develop a satisfying and imperishable relationship (Bell, Daly, & Gonzalez, 1987).
Higher marital satisfaction has been linked to emotional understanding (Noller, 1980).
According to Robert, Tsai, and Coan (2007) couple interactions in laboratory setting closely resemble to those which happen in daily life and depend on an ongoing emotional connection between partners.
Emotion perception, regulating or managing emotion, understanding and reasoning about emotions are important in marriage (Fitness, 2001).
Couples with higher marital satisfaction reported higher emotional regulation (Schutte, et al., 2001).
Kirby and Baucom (2007) figured out that satisfaction enhanced when couples were assisted to regulate their emotions.
Being capable to regulate your emotional arousing permits you to inoculate yourself to catching emotions of your partners thus permitting you to retain appropriate emotional perception, something that is typically vanished when both partners are facing anxiety, fear, frustration and anger (Weisinger, 2010).
Rusbult, Bissonnette, and Arriage (1998) noted the significance of emotional regulation in marital satisfaction.
The regulation of positive emotion is marked by the findings that couples who are satisfied they not only handle negative emotions better than distressed couple bur much more positive emotions are reported by them (Broderick & O` Leary, 1986)
It is examined by Lee (2010) that how satisfaction is associated to alexithymia, marital values, emotional intelligence, and culture. Results pointed out that level of marital satisfaction assorted across ethnic cultures. For higher marital satisfaction higher emotional intelligence was a strong predictor.
Against social compensations, emotional regulation is a defensive factor. Emotional Regulation is also allied with fruitful marriage, satisfaction in life, as well as academic achievements and job (Goleman, 1998; Mayer & Salovey, 1990)
 
Methodology
 
Objectives
The objectives of the study were as following:
1. To measure the emotional regulation among the spouses.
2. To find out emotional regulation as the significant predictor of marital satisfaction.
 
Hypotheses
1. Emotional regulation is positively correlated with marital satisfaction.
2. Emotional regulation is the predictor of marital satisfaction.
3. There is significant difference between male and female spouses on emotional regulation.
 
Sample
            The sample of 200 spouses (Husbands =100, Wives =100) were selected by using convenient sampling technique from different cities of Khyber Phaktunkhwa including rural and urban areas. The age range was from 20 years to 50 years with one year to thirty years of marriage duration including professional or non-professional couples. Sample was from joint and nuclear family.
 
Instrument
 
Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT) developed by Schutte et al. (1998) included 33 items and is based on the model of Salovey and Mayer (1990) generated four factor which include of the following four classifications of adaptive capabilities: assessment of emotions in self and other, expression of emotion, regulation of emotion and utilization of emotions in solving problems. These four areas are also identified as four-branch model. Participants respond to each item using a 5-point scale, including 1 as “strongly disagree,” 2 as “disagree,” 3 as “undecided,” 4 as “agree,” and 5 as “strongly agree”. Item number 5, 28 and 33 are reverse scored. This measure yields a global score and higher score designates higher emotional intelligence. The authors reported two-week test-retest reliability at (0.78) and alpha co-efficient reliability was (0.87). The same scale was adopted for this study with 33 items. The reliability was found and results indicated that Alpha Reliability of the SSEIT scale with present sample is 0.813.
           
ENRICH Marital Satisfaction (EMS) Scale developed by Olson and Fowers (1993) included 15 items. It is likert type scale. Participants respond to each item using a 5-point scale, containing 1 as “strongly disagree,” 2 as “disagree,” 3 as “undecided,” 4 as “agree,” and 5 as “strongly agree”. The positive and negative signs to the left of each item indicate whether the item should be scored in a positive or negative way.  Items scored in a negative direction would be reverse-scored (i.e., if it is marked 5, it would be scored 1: if it is marked 4, it would be scored 2: a 3 remains unchanged). The test-retest reliability is (0.86). The same scale was adopted for this study with 15 items. The reliability was found and result indicated that Alpha Reliability of the scale with present sample is 0. 779.
 
Procedure
Sample of 200 spouses (Husbands =100, Wives =100) were approached personally. Questionnaires; SSEIS and EMS were distributed among sample. Clear instructions were given to spouses and requested to go through the general instructions first and then to respond. Participants were asked to fill up the questionnaire individually and fairly by reading each statement and without leaving any statement unmarked. They were assured that material provided by them will only be used for research intentions. They were permitted to write any fictional name to hide their identity. Participants were fully cooperated. Questionnaires were collected by hand.
 
Results
          The present study explores the role of emotion in marital satisfaction. Alpha reliability of the scales was determined to check the internal consistency of the scores. Analysis was carried out with SPSS-16. For this purpose correlation, regression and t-test was carried out.
 
Table 1
Alpha Reliability coefficient of EMS and SSEIT (N=200)
Scale
N
No. of items
M
SD
Reliability
EMS
200
15
55.43
7.98
.779
SSEIT
200
33
122.26
12.84
.813
 
Note. EMS = ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale; SSEIT = Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test; TFDS = Tolerance for Disagreement Scale.
The results in table 1 clearly exhibit that calculated reliability of ENRICH Marital Satisfaction (EMS) Scale and Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT) is 0.779 and 0.813  respectively which shows that both scales are reliable to measure marital satisfaction and emotional regulation of spouses.
 
Table 2
Correlation between Emotional Regulation and Marital Satisfaction (N=200)
Measures
1
2
M
SD
1.ER
-
.363**
12.83
1.22
2.MS
.363**
    -
55.42
7.98
Note. ER = Emotional Regulation; MS = Marital Satisfaction.
df =198, **p<.01
The result of table 2 shows that there is positive correlation between emotional regulation and marital satisfaction of spouses (r = 0.363, ** p < 0.01). The findings confirm the hypothesis stating that there is a positive correlation between emotional regulation and marital satisfaction of spouses.
 
Table 3
Regression Analysis Emotional Regulation as Predictor of Marital Satisfaction among spouses (N=200)
Predictors
Β
t
P
ER
0.226
5.49
.000
Note. ER = Emotional Regulation.
F = 30.12, ***P < 0.001, R2 = 0.132, Adjusted R2= 0.128
            The result of table 3 revealed that Regression measures emotional regulation is significant predictor of marital satisfaction among the spouses living in nuclear or joint family system. Findings also include the β, t, and p values of the test and significance level is also shown in table. This is satisfactory.
 
Table 4
Mean, Standard Deviation and t-scores of Emotional Regulation of male and female (N=200)
 
Female
 
Male
    
 
(n=100)
 
(n=100)
    
Scale
M
SD
M
SD
t
p
Cohn’s d
SSEIT
9.25
1.245
15.31
1.197
2.681
.002
4.97
Note. SSEIT = Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test.
df= 198, **p< .01
The results of table 4 show that there is significant difference in Emotional regulation level of male and female spouses, indicating that male spouses scored significantly higher as compared to the female spouses.
 
Table 5
Correlation between Marital Satisfaction and Subscales of Emotional Regulation (N = 200)
< tr>
MS
.252**
.295**
.215**
.331**
 
Appraisal of other emotions
Appraisal of own emotions
Regulation of emotions
Utilization of emotions
Note. MS = Marital Satisfaction.
df = 198, **p < 0.01
Table 5 indicates significant positive correlation between marital satisfaction and emotional regulation and its subscale (Appraisal of other emotions, Appraisal of own emotions, Regulation of emotions and Utilization of emotions) among spouses.
 
Discussion
The present study was aimed to find out the role of emotion in marital satisfaction. This study was conducted on the sample of 200 spouses (husband=100, wives =100). The findings of this study indicate that there is positive correlation between emotional regulation and marital satisfaction. Also emotional regulation is the predictor of marital satisfaction and has gender differences in this respect. Theories and researches also recommend emotional regulation is positively correlated with marital satisfaction.
            The finding of this present study indicates that emotional regulation is positively correlated with marital satisfaction. Thus accepting the hypothesis one, having a look at the correlation scores of emotional regulation and marital satisfaction (r = 0.363, p< .01).
The results are supported by Fitness (2001) signalized that emotion perception, consideration and reasoning about emotions, and regulating or managing emotions are essential in marriage. The capability to recognize someone’s emotions and to regulate one’s own emotions transmits to satisfying lasting associations (Schutte et al., 2001).
According to the researches done about the spouses relationships it appears that mechanisms of emotional regulation can be prominent on marital satisfaction. Spouses intimate relationship needs communication skills such as: giving attention to other person’s perspective, being able to empathize perception with what their partner has experienced and also being delicate and responsive of his / her desires (Gottman & Levenson, 2002). McNulty and Karney (2002) suggest that both anterior potentials and real communicational behavior may have innovative effects on valuation of spousal problem solving interfaces. Emotional maintenance and conflict firmness are mainly responsible for marital satisfaction, which subsidizes to total worldwide functioning (Greef & De Bruyne, 2000). The results are also supported by the theories put forward by Bradbury and Karney (2004) and Gottman and Driver (2004) pointed out that while the capability to settle conflict remains an important skill in deciding marital satisfaction as it can’t exist in segregation. The regulation of different negative emotions and behaviors demands the complementary presence of positive emotions and behaviors to keep up a high level of satisfaction. The emotional support in times of prevents emotional detachment, discourages depression, decreases intensification and finally increases emotional intimacy within the relationship (Cramer, 2004).
Support also comes from the work of Yalcin and Karahan (2007) signalized that couples are ordinarily advised to improved their communication skills to build up harmony and expel conflicts (Greater marital satisfaction was stated in the spouses who self-reported with greater emotional intelligence (Schutte, Malouff, Bobik, Coston, Greeson, Jedlicka, Rhodes & Wendorf,  2
001).
            The involvement of family for problem solving declines martial satisfaction in terms of following extents: marital communication, conflict firmness, sexual relationship, personality concerns, and communications with intimate and friends (Ahmadi , Ashrafi, Kimiaee  & Afzali, 2010).
In the second hypothesis of the study it was anticipated that emotional regulation is the predictor of marital satisfaction. Regression measures emotional regulation is significant predictor of marital satisfaction among the spouses living in nuclear or joint family system. Findings also include the β, t, and p values of the test and significance level is also shown in table. This is satisfactory. Support comes from the theoretical framework of Gottman study who predicts divorce but this valuable study is not to foretell divorce but to predict marital stability and especially, marital satisfaction. The ratio is 5:1 positive to negative interactions is essential for marital stability (Gottman, 1999). He defines marital stability as a satisfying marital relationship which is not interrupted by separation or divorce. He says that the most important finding was that more positive affect was only variable that predicted both marital stability and happiness.
Support also comes from the study of Hasani et al. (2012) according to their findings 37% of marital satisfaction is predictable by emotional intelligence. All the variables of emotional intelligence and marital satisfaction by and large had statistical meaningful relationship. One related study on emotional intelligence was conducted by Batool and Khalid (2012) revealed significant positive relationship between emotional intelligence and indicators of marital quality.
            In Pakistani cultural perspective the emotional regulation is essential in the lives of married people because marriages in this culture are different from the other areas of the world. It’s a very traditional society where marriages are mostly arranged by the elders, dating and meetings before marriage is also not acceptable. So, when a couple starts his new life they are totally unknown for each other in this condition they may need emotional regulation to deal with their differences and to understand each other. This might be the reason that emotional regulation appeared to be a strong predictor of marital satisfaction for Pakistani couples.
            In the third hypothesis of the study it was assumed that there is significant difference between male and female spouses on emotional regulation. The t-test was computed to conclude the significance of difference between male and female on emotional regulation. The result shows that males scored higher than females (t = 2.681, **p< .01), male spouses scored significantly higher as compared to the female spouses due to significant difference with mean scores of  male spouses (M = 15.31;  SD= 1.197) and female spouses (M = 9.25, SD = 1.245).  One of the reasons for this is that our society is a male dominating society. Men are a dominant member in our society they play a vital role and are considered a family pillar. About their obligations they learn from a very early age that they are the earners and the runners of their family. A factor that seemingly predicts husband’s satisfaction, in fact, may make little unique contribution to husband’s satisfaction. What truly takes place may be that this factor has an important influence on wives satisfaction. This factor appears to contribute to husband’s satisfaction simply because there is a substantial overlap between wives and husbands satisfaction (Gaunt, 2006; Robins et al., 2000; Watson et al., 2000). So, if husband is a high emotional regulate person he is better able to make marital life successful and marital bliss can be achieved.
It is shown in the study of Day (2004) in emotional intelligence test men obtain higher scores. Support also comes from the study of Chu (2002) he found that level of emotional regulation is higher in males then females.
The findings of present study is also related to the study of Ahmad, Bangash and Ahmad (2009) they also explored Emotional Intelligence among male and female from N.W.F.P and discovered that emotional intelligence in men is higher as compared to women.  A study on the relation between gender and emotional regulation is conducted by Naghavi and Redzuan, (2011) is concluded that girls are higher in emotional regulation than boys, but it is important to realize this fact that for achievement high emotion regulation in boys is better predictor.
Relationship of ER with everyday behavior is studied by Bracket, Mayer and Warner (2004).  It is declared by results that ER is more predictive of the life satisfaction for men than for women.
 
Suggestions for Future Research and Limitations
Like all other researches in the field of social sciences the present research also has some limitations, which were mainly related to the sample.
1. Limitation one is concerned with the generalizability of the findings. Although sample seemed to be representative but it was collected from few cities of KPK only, so in future studies more representative sample s
hould be selected from all over the country.
2. The present research included only educated couples; work on uneducated couples is also needed in future. So these limitations might have affected the generalizability of the findings.
                             
Implications of the Study
Keeping in view the limitations of the present study and its finding, few recommendations for future study are as follows,
1. Couples may also be trained in order to learn many new skills about emotional regulation.
2. Emotional regulation is not only important in marriage life but in social life as well. Different professionalizes, including; teachers, psychologist and psychiatrist have to play the part in this regard, so that children in their initial stage may learn this through their teachers and become able to play their part in a society as a healthy member. Sufferers of emotional problems find their way through psychologists and psychiatrist regarding settlement and coping of their problems. Through this in future they will be able to pass a satisfied married life.
3. Parents dealing with their children play a key role in emotional development of them. Boys are supposed to be considered aggressive while girls are suppressed to control their emotions. Parents should be trained to change their dealing with their kids to sort out its effect on emotional regulation for the betterment of their upcoming marital life.
To conclude all that, learning emotional regulation is important because man is supposed to face many problems in his daily life and to deal with them is his foremost priority to lead a happy life.
 
Conclusion
It is concluded that, the present study proposes the adaptive value of the use of emotions in marital life and results shows that there is positive correlation between emotional regulation marital satisfaction and emotional regulation is the salient predictor of marital satisfaction. This study rejected the typical phenomenon (concept) that female have high emotional regulation as compared to men, Findings proved that men are more emotionally regulate than females.
 
Refrence
[1] Ahmad, S., & Reid, D. W. (2008). Relationship satisfaction among south asian canadians. The role of complementary-equality, and listening to understand. Interpersona, 2(2), 131-150. Retrieved from http://www.drsauniaahmad.com/uploads /1/0/8/5/10857406/ahmad_and_reid_toms_interpersona_2008.pdf.
[2] Ahmad, S., Bangash, H, & Ahmad, K. S. (2009). Emotional intelligence and gender differences. Sarhad J Agric, 25(1), 127-130. Retrieved from http://www.aup.edu.pk/sj_pdf/ EMOTI ONAL%20INTELLIGENCE%20AND%20GENDER%20DIFFERENCES.pdf.
[3] Ahmadi, K., Ashrafi, N. M., Kimiaee, A.S., & Afzali, H.M. (2010). Effect of family problem solving on marital satisfaction. Journal of Applied Sciences. Retrieved from http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/ansinet/jas/0000/16029-16029.pdf.
[4] Batool, S. S., & Khalid, R. (2012). Emotional intelligence: A predictor of marital
quality in pakistani couples. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 27(1), 65-88. Retrieved from http://www.pjprnip.edu.pk/vol27s/65-88.pdf.
[5] Bell, R. R., Daly, J.A., & Gonzalez, M.C. (1987). Affinity-maintenance in marriage and its relationship to women’s marital satisfaction.  Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49, 445-454.
[6] Berne, E., Steiner, C., & Dusay, J. (1973). Transactional analysis. In Jurjevich R (Ed.) Direct  psychotherapy. Brenstein, FL: Coral Gables, Miami Press.
Blum, J. S. & Mehrabian, A. (1999). Personality and Temperament Correlates of Marital Satisfaction. Journal of Personality, 67(1), 93-125. doi: 10.1111/1467-6494.00049
[7] Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Separation: Anxiety and anger (Vol. 2). New York, NY: Basic Books.
[8] Brackett, M. A., Mayer, J. D., & Warner, R. M. (2004). Emotional intelligence and its expression in everyday behavior, Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 1387-1402. Retrieved from http://www.unh.edu/emotional_intelligence/EI%20Assets/Reprints...EI%20Proper/EIbrackett_mayer_warner.pdf
[9] Broderick, J. E., & O’Leary, D. (1986). Contribution of affect, attitudes, and behavior to marital satisfac- tion. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 514-577.
[10] Cate, R. M., & Lloyd, S. A. (1992).  Courtship.  Newbury Park, CA:  Sage.
Christensen, A., & Heavey, C. L. (1990). Gender and social structure in the demand/withdraw pattern of marital conflict. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 73-81.
[11] Chu, J. (2002). Boy’s development. Reader’s Digest(pp. 94-95).
[12] Clements, R., & Swensen, C. H. (2000). Commitment to one's spouse as a predictor of marital quality among older couples. Current Psychology, 19(2), 110-120.
[13] Craddock, A. E. (1994). Relationships between marital satisfaction and privacy preferences. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 25(3), 371-382. http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo /1994-44900-001.
[14] Cramer, D. (2004). Emotional support, conflict, depression, and relationship satisfaction in a romantic partner. The Journal of Psychology, 138(6), 532-542.
[15]  Day AL. (2004). The measurement of emotional intelligence: The good, the bad, and the ugly. In Geher G (Ed). Measuring Emotional Intelligence: Common Ground & Controversy, 245-270. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
[16] Eddins, T. (2011, April 24). Qualities Of Successful Marriages [online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://peterfox.com. au/pre_marriage_success.htm.
[17] Fitness, J. (2001). Emotional intelligence and intimate relationships. In J. Ciarrochi, J.P., Forgas, & J.D.Mayer (Eds.), Emotional intelligence in everyday life: A scientific inquiry (pp.98-112). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
[18] Gaunt, R. (2006). Couple similarity and marital satisfaction: Are similar spouses happier? Journal of Personality, 74(5), 1401–1420. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2006.00414.x
[19] Gilford, R. (1984). Contrasts in marital satisfaction throughout old age: An exchange theory analysis. Journal of Gerontology, 39, 325-333. Retrieved from
http://www.worldcat. Org /title/close-relationships-key-readings/oclc/173518582.
[20] Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence.  Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine, 10(98), 24-29.
Gottman, J. M., Levenson, R.W. (2002). A two-factor model for predicting when a couple will divorce: exploratory analyses using 14-year longitudinal data, 41(1), 83-96. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11924092.
[21] Gottman, J. M. (1979). Marital interaction: Experimental investigations (pp. 315). New York: Academic Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.pk/books/about/Marital_interaction .html?id=EaOMAAAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y
[22] Gottman, J. M., & Krokoff, L. J. (1989). The relationship between marital interaction and marital satisfaction: A longitudinal view. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57(1), 47-52. Retrieved from http://www.johngottman.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/The-relationship-between-marital-interaction-and-marital-satisfaction-a-longitudinal-view.pdf.
[23] Gottman, J. M., & Levenson, R. W. (1988). The social psychophysiology of marriage. (In P. Noller & M. A. Fitzpatrick (Eds.), Perspectives on marital interaction (pp. 182-200). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
[24] Gottman, J. M., Levenson, R. W. (2002). A two-factor model for predicting when a couple will divorce: exploratory analyses using 14-year longitudinal data. Fam Process, 41(1), 83-96. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11924092.
[25] Gottman, M. J., Levenson, W. R., Carstensen, L. L., & Pasupathi, M. (1999). Responsive Listening in Long-Married Couples: A Psycholinguistic Perspective, 23, 173-193. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1021439627043.
[26] Greef, A.P., & De Bruyne, T. (2000). Conflict management style and marital satisfaction.  Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 26, 321-334.
[27] Hasani, M. A., Mokhtaree, M. R., Sayadi ,N. M., & Mosavi, S. A. (2012). Study of Emotional Intelligence and Marital Satisfaction in Academic Members of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, J Psychol Psychother, 2(2), 2-106. doi:10.4172/2161-0487.1000106P.
[28] Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (2004). How does context affect intimate relationships? Linking external stress and cognitive processes within marriage. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30 (2), 134-148. doi: 10.1177/0146167203255984.
[29] Keith, P. M., & Brubaker, T. H. (1979). Male household roles in later life: A look at masculinity and marital relationships. Family Coordinator, 28, 497-502. Retrieved from http://www.jstor. org/discover/10.2307/583510?uid=2133&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21102786222881.
[30] Lee, V. E. (2010). The impact of alexithymia, emotional intelligence, marital values, and culture on relationship satisfaction. Retrieved from http://gradworks.umi.com/34/13/3413592.html.
[31] Madden, M., & Janoff-bulman, R. (1981). Blame, control, and marital satisfaction: wives’ attributions for conflict in marriage. J Marriage Fam, 43, 663-674.
[32] Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1990). What is a emotional intelligence? Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Implications for educators (pp. 3-31). New York: Basic Books.
[33] McNulty, J. K., & Karney, B. R. (2002). Expectancy confirmation in appraisals of marital interactions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 764–775.
[34] Naghavi, F., & Redzua, M. (2011). The Relationship Between Gender and Emotional Intelligence. World Applied Sciences Journal, 15(4), 555-561. Retrieved from http://www.idosi.org/wasj/wasj15%284%2911/14.pdf.
[35] Noller, P. (1980). Misunderstanding in marital communication: A study of couples’ nonverbal communication. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(6), 1135–1148. doi: 10.1037/h0077716.
[36] Notarius, C. I., & Johnson, J. (1982). Emotional expression in husbands and wives. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 44, 483-489.
[37] Olson, H. D., & Fowers, J. B. (1993), ENRICH: evaluation and nurturing relationship issues, communication and happiness marital satisfaction scale. Journal of Family Psychology, 7(2), 176-185. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.201.2& rep=rep1&type=pdf.
[38] Omidvar, B., Fatehi, Z. M., & Ahmadi, S. A. (2009). The Effect of Premarital Taraning on Marital Expectations and Attitudes of University Students in Shiraz. Journal of Family Research, 5(2), 231-246. Retrieved from http://www.sid.ir/fa/VEWSSID/J_pdf/7891388 1806.pdf[39] Pedneault, K. S. (2009). Emotional regulation, health's disease and condition content is reviewed by the medical review board, Retrieved from http://bpd.about.com/od/glossary/g/emotreg. htm.
[40] Ratson.M. (n.d.). Marriage Family Therapy, Retrieved from http://www.spiral2grow.com/ emotion-regulation.html.
[41] Rauer , A. J., & Volling, B.L. (2005). The role of husbands’ and wives’ emotional expressivity in the marital relationship. Sex Roles. 52, 577-587.
[42] Roberts, N. A., Tsai, J. L, & Coan, J. A. (2007). Emotion elicitation using dyadic interaction tasks. In: Coan JA, Allen JJB, (Eds.), Handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment (pp. 106-123). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
[43] Robins, R. W., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (2000). Two personalities, one relationship: Both partners’ personality traits shape the quality of their relation- ship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 251–259.
[44] Rusbult, C. E., Bissonnette, V. L., & Arriage, X. B. (1998). Accommodation process during the early years of marriage. In T. N. Bradbury (E.d.), The developmental course of marital dysfunction (pp.74-113). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
[45] Salovey, P., Mayer, J. D.,  Goldman, S. L., Turvey, C., & Palfai, T. P. (1995). Emotional attention, clarity, and repair: Exploring emotional intelligence using the trait meta-mood scale. In J. W. Pennebaker (Ed.), Emotion, disclosure, and health (pp. 125-154). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
[46] Salovey, P., Mayer, J.D. & Caruso, D. (2002). The positive psychology of Emotional intelligence. In C.R. Snyder & S.J. Lopez (Ed.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp.159-171). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[47] Schaap, C. (1982). Communication and adjustment in marriage. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger Schaap,C.
[48] Schaap, C., Buunk, B. & Kerkstra, A. (1988). Marital conflict resolution. In P. Noller & M. A. Fitzpatrick (Eds.), Perspectives on marital interaction (pp. 203-244). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
[49] Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Bobik, C., Coston,T. D., Greeson, C., Jedlicka, C.,Rhodes, E., & Wendorf, G., (2001). Emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations. The Journal of Social Psychology, 141, 523-536.
[50] Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Bobik., C., Coston, T. D., Greeson, C., & Jedlicka, C., et al. (2001). Emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations. Journal of Social Psychology, 141, 523-536. doi:10.1080/00224540109600569
[51] Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E.,Haggerty, D., Cooper, J. T., & Golden, C. J. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence .Personality and Individual Differences, 25,167-177.
[52] Sokolsk, D.M., & Hendrick, S. (1999). Fostering marital satisfaction. Family Therapy, 26(1), 39-49.
[53] Troll, L., & Bengtson, V. (1982). Intergenerational relations throughout the life span.(In B. B. Wolman (Ed.), Handbook of developmental psychology (pp. 890-911). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
[54] Watson, D., Hubbard, B., & Wiese, D. (2000). General traits of personality and affectivity as predictors of satisfaction in intimate relationships: Evidence from self- and partner-ratings. Journal of Personality, 68(3), 413–449.  doi: 10.1111/1467-6494.00102
[55] Weisinger, H. (2010). Want a better marriage? Add some emotional intelligence. Retrieved from http://www.Dr.%20Hendrie%20Weisinger%20%20Want%20a%20Better%20Marriage%20...Add%20Some%20Emotional%20Intelligence.htm.
[56] Winch, R. F., Spanier, G. B. (1974). Selected studies in marriage and the family. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and winston, Ine.
[57] With, L., Rogers, S. J. (2000). Economic circumstances and family out comes: a review of the 1990s. J Marriage Fam, 62(4), 1035-1051. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.01035.x
[58] Yalcin, M. B., Karahan, F. T., & Tevfik. (2007). Effects of a couple communication program on marital adjustment, 20(1), 36-44. doi:10.3122/jabfm.2007.01.060053.
[59] Zietlow, P. H., & Sillars, A. L. (1988). Life-stage differences in communication during marital conflicts. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 5, 223-245.
Share on Google Plus

0 comments:

Post a Comment