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Achievement Motivation among the College Principal in Kanyakumari District

Dr. C. Subathra
Assistant Professor of Commerce, Pioneer Kumaraswamy College, Nagercoil.
Achievement Motivation among the College Principal in Kanyakumari District

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to identify the motivational profiles of the College principals in Kanyakumari District as well as to examine if a statistically significant relationship existed between the motivational profiles of college principals in Kanyakumari District and their Gender, Age, Teaching experience, Administrative experience and Type of College.  This study employed a survey questionnaire. The questionnaire included two parts, Demographic Questions and Motivation Profile Questions based on David McClelland’s theory of Needs- Power, Affiliation and Achievement Motivation. 130 sets of questionnaires were sent to all 130 College principals in Kanyakumari District using Drop-off and Mail-survey method.  Analysed data using SPSS and Applied Pearson Correlation, ANOVA , t-test to test hypothesis. The findings of the study reveals that most of the college principals in Kanyakumari District are Achievement Motivators. And it also revealed that there is no relationship between the Motivation profile of college principal with their Demographic profile in most cases. The study findings give an implication for Leadership Training.

Keywords:  Achievement, Affiliation, Motivation, Power

INTRODUCTION
The external changes which take place in the real world have somehow affected the academic landscape of institutions of higher education all around the globe (Wolverton et al., 2001). This situation has brought a great impact on the roles and responsibilities of managers cum leaders at all levels in Institutions of Higher Education including principals. Initially, principals were much regarded as a motivator in academic institutions and their duties focused mainly on motivating teachers as well as students. However, with the impact of modernization, the roles and responsibilities of principals are far more challenging as they are regarded to act as both managers and leaders of change. Hence, a synergy between these two roles: as a manager and a leader, requires principals to make numerous efforts to build effective academic organization with good achievement.

MOTIVATION
Motivation iѕ dеfinеd аѕ “аn intеrnаl ѕtаtе οr сοnditiοn (ѕοmеtimеѕ dеѕсribеd аѕ а nееd, dеѕirе, οr wаnt) thаt ѕеrvеѕ tο асtivаtе οr еnеrgizе bеhаviοr аnd givе it dirесtiοn”. In аdditiοn, it is “аn intеrnаl ѕtаtе οr сοnditiοn thаt асtivаtеѕ bеhаviοr аnd givеѕ it dirесtiοn; dеѕirе οr wаnt thаt еnеrgizеѕ аnd dirесtѕ gοаl- οriеntеd bеhаviοr; influеnсе οf nееdѕ аnd dеѕirеѕ οn thе intеnѕity аnd dirесtiοn οf bеhаviοr”

MOTIVATION THEORIES
There are several theories of (different kinds) of motivation. 
Maslow proposed that employees have five levels of needs (Maslow, 1943): physiological, safety, social, ego, and self- actualizing. Maslow argued that lower level needs had to be satisfied before the next higher level need would motivate employees.

Herzberg's work categorized motivation into two factors: motivators and hygienes (Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959). Frederick has tried to modify Maslow’s need Hierarchy theory. His theory is also known as Two-Factor Theory or HygieneTheory. He stated that there are certain satisfiers and dissatisfiers for employees at work.

Vroom's theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards (Vroom, 1964). Rewards may be either positive or negative. The more positive the reward, the more likely the employee will be highly motivated. Conversely, the more negative the reward, the less likely the employee will be motivated.

One of David McClelland’s most well known theories is that human motivation is dominated by three needs. McClelland's theory, sometimes referred to as the three need theory or as the learned needs theory, categorizes the needs as follows;
·    The need for power ( N-Pow)
·    The need for affiliation ( N-Affil) and
·    The need for achievement ( N-Ach)

The importance of each of these needs will vary from one person to another. If you can determine the importance of each of these needs to an individual, it will help you decide how to influence that individual. McClelland asserted that a person’s needs are influenced by their cultural background and life experiences. He also asserted that the majority of these needs can be classified as the needs for affiliation, achievement or power. A person’s motivation and effectiveness can be increased through an environment, which provides them with their ideal mix of each of the three needs (N-Ach, N-Pow and/or N-Affil).

NEED FOR POWER
Basically people for high need for power are inclined towards influence and control. They like to be at the centre and are good orators. They are demanding in nature, forceful in manners and ambitious in life. They can be motivated to perform if they are given key positions or power positions.

NEED FOR AFFILIATION
In the second category are the people who are social in nature. They try to affiliate themselves with individuals and groups. They are driven by love and faith. They like to build a friendly environment around themselves. Social recognition and affiliation with others provides them motivation.

NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT
People in the third area are driven by the challenge of success. A person with this type of need will set goals that are challenging but realistic. The goals have to be challenging so that the person can feel a sense of achievement. However the goals also have to be realistic as the person believes that when a goal is unrealistic, its achievement is dependent on chance rather than personal skill or contribution. This type of person prefers to work alone or with other high achievers. They do not need praise or recognition, achievement of the task is their reward. A person with a “need for achievement” (N-Ach) needs regular job-related feedback so that they can review their progress and achievement. Feedback includes advancement in the person’s position in the organization. Salary scale will also be viewed as measure of progress. The amount of salary is not about increasing wealth for a person with a high need for achievement. Instead this type of person is focusing on how their level of salary symbolizes their progress and achievement.
McClelland believed that people with a strong need for achievement (N-Ach), make the best leaders for a variety of reasons including setting goals, reviewing progress and continuously looking at how things can be done better. However they may “expect too much” from their team as they believe that others have the same “need for achievement” which is often not the case. McClelland observed that with the advancement in hierarchy, the need for achievement increased rather than Power and Affiliation. He also observed that people who were at the top, later ceased to be motivated by these drives.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Following are the objectives of the present study:
·    To analyse the Demographic profile of the College principals in Kanyakumari District.
·    To examine the Motivation profile of the College principals in Kanyakumari District.
·    To study the relationship between the Motivation profile of College principals in Kanyakumari District and their demographic profiles.
·    To provide suggestions based on the findings and conclusion of the study.

HYPOTHESES
On the  basis of the predefined objectives of the present study and literature reviewed the following null hypothesis is formulated:
Ho. There is no relationship between the Motivation Profile of college principals in Kanyakumari District and their Gender, Age, Teaching experience, Administrative experience and Type of college
METHODOLOGY
The main aim of this study was to investigate the Motivation profile of 130 college principals in Kanyakumari District. This study employed a survey questionnaire. The questionnaire included two parts, Demographic Questions are the first part of the questionnaire which includes Age, Gender, Type of college, Teaching experience and Administrative experience of the college principal. Second part of the questionnaire includes Motivation Profile Questions, developed by Junker. K (2001) based on David McClelland’s theory of Needs. It states that human behavior is affected by three needs Power, Affiliation and Achievement. The questions aim at testing the preferences towards Principals’ Motivational needs. 130 sets of questionnaires were sent to all 130 College principals in Kanyakumari District using Drop-off and Mail-survey method.  The population sample consisted of Arts & Sciences (n=24), Engineering Colleges (n=31), Polytechnic Colleges (n=21), Nursing College (n=20), and Education Colleges (n=34) college principals. The whole colleges under the target group had been selected as the population of the study as a Census survey. To explore the Motivation profile of College Principals in Kanyakumari District and to determine the relationship between Motivation profile and Demographic, applied Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC), Chi-Square, ANOVA and t-test using SPSS.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Figure.1.Conceptual Framework of the study

This study explored the Motivation profile of college principals in Kanyakumari District and determined the relationship between the dependent variable Viz., Motivation profile and the five independent variables: Gender, Age, Teaching experience, Administrative experience and Type of college. The following figure shows the model of the study.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE COLLEGE PRINCIPALS

Table.1.Demographic profile of the College principals (Frequency and percentage)
Variables
Frequency
Percentage
Gender
Male
51
39.2
Female
79
60.8
Age Group
Below 40
10
7.7
41-45
17
13.1
46-50
32
24.6
51-55
47
36.2
56 & Above
24
18.5
 Type of College
Arts & Science
24
18.5
Engineering
31
23.8
Polytechnic
21
16.2
Nursing
20
15.4
Education
34
26.2
Teaching Experience  Group
Less than 10
5
3.8
Between 10-15
8
6.2
Between 16-20
19
14.6
Between 21-25
32
24.6
Between 26-30
44
33.8
Above 30
22
16.9
Administrative  Experience  Group
Less than 2
13
10.0
Between 2-3
17
13.1
Between 4-5
34
26.2
Between 6-7
27
20.8
Above 8
39
30.0
    Source : Primary data

The frequency and percentage analysis of the college principals demographic profile viz., Age, Teaching experience, Administrative experience Type of College and Gender reveals that most respondents were in the age range of 51-55, followed by the age range of 46-50, 33.8% of the respondents were having teaching experience between 26-30 years followed by 24.6 % of respondent who has teaching experience between 21-25 years, 30.0% of the respondents have above 8 years of administrative experience followed by 26.2 % of the respondent who have administrative experience between 4-5 years, most respondents were from education n=34 (26.2%) followed by engineering colleges n= 31(23.8%) and the data showed that out of 130 valid responses, 51 Principals were male and 79 Principals were female. (See Table. 1)


MOTIVATION PROFILE OF THE COLLEGE PRINCIPALS

Table 2: Motivation Profile of the College principals (frequency and percentage)

   
MOTIVATION PROFILE

LEAST PREFERRED


BACKUP


DOMINANT

VERY DOMINANT


   TOTAL

POWER
n 96
(73.8%)
n 2
(1.5%)
n 11
(8.5%)
n 21
(16.2%)
130
(100%)

AFFILIATION
n 72
(55.4%)
n 23
(17.7%)
n 11
(8.5%)
n 24
(18.5%)
130
(100%)

ACHIEVEMENT
n 47
(36.2%)
n 20
(15.4%)
n 23
(17.7%)
n 40
(30.8%)
130
(100%)
     Source : Primary data

Figure. 2. Motivation Profile of the college principal

Frequency and percentage of the respondents Motivation style is shown in Table.2 and Figure 3. It shows that the majority of the respondents 30.8% (n= 40) scored very dominant level of intensity for the Achievement motivation followed by 18.5% (n=24) for the Affiliation motivation.

HYPOTHESIS TESTING
The hypothesis was tested using SPSS (Software package for Statistical Analysis). Applied Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) to determine and report the relationships between the Motivation profile and Principals’ Age, Teaching Experience and Administrative Experience. To confirm the result, applied Chi-Square cross tabulation and Cluster Bar chart and interpreted. Descriptive analysis in ANOVA was applied to test the significant differences between the Motivation profile and Type of College. The t-test for quality of means was employed to test the significant differences between the Male Principal and Female Principal. The consolidated findings from hypothesis is given in Table.3

Table.3.Hypothesis findings
DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE
LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE
AGE
INSIGNIFICANT
TEACHING EXPERIENCE
INSIGNIFICANT
ADMINISTRATIVE EXPERIENCE
INSIGNIFICANT
TYPE OF COLLEGE
SIGNIFICANT
GENDER
SIGNIFICANT
Source: primary data



The result reveals that there was no significant relationship between the Principals’ age, Teaching and administrative experience and Motivation Profile of the College Principals in Kanyakumari District. Whereas there was statistically significant relationship existed in between Motivation Profile of the College Principal and Type of College and Gender.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

The predominant Motivation profile of the College Principals in Kanyakumari Districts as perceived by the Principal was discussed based on the scores reported by them for each one of the three Motivations profile (Power, Affiliation and Achievement Motivation) is as follows.
·    Power motivation - 96 College Principals in Kanyakumari District rarely use this Motivation profile that is least preferred, while only 2 Principals use it occasionally. It was also found that 11 respondents use this decision style frequently and 21 respondents scored very dominant level of intensity for this profile and use it compulsively.

·    Affiliation motivation - In this particular Motivation profile, most Principal n=72 (55.4%) of College Principals in Kanyakumari District scored in the least-preferred level of intensity, while 23 use this motivation occasionally. 11 Principals reported that they use this profile often and 24 Principals use this motivation compulsively.

·    Achievement motivation- The majority of College Principals in Kanyakumari District, n= 40 (30.8%), used the Achievement Motivation compulsively, scoring in very dominant levels of intensity for this motivation. 47 respondents considered this Motivation as the least preferred and 20 respondents use this particular Motivation occasionally, which is as a back-up Motivation Profile, while 23 Principals use it frequently.  McClelland believed that people with a strong need for achievement, make the best leaders for a variety of reasons including setting goals, reviewing progress and continuously looking at how things can be done better. The mean score result also proves that the predominant Motivation profile among the College Principals in Kanyakumari District is the Achievement Motivation.

·    There is no significant relationship between the Principals’ age, Teaching and administrative experience and Motivation Profile of the College Principals in Kanyakumari District. Whereas there was statistically significant relationship existed in between Motivation Profile of the College Principal and Type of College and Gender.


CONCLUSION
From the study it is clear that the College Principals in Kanyakumari District are not alike in the adoption of their Motivation profile. Each Principal has his or her own style. Some of them have more than one dominant style; some have more than one back-up style, while others use some of the styles rarely. Sternberg (2001), states that according to Webster's Dictionary (1967), ''A style is a distinctive or characteristic manner, or method of acting or performing." It means that the Principals use different methods for leading, Motivating and make decisions. In addition each style has its strength and weaknesses, so knowing more about each leadership style, Decision making style and Motivation profile, will lead the College Principal to be more able to use the strengths of other modes and to balance against the weaknesses of their own approaches and therefore enhance their ultimate effectiveness.

SUGGESTIONS
Based on the findings and conclusion of the study the following implications were pointed out and provided as suggestions:

·    The researcher suggests that college principals must be aware of different Motivational aspect, so that they switch in to the particular style in order to overcome the situation.  Mech (1993) stated that when the managers are aware of their styles and orientation, they are more able to balance between the strength and weaknesses of their own and others’ modes. While there are preferred styles and a predominant orientation among Principals, some may not be the most effective in all situations or environments; therefore it is suggested that Principals to find ways to take advantage of the benefits provided by the other styles.

·    As exist in the higher education, the newly appointed Principal should be given compulsory orientation programme that enable them to face the new challenges in the field of education effectively. This will also ultimately generate in them ideal Leadership qualities including motivation profile.
·    The study reveals that less than 50 percent of the college principals are in very high range of intensity Achievement Motivation. That shows that the remaining 50% or more than 50% of principals are having a very low level of intensity for Achievement Motivation. Thus it is suggested that effective leadership training should be given to the college principals in Kanyakumari District focusing on Motivation aspects.

·    From the study, it is evident that there is no significant relationship between the Principals’ age and Motivation Profile of the College Principals in Kanyakumari District, thus the researcher suggests that younger teacher can also be given a priority to become the college principal. A study conducted at the University of Bremen in Germany examined the relationship between leadership and age; found that younger leaders were more likely to use the transformational or transactional styles of leadership, both of which can be effective at motivating employees. Older leaders were more likely to use the ineffective passive-avoidant style. The study suggested that younger leaders were motivated by career ambition and that many older leaders were not. The general notion/opinion/feeling of people that a principal older in age is a good principal/effective principal stands nullified. It was thus concluded that, Motivation profile is not age dependent. Thus it is suggested that young and energetic cum ambitious teachers may be given an opportunities be a college principal, who can be a good motivator in academic achievement.


·    Motivation profile of the College Principal has no significant relationship with their Teaching and Administrative experience. Thus from the finding of the past and present study the researcher suggest that, teachers with minimum teaching experience may be given an opportunity to lead an educational institution in taking good decision and motivate the students for academic achievement which creates a good and favorable climate.

·    Motivation show statistically significant relationship with the type of College The Principals in Arts & Science Colleges are very dominant towards Achievement motivation whereas, the Principals in Nursing Colleges are dominant towards Affiliation Motivation. It is because of the difference in the private and aided and also it is because of the difference in the management. Thus the researcher suggests that the rights, duties, power and responsibilities of any type of college principal should be the same in order to create favorable climate for students and teachers. 

·    As there is a statistically significant relationship existed between Gender and Motivation, Gender played a role in the adoption of Motivation profile of the College Principals in Kanyakumari District. Thus, it was inferred that Motivation emerges from within the person based on gender.  Male or female principal had to abide by the rules and regulations of the management whether private or public in order to take decision. Thus it is recommended to the college principal to be aware of different decision style, in order to switch into the needed style according to the situation.

REFERENCES



·    D. C. McClelland. (1961). The Achieving Society. Free Press, New York
·    David C. McClelland, (1965) "Achievement Motivation Can Be Developed," Harvard Business Review 43 (November–December 1965), pp. 68.
·    Golden, S. A. R. (2011). Strategy For Success Of Human Beings:-Time Management.
·    Golden, S. A. R. (2017). Recent Research In Social Science & Humanities.
·    Kathy Junker, (2001), A Tool For Motivating Volunteers (In Partnership With          Mark Mains, Kelly Moss, Tommy Harrison & Kathy Junker)
·    Kothari, C.R., “Research Methodology - Methods and Techniques”, New    Age International Pvt., Publisher, 2006.
·    Nolen Kent (2003), An analysis of principal leadership behavior, teacher attendance and student achievement in Chicago public secondary schools, Ph.D. Loyola University.
·    Per H. Hansson Jon Aarum Andersen (2007) “The Swedish Principal: Leadership Style, Decision-Making Style, and Motivation Profile” International Electronic Journal for Leadership in Learning, v11 Article
·    Reddin, W.J. (1970): Managerial Effectiveness. Tokyo: McGraw Hill.
·    Rose Brooks (2009) “Motivation and leadership styles among medical personnel Located in washington dc metropolitan military medical Centers”.
·    Subathra. C, "The Relationship between Motivation Profile and Demographic Profile of the College Principals” SELP Publications, Publications in a Book with ISBN No. 978-93-80509-74-7, Pg no. 167-173, on 19th Oct 2015.
·    Subathra. C, “A Study on Principals’ Decision Making Style”  Published in Book with ISBN No. 978-93-84743-41-3 , Pg no. 156- 160 on 21st  Feb 2015.
·    Subathra. C, “Analysing the Leadership Behaviour of College Principals” International Journal for Studies in Management and Planning, e-ISSN: 2395-0463, Impact Factor 3.512, Volume 01, Issue 11, December 2015, Pg.112-122. Available online: http://internationaljournalofresearch.org.
·    Subathra. C, “Decision making style of college principals in Kanyakumari district” Article published in the “International Research Journal of Management and Humanities” Volume 2, Issue 1, June 2014, ISSN No.2347-3274, Pg no.103-113 – Siddharaja Publications.
·    Subathra. C, “Leadership style of college principals in Kanyakumari district – A study” Article submitted in “The International Journal for Economics and Business Management” ISSN No.2250-2750, June 2015, Volume 4, Issue 2, and Pg.No.61-68.
·    Subathra. C, “Motivation Profile of the College Principals in Kanyakumari District” Article published in PRIMAX-IJCMR - International Journal of Commerce & Management Research, Print ISSN: 2321-3604, Online ISSN: 2321-3612, Impact Factor 2.532, Volume III, Issue 3, Oct-Dec 2015, Pg 25-30.
·    Subathra. C, “The relationship between principals’ Leadership style and Demographic profile” publications in B-Digest, Contemporary Business Conundrum, Oct 2014, ISBN No.:978-93-84734-04-6, Pg 65-69.

·    Webb (2007) “The relationship between elementary school principals” leadership strategies and teachers’ work motivation and job satisfaction levels in the       Black   Belt region of Alabama.
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