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LEVEL OF PROFICIENCY OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN FILIPINO LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

John Noel S. Nisperos
Faculty of Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University
South La Union Campus-College of Education
Agoo, La Union, Philippines


ABSTRACT
The level of proficiency of Junior High School students in Filipino language and literature was assessed in this study. Descriptive method of research was used to gather primary data. Respondents consist of grade seven students of Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University-South La Union Campus Laboratory High School, Agoo, La Union, Philippines. Salient findings reveal that most of the learners had basic level of proficiency in Filipino language and literature.  Basic    level of   proficiency was identified in comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation while advanced under   knowledge. There is no significant relationship between the students’ age, sex, average family monthly income, and parents' highest educational attainment as to the level of proficiency of Junior High School students in language and literature.
Field of Research:           level of proficiency, junior high school students, Filipino language and      literature
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INTRODUCTION
Situational Analysis
Achievements and performance of the students depend largely on the effectiveness of the teacher to manage the learning process. On the other hand, the excellence of curricula and instructional decisions, teachers’ quality to improve learning may be considered as determinants for effectiveness and efficiency, (Boado, 2016).

Learning is no longer encapsulated by time, in place, and age, but has become a pervasive activity and attitude that continues throughout life and is supported by all segments of society, (Mathieu & Salas, 1992).

Undeniably, Ntui (2014) revealed that effective and successful study consists of more than merely memorizing facts but calls for knowing where and how to obtain information and the ability to make intelligent use of it.

In the Philippines, Filipinos have high regard on education because they believe on the notion that education is the key to economic uplift and social mobility. With this notion, the government has
provided the educational needs of the Filipinos by giving free access to education, (Paglinawan, J.L, 2014).

In a worldwide setting, Villanueva and Dulay (2016) reiterated that education is universally recognized as one of the most fundamental building blocks for human development and poverty reduction. It equips a person with the necessary skills, knowledge and moral values to become a functional member of a society. Given the opportunity to learn, people are empowered to contribute to the development of their lives, communities and their countries. Education remains as one of the most powerful instrument for reducing poverty and inequality and helps lay the foundation for sustained economic   growth.

Studies revealed that socio-demographic factors influenced students’ comprehension, proficiency and performance. The socio-demographic factors such as age and sex influenced the pupils’ comprehension level. But sex was a more significant factor. Likewise, age and sex influenced the pupils’ reading speed. The more significant factor was sex of the respondents, (Chatto, 2011). In the same manner, Gevero (2008), showed that there was a significant relationship between the socio-demographic factors of pupils and parents and the performance of Grade IV pupils of Kabacan South District Achievement test in Mathematics. The pupil and parent factors highly influenced the performance of Grade IV pupils in the District Achievement Test in Mathematics. There was a significant relationship between performance and the family background of the pupils which include: a) monthly family income, b) educational level of the parents, and c) size of the family and the academic achievement of the Grade Five SMART and non-SMART pupils, (Masillones, 2003).

To concretize students’ level of proficiency, assessment methods are important tools to monitor the academic achievement of students in all aspects of learning. It is a process to document the domains of learning needed in the 21st century learning. Educators usually conduct exercises, record information, be it with summative and formative tests.

It is in this situation where the researcher aims to determine the level of   proficiency   of Grade Seven Junior High School students in Filipino language and literature.

Conceptual Framework
               Input                                                           Process                                                     Output
Text Box: A. Profile of the Grade Seven students as to :
a. Age
b. Sex
c. Average family income
d. Parents’ highest
Educational attainment
B. Standardized proficiency test  in Language and Literature
Text Box: Level of proficiency of Grade Seven Students in Language and Literature
Text Box: Analysis of Grade Seven students’ profile and proficiency test classified according to the   cognitive domains of learning
 








Three   distinctions are made between proficiency tests, intended for administrative purposes, and achievement tests, intended for assessment of instructional results were reiterated by  Cohenn (1994) as cited by CARLA (2017). For this study, assessment of instructional results was utilized where diagnosis, evidence of progress, feedback to the respondents, and evaluation or teaching of curriculum were manifested.  This is considered as norm-referenced assessment where students were compared with each other in a class. Not like in a criterion-referenced assessment   where  teachers  have to determine whether  respondents have met certain instructional objectives or criteria.
The level of proficiency in Filipino language and literature varies every grading period. As a part of the teaching-learning process, teachers from the grade level integrate appropriate classroom activities as the need arises.  However, the collaborative effort of both the students and the teachers will result to a fun yet interesting, interactive and engaging lessons geared to a higher level of proficiency in the subject.
The mastery of specific cognitive learning domains formulated by Blooms   such as knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation as revised by Anderson such as remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating will create a great impact and difference in the level of proficiency of students along with various disciplines.
Statement of the Problem
This study determined the level of proficiency of  Junior High School Students in  Filipino Language and Literature.
Specifically, it answered the following questions:
1.       What is the profile of Junior High School Students in terms of  age, sex, average family monthly income and parents’ highest educational attainment?
2.       What is the level of proficiency of Junior High School Students in Language and Literature?
3.       What is the level of proficiency of Junior High School Students in Language and Literature Along with the Cognitive Domains of Learning?
4.       Is there a significant relationship between students’ socio-demographic profile and proficiency level in language and literature?
METHODOLOGY
Research Design
Descriptive method of research was used to determine the level of proficiency of Grade Seven students in Language and Literature for the first term of the school year.
Sample and Data Collection Method
Total enumeration composed of Grade Seven students enrolled for the school year was included in the study.

Instrumentation
A two-part   data gathering instrument was used to elicit data from the respondents namely: socio-demographic profile of the Grade Seven students and standardized proficiency test in language and literature classified according to the cognitive domains of learning.
Reliability Analysis
The split-half procedure involves scoring, using the odd items vis-à-vis the even number of a test separately for each person, after which the correlation coefficient was employed in the sets of scores. The correlation coefficient indicates the degree to which the two halves of the test provide the same results. Hence, the test has internal consistency, (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1993).
The reliability coefficient was calculated using the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. The correlation coefficient of the two halves of the test was calculated using Pearson Product Moment of Correlation Coefficient formula with a value of 0.72. The instrument was interpreted as highly reliable.
Descriptive Statistics and Analysis
Frequency counts and percentage were utilized to determine the socio-demographic profile of Grade Seven students.  Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) measures   the significant relationship between the level of proficiency in Filipino language and literature with the socio-demographic profile of the respondents at 0.05     level of significance.
FINDING & DISCUSSION
Table 1. Socio-demographic Profile of Grade Seven Students
Table   1 shows the socio-demographic profile of Grade Seven students as to age, sex, average family monthly income, and parents’ highest educational attainment.
Grade Seven students were both under 12 years of age, 43 (48.86%) and 13 years of age 43 (48.86%) dominated by females, 46 (52.27%) with an   average monthly family income of 20, 000 to 30, 000 pesos, 49 (55.68%).  Both parents, father 69 (78.40%) and mother 78 (88.63%) were college graduates.
Related studies revealed that as to the socio-demographic characteristics of the fast learners majority were younger than those in the regular curriculum, females and had parents who were college graduates and were government employees. In contrary, majority of the slow learners were older than those in the regular curriculum, males, had parents who reached high school level only, (Anino, 2009).
Batig’s  (2010) research also showed that the age, sex, rank in the family, and pre-school significantly influenced the pupils’ performance in the District English Achievement Test. The parent factors such as educational attainment and occupation, number of children in the family and monthly income of the family significantly influenced the pupils’ performance in the District English Achievement Test.
In contrary, Afdal’s (2012) research revealed that socio-demographic characteristics namely: age, sex, and fathers’ and mothers’ educational attainment had no significant influence on the level of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of pupils to learn.
Age
Frequency
Percentage
14
2
2.27%
13
43
48.86%
12
43
48.86%
11


Total
88
100.00%
Sex
Frequency
Percentage
Male
42
47.72%
Female
46
52.27%
Total
88
100.00%
Average Family Monthly Income
Frequency
Percentage
50,000php and above
15
17.04%
40, 001 – 50, 000php
3
3.40%
30, 001 – 40, 000php
4
4.54%
20, 001 – 30, 000php
49
55.68%
10, 000 – 20, 000php
15
17.04%
5, 001 – 10, 000php
2
2.27%
Total
88
100.00%
Parents’ Highest Educational Attainment
Frequency   Percentage
Father                                            
Frequency    Percentage
 Mother
Doctorate Degree –Ph.D./Ed.D.

  2                      2.27%
Masters’ Degree-MA/MAED

  1                      1.13%
College Graduate-BS/AB
      69              78.40%
78                      88.63%
College Level
      16              18.18%
  6                       6.81%
High School Graduate
        3                3.40%

High School Level


Elementary Graduate                                                    

1                          1.13%
Total

88                    100.00%

Table 2. Level of Proficiency of Grade Seven students in Language and Literature
Table 2 shows that most of the students, 46 (52.27%)   had basic level of proficiency in Filipino language and literature on the topics discussed during the first term of the school year. 
Level of Proficiency
Frequency
Percentage
Advanced
18
20.45%
Intermediate
24
27.27%
Basic
46
52.27%
Total
88
100.00%

Table 3. Level of Proficiency of Grade Seven Students in Language and Literature Along with the Cognitive Domains of Learning
Table 3 shows the Grade Seven Students’ level of proficiency in language and literature along with the cognitive domains of learning. As a result, a basic level of proficiency was identified in comprehension,   application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation while advanced under   knowledge.



Cognitive Learning Domains
Proficiency Level
   Basic                      Intermediate                       Advanced
   f         %                     f         %                                f          %
Knowledge
28   31.81%              12   13.63%                                                       
                    48  54.54%
Comprehension
49  55.68%                29  32.95%
                    10   11.36%
Application
38   43.18%               27 30.68%
                    23   26.13%
Analysis
34   38.63%               32  36.36%
                   22   25.00%
Synthesis
 39  44.31%                35  39.77%                               
                   14   15.90%
Evaluation
 43  48.86%                34  38.63%
                   11    12.50%

Table 4. Relationship Between Students’ Socio-demographic Profile and Proficiency Level in Language and Literature
Table 4 shows the computed r as to age, 0.02192508  with   No or Negligible Relationship, sex,                   0.2926101174  with   Weak Positive Relationship,  Average Family Monthly Income,                 0.2028667105 with  Weak Positive Relationship, Parents’ Highest Educational Attainment, 0.0161207778 for father with No or Negligible Relationship while -0.0242402885 for mother with  No or Negligible Relationship. Thus, there is no significant relationship between the students’ age, sex, average family monthly income, and parents' highest educational attainment as to the level of proficiency of Junior High School students in language and literature.
Socio-demographic Characteristics
Computed r
Verbal Description
     Age                                                                0.02192508                                      No or Negligible Relationship
     Sex                                                                 0.2926101174                                 Weak Positive Relationship
Average Family Monthly Income
        0.2028667105
Weak Positive Relationship
Parents’ Highest Educational Attainment
Father
Mother


0.0161207778
-0.0242402885


No or Negligible Relationship
No or Negligible Relationship
Legend for r value:
+.70 or Higher – Very Strong Relationship                 
+.40 - +.69- Strong Positive Relationship                    
+.30 - +.39 – Moderate Positive Relationship
+.20 - +.29 – Weak Positive Relationship
+.01 - +.19 – No or Negligible Relationship

0 –  No relationship/Zero Order Correlation            
-.01 - .19 – No or Negligible Relationship                 
-.20 - -.29 – Weak Negative Relationship
-.30 - -.39 – Moderate Negative Relationship
-.40 - -.69 – Strong Negative Relationship 
-.70  or Higher- Very Strong Negative Relationship

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RECOMMENDATION
Grade Seven students were both under 12 and 13 years of age dominated by females with an average monthly family income of 20, 000 to 30, 000 pesos and both parents were college graduates. Most of the learners had basic level of proficiency in Filipino language and literature.  Basic     level of proficiency was identified in comprehension,   application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation while advanced under   knowledge. There is no significant relationship between the students’ age, sex, average family monthly income, and parents' highest educational attainment as to the level of proficiency of Junior High School students in language and literature.

References
Afdal, Longlong F. (2012). Level of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation to Learn among Grade V and VI Pupils of Pikit North District. Master’s Thesis. Abstract Bibliography. University of Southern Mindanao, Graduate School, Volume VI, 2006-2012 ISSN 0116-1206, Kabacan, Cotabato, Philippines.
Anino, Adelita I. (2009). Academic Performance and Attitude Towards Schooling of the Grade III Pupils in the SPED and Regular Curricula Classes of the Kidapawan City Pilot Elementary School, S.Y. 2007-2008. Master’s Thesis. Abstract Bibliography. University of Southern Mindanao, Graduate School, Volume VI, 2006-2012 ISSN 0116-1206, Kabacan, Cotabato, Philippines.
Batig, Sarah B. (2010). Factors Affecting the Performance of Grade III Pupils of West Kabacan in the District English Achievement Test (S.Y. 2008-2009). Master’s Thesis. Abstract Bibliography. University of Southern Mindanao, Graduate School, Volume VI, 2006-2012 ISSN 0116-1206, Kabacan, Cotabato, Philippines.
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Masillones, Virginia P. (2003). Variables Associated with the Levels of Academic Achievement of Grade Five SMART and Non-SMART Pupils. Doctoral Dissertation. Abstract Bibliography. University of Southern Mindanao, Graduate School, Volume VI, 2006-2012 ISSN 0116-1206, Kabacan, Cotabato, Philippines.
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