People`s Perception About Hurdles in female`s Education In District Faisalabad

Hassan Ali1*, Ashfaq Ahmad Maann2 & Muhammad Hasnain3


1-2Department of Rural Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad-38040-Pakistan.
3Department of Sociology, Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.



Abstract
This study emphasizes that a major barrier to girl access and participation in formal education is the cultural and traditional values and the daily realities of poverty stand between girls and their prospects for educational opportunities. Traditional beliefs, practices and sayings perpetuate gender imbalance in terms of educational attainments. Main objective of the study is to find out the people`s perception about the hurdles which hinder female’s education in rural areas of District Faisalabad. This research study comprised upon 300 respondents. Multistage sampling technique was applied for data collection. First of all one tehsil (Tehsil Faisalabad) was selected, two union councils (UC-172 and UC-158) were selected randomly then four villages (Dial Gar & Talwandi from UC-172 and Chak # 64 and Chak # 65/JB from each UC-158) were selected randomly and at the last stage 300 respondents were selected randomly from the selected villages. Data were collected with the help of a well-designed interview schedule. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software. It was concluded that (59.80%) respondents facing economic barriers and also unable to afford books and uniform expenditures. (30.66%) stated that environment is not much conducive. (15.47%) stated that cultural norms resist female’s education and confined the females to religious education only. (22.99%) of total respondents stated that the female who are given school education did not follow religious obligations. On the basis of the research it is recommending that Government should arrange awareness campaigns among rural people about the importance of female education. Laws made for necessary primary education and strictly enacted and enforced. Parents should stop gender dissemination among children.
Keywords: Educational Awareness, Barriers in female`s education, Rural literacy, Rural Development
Introduction
A number of Prophetic traditions also talk directly about knowledge being obligatory and binding in character. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: “Acquisition of knowledge is binding on all Muslims (both men and women without any discrimination)”. (Sunan Ibn Maja) The Holy Prophet (pbuh) also said at another place: “Acquire knowledge even if you may have to go to China for it. Verily acquisition of knowledge is binding on every Muslim”. (Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr) He (pbuh) said at another place: “Allah Almighty makes the path to paradise easier for him who walks on it for getting knowledge.” (Sahih Muslim).

The Action plan of “Education Sector Reforms” encourage the public private partnership to improve the quality of primary education, with scheme e.g. adopt a school by the private sector under the utilization of public schools. World Bank based study findings placed that the distance of the school is also a major constraint in the way of the female education. This distance also creates economic burden to parents and the problem of security (TAP. 2001-2005).

Punjab, is the most developed and populous province of Pakistan with approximately 55% of the country's total population. Lahore is the provincial capital and Punjab's main cultural, historical, administrative and economic center. In the context of female’s education the district Chakwal helds the top position in all over the province and Faisalabad have 4th number but the Rajanpur district is at last number. In context of female’s literacy rate the district Lahore is at the top, Faisalabad is on 3rd number and the Rajanpur is at the last. The literacy rate has increased greatly since independence. Punjab has the highest Human Development Index out of all of Pakistan's provinces at 0.670 this is a chart of the education market of Punjab estimated by the government in 1998.In all primary schools of the province Punjab there is a single teacher for 40 children.

This study emphasizes that a major barrier to girl access and participation in formal education is the cultural and traditional values and the daily realities of poverty stand between girls and their prospects for educational opportunities. Traditional beliefs, practices and sayings perpetuate gender imbalance in terms of educational attainments. This paper argues that the education of girl-child would improve their life chances, and also enhance the welfare of their households, thus its resultant benefit of the girl-child being empowered. In the light of these challenges in the girl-child education, this paper further brings to the fore the efforts of a growing number of NGOs and international agencies complementing the government’s efforts in the Bunkpurugu/Yunyoo in promoting greater participation towards girl  education (Elijah Kombian Fant, 2008).

In this paper I look at 12 women who were on welfare and their barriers to becoming self-sufficient through education. They are in rural areas in the state of Louisiana and relied on welfare as a support system. I will examine their abilities to eventually obtain education and stable employment. In this paper, I use the qualitative data provided by Dr. Pam Monroe of Louisiana State University to examine the relationships of schooling, skills and recent work experience to the women’s paths to becoming self-sufficient. This study provides information on the extent to which education leads to job stability and the lack of education leads to poverty (Lynda W. Carville, 2005).

Education lead to poor quality schools, Low outcomes in primary education in Pakistan had (has) been due to the inadequate supply of separate school for females and the insufficient supply and distribution of schools particularly in rural area (Lloyd and Sathar, 1994).

Cultural barriers in the culture of rural south Louisiana, there still are many families who do not value education, education for girls, or who value education less for girls than for boys. Girls may still be valued for their care-taking and household chores and such duties can prevent their enrollment in school or limit their attendance. This may be especially true if the care-taking and chores revolve around the young female adolescent’s own child, as is sometimes the case for welfare-reliant clients. Cultural and social factors such as early marriages, pregnancy and household responsibilities affect whether women will remain in school (Boldt, 2000).

Today the ongoing clash between various groups in many parts of Pakistan has made a complex issue, which is affecting girl`s education. In those areas in poor security situation parents are much reluctant to send their daughters to the schools. In those areas militants often destroy the girls’ schools deliberately, which further restricts the girls movements to the schools. In the conflicted areas female teachers are also reluctant to go to school due to the threats; they receive from the extremists and militants. So when there are no female teachers to teach girls, no girl students in schools (UNESCO, 2010), So the main objective of this research is to find out the people`s perception about the hurdles which hinder female’s education in rural areas of Faisalabad.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study Area
The study site selected for this research is Faisalabad Sadar tehsil of district Faisalabad randomly. Two union councils (UC-172 and UC-158) were selected randomly. Then four villages two from each UC were selected randomly.

Sample Size
Sample can be defined as accurate envoy of the population, which has all the characteristics of preferred population. 300 respondents (75 from four villages) were selected randomly from the study area.

Data collection:
Construction of data collection tool
Social science deals with human nature, Feelings, emotions and minds of human being. To study all these factors it was compulsory that data collection tool was very accurate and reliable. Interview schedule was prepared with open and close ended questions to collect the data from respondents. It was structured to get all the required information from the respondents.

Interviewing the respondents
Interview was conducted from respondents to collect facts.  The investigator himself interviewed each respondent to make sure unbiased response and then rechecked each questionnaire for accuracy and uniformity because it was very difficult to approach the same respondent at any subsequent stage.
Analyzing of data
Collected data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Descriptive statistics, including frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations, were used to summarize different variables. Data was interpreted with the help of a computer software i.e. statistical package for social sciences.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table.1

Sr. No
Statement
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
1
Favor of female education
90.33%
4.33%
5.33%
2
Facing economic barriers
60%
13.3%
25.99%
3
Afford educational expenditures
60.32%
5.33%
34.33%
4
Education expenditures as burden
66.33%
12.31%
21.93%
5
Suitable environment for education
49.99%
19.33%
30.66%
6
Female movement for education is secured
26.32%
18%
55.66%
7
Girls education as violation of norms
16.93%
19.33%
63.66%
8
Typical traditions and customs are hurdle
48%
32%
19.99%
9
Educated female demand for more rights
65.99%
16.33%
17%
10
Culture allow just religious education
19%
12.33%
67.99%
11
Modern education brings moral degradation
24.99%
14%
60.99%
12
Religion resists female education
12.93%
12.33%
74.66%
13
Girls mobility for education thought as sin
13.6%
13%
73.32%
14
School going girl follow religious teachings
22.99%
9.6%
66.9%
15
Religion confined female within houses
12.99%
24%
63%
16
Religion gives equal educational rights
88.99%
5.6%
4.3%
17
Facility of school in area
96%
--------
4%

Table.2

Primary
Secondary
High
85%
10%
5%

Table.3

Distance covered to reach high school
0-1 M
2-3 M
3-5 M
5-6 M
Above 10

53%
23%
6.33%
8%
9%

Table.4

Type of transportation used
Local
Self
On foot

42.3%
2%
55.33%

Table.5
Statement
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Transportation is barrier
88%
4.66%
7.33%
Shortage of schools is  barrier
80.66%
6.33%
12.66%
Inefficient state’s policies
80.83%
12.66%
6.33%

CONCLUSIONS
(59.80%) respondents facing economic barriers and also unable to afford books, uniform expenditures so they feel it a burden on their family budget. When it way asked about environment and social surroundings less than half (30.66%) stated that environment is not much conducive. And only ¼% respond that their girls are secured when they travel from one place to another place for education. When asked about cultural resistance towards female education less than quarter (15.47%) stated that cultural norms resist female’s education and confined the females to religious education only. They also stated that typical customs and traditions hinder female’s education. (24.99%) respondents stated that modern education brought moral degradation. (13%) responded that religion create resistance and also hinder females mobility for the sake of education. only ¼ (22.99%) of total respondents stated that the female who are given school education did not follow religious obligations. So on the basis of the results laws made for necessary primary education and strictly enacted and enforced. Legislation must be for the punishment of those who violate the necessary primary education and also involved in the child labor instead of sending them school. Primary education should be compulsory and free in true sense and can be declared for those parents who deprive their children from primary education. Publications and media cells must be established for the awareness about education. Easy and cheap transportation should be provided for students of for flung areas have to travel to reach school and colleges. Government should arrange awareness campaigns in the rural districts to people about the importance of female education. More schools should establish in the rural districts specifically for females. Parents should wait till their daughters are firefly educated before getting them married. Government spending in the education sector has remained very low for the previous years; there government should invest more in education.
References
Boldt, N. (2000). From welfare to college to work: Support factors to help students persist and   succeed and the economic and social outcomes of degree attainment. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Vermont, Vermont
Carville, Lynda W., "Barriers to educational attainment for rural women exiting welfare" (2005).LSU Master's Theses. 3231. http://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/gradschool_theses/3231
Elijah Kombian Fant, 2008. Education and girl-child empowerment: the case of Bunkpurugu/Yunyoo district in Northern Ghana. http://site.uit.no/mis/elijah-kombian-fant/
The action plan 2001-2005. Education Sector Reform: Action (2001 – 2005). ESR & THE INTERIM – POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY PAPER (I-PRSP)1-. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/apcity/unpan020048.pdf
The Director EFA Global Monitoring Report team c/o UNESCO 7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, France e-mail: efareport@unesco.org
Zeba A. Sathar and Cynthia B. Lloyd, 1994, vol. 33, issue 2, pages 103-134. http://citec.repec.org/rss/pidjournlv_33_y_1994_i_2_p_103-134.xml



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