Does Advertisement influence the Consumer’s Brand Preferences and Consumer’s Buying Behavior?

Sarfraz Ahmed1, Aqeel Ahmad2, Qasim Ali Nisar3, Muhammad Azeem4
1,2 MBA, Department of Management Sciences,
University Of Sargodha, Gujranwala Campus

3Lecturer, Department of Management Sciences, University of Sargodha Gujranwala Campus; PhD Scholar, College of Business, School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia,

4PhD Student, School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Visiting Lecturer. Department of Management Sciences, GC University Faisalabad, Sahiwal Campus Pakistan



ABSRTACT


Advertisement and brand preferences play a vital role during incremental processes of changing the consumer buying behavior in an efficient way to boost up the performance of any business.  The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of brand preference and advertisement on consumer buying behavior in the general public at Gujranwala city. Questionnaire survey method was used to collect the data by using non probability convenient sampling technique. Results enlightened that advertisement and brand preferences have strong positive and significant relationship with consumer buying behaviors. This study elaborated that teenagers are more conscious about branded products for the sake of their social status and advertisement play great role to shape their buying attitudes.
Key Words: Advertising, Brand Preference, Consumer Buying Behavior.
Introduction
Now a days in emerging and global markets the businesses war is not condensed only to the price but the customer’s loyalty, attraction, perception and building good relationship are matter lots (Hassan et al., 2011). Due to industrial development and emerging markets every business enterprise is trying to become the market leader and makes success by leaps and bounds. This is right thinking but complexity in the competition may not allow the businesses to go in the right direction in an easy way. In these circumstances, advertisement play crucial role to solve these issues. Large numbers of customers that are dissatisfied may become satisfy by using right time and direction of advertisement (Malik, Ghafoor, Iqbal, Ali, Hunbal, Noman, & Ahmad, 2013).
Moreover, Ajzen (2002), described that consumer’s buying behavior every time given so much prominence as well as space in the literature of the study likewise impact of advertisement relating to organizational efficiency. If the consumer’s behavior is not properly managed according to his liking then advertisement process becomes to end and all efforts become useless. Brand image assist appreciation of customers toward a product favorably. Branded products emphasize the loyal behavior towards the business. The purpose of advertisement is to let slip the necessities of clients and provide them satisfaction. To realize that goal the analysis of the consumer’s behavior is very necessary. Without understanding behavior of consumers, it is impossible to determine customer’s need, requests and the variables that may leads to their motivation (Odabaşı et al, 2005).
Advertisement is really a chief aspect in creating the buying behavior and the brand preference. However large numbers of obstacles may detain ad’s paraphernalia on selection of brand and buying behavior of consumer (Lane Keller, 1987). Advertisement plays a very important role to enhance any entity performance because it is a proven tool for the getting the attraction of customers. Advertisement may make an enterprise as much flourish as it may appear on globally level. In Pakistan due to advertisement people’s behavior can be change in positive sense regarding to a product (Malik, Ghafoor, Iqbal, Ali, Hunbal, Noman, & Ahmed, 2013). Business enterprises may gain fruitful advantage by applying the current study results of preferring and buying behavior trend that may change due to advertisement at Gujranwala of people belonging to all age level.




As through attractive advertisement campaigns, people may prefer a brand and may create willpower of buying the advertised product, therefore the purpose of current study is to examine the impact of advertisement on brand preferences and on consumer’s buying behavior.
Literature Review
Advertisement
Arens, (1996), enlightened that advertisement is may be communication process, a social and economic process, public relation process, marketing process and the persuasive process of an information. As Etzel et al. (1997), examined that marketers build public relation promote their enterprise’s sale level and make advertising. Moreover, according to Datta (2008), advertising is a non - personal dispersion of a message in convincing manner about any desired product or for other objects by using multiple media. Multi aspects are involved in the determination of perception regarding advertising notification ( Iljin, 2000; D. Jokubauskas, 2003).
However the aspects that play precious role are psychological, emotional, behavioral and cognitive. Psychological aspects of advertisement give the signals regarding the understanding of a unique personality or may be for a group by applying different principles and researching techniques (Kotler, 2003). Moreover, emotional aspect of advertising also plays a crucial role in the differentiation of products according to mood of users. Emotional aspect of advertisement ensures the different ways of presenting a product that are emotionally equipped or suitable according to the specification of customer. Similarly, behavioral aspect of advertisement is related to the actual customer’s reaction. In addition, Cognition aspect of advertising is related to perception of people’s regarding to the information of advertisement. Cognitive aspect includes attention, perception, thoughts, recognition or assimilation (Jokubauskas, 2007)




Consumer’s Brand preferences
Brand preference is the propensity of behavioral trends by reflecting customer’s predilection toward a brand. Moreover, the brand preference is the biasness of the behavior of a consumer relating to buying product of a certain brand.
Furthermore, according to Markus and Zajonc (1982) individuals’ preferences show the behavioral tendencies. If the emotions of a customer match to a particular brand offerings then he will show the more preference toward that brand. In the same way, Ayanwale et al.,(2005) argued that when there are large number of competitors are be present in the market and are offering a variety of things and the  customer have different brand choices then the producers should identify the different factors that lead to customer’s alliance.

People prefer TV commercials and therefore business enterprises must stretch proper consideration to attract the customer for brand loyalty and its preference. Sharma and Bishnoi, (2009), examined that the influence of an ad differently attract to rural and urban teenagers. Rural teen agers are greatly influenced by the advertisement, because the urban teenagers only prefer those products ads from which they consider more value than their anticipation.

Brand image is an implied tool that ensures the competitive advantage to the company. It is the multidimensional arrangement with the customer (Dastoor et al., 2012). It helps to discriminate a company’s product from its competitors. Brand image assist appreciation of customers toward a product favorably. Branded products emphasize the loyal behavior toward the business. In absence of brands people will not prefer a product from another. In these circumstances the consumer would give the equal importance to the products of all companies. Advertisement in such cases may be useless (Dastoor et al., 2012).








Consumer Buying Behavior

Consumer buying behavior is the emotional feedback which become settled afterward the advertising campaign for a product (Allen.et al., 1992). The purpose of analyzing the consumer’s buying behavior is to examine the reason of reacting under the specific situations in the certain ways. It attempts to establish the factors that force consumer behavior, especially the monetary, social and emotional aspects which can specify the most favored marketing mix that management should choose. Consumer behavior examination helps to regulate the course that consumer behavior is expected to make and to give supreme trends in product development, attributes of the substitute communication method (Proctor et al., 1982)

Meanwhile, consumer’s buying behavior based on the liking and disliking of the particular products and liking and disliking of the customer is really matter regarding the advertisement of the particular product and it can change the behavior of the consumer (Smith et al., 2006).
                                                                    
Advertisement and Brand Preferences

People select and prefer the brands on the basis advertising and the major causes of their preferences is the strong positively campaign of advertising (Ayanwale, Alimi, &Ayanbimipe, 2005). One of the previous studies also identified that advertisement has significant and positive relationship with consumer brand preferences (Karadenóz, 1987). In addition, there is a strong positive impact and momentous relationship of advertisement and brand image with the consumer buying behavior (Malik, Ghafoor, Iqbal, Ali, Hunbal, Noman, & Ahmed, 2013) and brand image ultimately leads towards brand preference.

Furthermore, Loewenstein et al. (2011) examined that advertisers try to find the ways that will lead to achieve the incremental consumer’s commitment tendency with brands. On the other hand, to positively shape the brand preference is really a challenging. Due to changing the life style of people trends of advertising must be updated, but there are a number of challenges and various trends are prevail, therefore the pressure on brand management and on marketing are increasing (Thomas, 2011). Moreover, The different variety of responses to advertisement for the new products and well-known brand: An individual having a positive emotional perspective led to a more progressive attitude in the direction of advertisement, the brand and his intention will be affirmative to purchase the product of well-known brands than the new one. Similarly an individual who is belonging to non-emotional context will be run as more encouraging responses toward the new brand than intended for well-known brand (Pelsmacker&Janssens,2005). There are number of previous studies that identified significant relationship between advertising and brand preferences (Acikalin, Watson, Fitzsimons, & Platt, 2015; Ayanwale, Alimi, & Ayanbimipe, 2005; Cummings, Giovino, & Mendicino, 1987; D'Souza & Rao, 1995; Liu & Shankar, 2015). Thefore, on the basis of above mentioned literature, follwoin hypothesis is proposed:
H1; There is significant and positive relationship between advertising and brand preference

Advertisement and Consumer Buying Behavior
Ahmad and Ashraf (2013) elaborated that advertisement campaigns has significant influence on purchasing behavior or buying trends of the consumer (Ahmed & Ashfaq, 2013). In addition, Farooq et al. (2010) also proposed that comic factor in the field of advertisement through TV ads affect the interest, attention, desire and actions of the consumer, Afterwards the buying behavior of the consumer also affected by the TV ads.  Moreover, another study examined that advertisement has progressive and statistically significant effects; however, due to the factors of rural regions this effect becomes negative but statistically significant on the consumers buying behavior. Furthermore, factors of rural extent are negatively but advertisement positively allied with the consumer buying behavior.(Fazal ur Rehman, Nawaz, Khan, & Hyder, 2014).
Jakštienė, Susnienė, & Narbutas (2008) explained that the customer influenced by advertising through the cognitive aspects. Theoretical base analysis of advertising identified the three aspects behavioral, emotional and cognitive. The survey outcomes revealed that when these psychological aspects becomes under the study then customer’s consideration typically influenced by unsolicited mail and ads in press. Similarly, John Deighton, (2008) enlightened that advertising persuades the brand swapping without affecting the repeating rates of purchasing of those consumers who purchased the branded products by the way. Switching inspiration to be generally narrowed amongst the previous and current purchase occurrences. Meanwhile, previous studies also proved significant association between advertising and consumer buying behaviors (Farooq, Shafique, Khurshid, & Ahmad, 2015; Kumar, 2015; Mohr, Webb, & Harris, 2001). Thefore, following hypothesis is propsed:
H2; There is significant and positive relationship between advertising and Consumer Buying Behaviors.

Construct
Mean
SD
1
2
3
1
Advertisement
4.02
.48
--(.90)


2
Brand Preference
4.18
.51
.361**
--(.82)

3
Consumer Buying Behavior
4.12
.43
.427**
.551**
--(.89)
Theoretical Model
 





Research methodology
The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between advertisement, consumer’s brand preference and consumer’s buying behavior. The nature of the study is descriptive and quantitative.
Questionnaire Design:
Questionnaire survey method is used to explore these relationships. Questionnaires is includes two sections. First section is about to personal profile of plaintiffs or respondents such as gender, age group, educational level, nature of employment and length of employment. Second section compacts with the under study variables (Advertisement, consumer’s buying behavior and consumer’s brand preference).
CR
AVE
Adv
BP
CBB
Advertisement
0.863
0.654
0.819
Brand Preference
0.846
0.514
0.322
0.787
Consumer Buying Behavior
0.854
0.691
0.21
0.301
0.831
Sampling:
Data have been collected by applying non probability convenient sampling technique and sample size for this study was 250. All the scales used in the study were taken from previous research.
Demographics: We circulated 350 questionnaires among the respondents but out of which 200 questionnaires were correctly responded by respondents.168 were filled by male and 32 by female and with percentage of 84% and 16% respectively. Generally respondents are belonging to the 26-45 years group level with the highest percentage 51.5%. After to this 46% percentage is of those respondents that are belonging up to 25 years age group level, and 2.5% respondents were belonged to 46-55 years age group level. Furturemore the respondents were 24%,75.5%, 0.5% belonged to Bachelor, Master and PHD education level respectively.
Findings:

Table1: Descriptive Statistics



Mean values for Advertisement, Brand preferences and consumer Buying behavior are 4.02, 4.18 and 4.12 respectively. Similarly the values of standard deviation for all the above mentioned variables are 0.483, 0.515 and 0.436 respectively. Table 1 showing the correlation between the under study variables advertisement, brand preference and consumer buying behavior with 0.361and0.427 respectively.


Table2: Psychometric Analysis

To check the validity of the model like discriminant and convergent the above mentioned table is picked up after running the data in (Moliner, Martínez-Tur, Peiró, Ramos, & Cropanzano, 2005)"Analysis of Moment Structures". The model has the convergent validity because the values of composite reliability and AVE are more than 0.8 and 0.5 correspondingly. As concerns to the discriminant validity its existence is hinge on the specific conditions of the values of AVE and correlation. For discriminant validity the values of AVE‘s square root must be more than the correlation. AS the values of correlation in the model are less than AVE’s square root values so discriminant validity is existing in the model.
Table3: Fit Indices
Fit Indices
CFA
SEM
Chi-square/df
2.99
3.01
GFI
0.94
0.95
AGFI
0.82
0.81
CFI
0.95
0.94
RMSEA
0.06
0.07




In Table 3 the results of fitness of model are presenting form both dimensions like SEM and CFA. At the first place goodness of fit index signifies the variance covariance matrix. The variance covariance matrix is declaring that the model is good fit because its value is more than 0.90. To prove the fitness of the model AGFI adjusted GFI also take part because its value is superior than 0.8 so it indicates that the model is moral fit. The comparative fit index is being representing by GFI and is viewing more accurate values that are demonstrating that the model is proximate to absolute fit because of exceeding value than 0.9. RMSEA stands for “root mean square error of approximation”. It is also specifying that the model is good fit because its value is less than 0.10.
Table 4: Structural Model Regression Weights
Estimate
S.E.
C.R.
P
Brand Preference
<---
Advertisement
.453
.081
.057
.01
Consumer Buying Behavior
<---
Advertisement
.497
.076
1.255
.02

The Table 4 results shows that advertisement has a positive and significant impact on consumer’s brand preferences and consumer’s buying behavior as (b= 0.453; b= 0.493p<0.05) respectively. Therefore, H1 and H2 are supported.
Conclusion:
The purpose of our study was to examine the relationship between advertisement, consumer’s buying behavior and consumer’s brand preference. To achieve that goal method of survey of questionnaire was adopted and responses of respondents were collected by using non probability sampling techniques. Results revealed that advertisement has strong positive effect on consumer’s buying behavior. Moreover, advertisement also has strong positive and significant on consumer’s brand preference. In conclusion, if advertisement campaigns properly managed then it can generate the ambition to buy the product and will show the positive trend of consumer’s buying behavior and brand preference. Advertisement stays a huge marketing weapon to get the desirability of the customer’s mind and then stay in it.
This research can provides the better insights to the businessmen that how they can make best marketing strategies, find promotional tools, aware customer’s behavior and their preferences and the level of change to enhance the customer’s perceived value. This study can provide the help to investors seeking for investment to invest in the famous branded due to their preferring level. This is the real truth that customer’s behavior and their preferences are influenced by advertisement. So advertisement play crucial rule to match the product with the desirability of customers.

References:
Acikalin, M. Y., Watson, K., Fitzsimons, G., & Platt, M. (2015). Sex and Status Sell to Monkeys: Social Advertising Creates Brand Preferences in Rhesus Macaques. NA-Advances in Consumer Research Volume 43.
Ahmed, S., &Ashfaq, A. (2013). Impact of Advertising on Consumers’ buying behavior through Persuasiveness, Brand Image, and Celebrity endorsement. Global Media Journal: Pakistan Edition, 6(2).
Ajzen, I., &Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social Behavior. Toronto, Ontario: Prentice-Hall.
Arens, Williams F. (1996). Contemporary Advertising. USA: Richard D. Irwin, A. Times Mirror Higher Education Group Inc. Company.
Ayanwale, A. B., Alimi, T., &Ayanbimipe, M. A. (2005). The influence of advertising on consumer brand preference. Journal of Social Science, 10(1), 9-16.
Cummings, K. M., Giovino, G., & Mendicino, A. J. (1987). Cigarette advertising and black-white differences in brand preference. Public health reports, 102(6), 698.
Dahl, E., Âberg, M., Rausing, A., & Rausing, E. L. (1992). Basal cell carcinoma. An epidemiologic study in a defined population. Cancer, 70(1), 104-108.
David A. Aaker,. (1996). Building Strong Brands, New York, The Free Press, 146.
Del Rio, A.B., R. Vazquez and V. Iglesias, (2001). The effects of brand associations on consumer response. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18(5),410-425.
Doostar, M., M.K.I. Abadi and R.K.I. Abadi. (2012). Impact of Brand Equity on Purchase Decision of Final Consumer Focusing on Products with Low Mental Conflict. Journal of Basic Applied Scientific Research, 2(10): 10137-10144.
D'Souza, G., & Rao, R. C. (1995). Can repeating an advertisement more frequently than the competition affect brand preference in a mature market? The Journal of Marketing, 32-42.
Etzel, M.J., B. J. Walker and W. J. Stanton. (1997). Marketing. USA: Irwin/Mc-Graw Hill. The Evolving Role of Creativity in Brand Management. Challenges for Brand Managaments.
Farooq, Q., Shafique, N., Khurshid, M. M., & Ahmad, N. (2015). Impact of comic factor in tv ads on buying behavior of university students. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 8(1), 12-20.
Fazal urRehman, F., Nawaz, T., Khan, A., &Hyder, S. (2014). How Advertising Affects the Buying Behavior of Consumers in Rural Areas: A Case of Pakistan.
Jakštienė, S., Susnienė, D., &Narbutas, V. (2008). The Psychological Impact of Advertising on the Customer Behavior. Communications of the IBIMA, 3.
Joshi V. (2008). The Impact of Advertisement on Consumer Brand Preferences.
Karadenóz, M. (1987). The Effects Of Advertisements On The Consumers’brand Preference Of White Goods. Evaluation, 14(3), 316.
Kumar, R. S. (2015). A study on role of advertising on consumer buying behavior. Trends, challenges & innovations in management-volume iii, 13.
Liu, Y., & Shankar, V. (2015). The dynamic impact of product-harm crises on brand preference and advertising effectiveness: An empirical analysis of the automobile industry. Management Science, 61(10), 2514-2535.
Malik, M. E., Ghafoor, M. M., Iqbal, H. K., Ali, Q., Hunbal, H., Noman, M., & Ahmad, B. (2013). Impact of brand image and advertisement on consumer buying behavior. World Applied Sciences Journal, 23(1), 117-122.
Mohr, L. A., Webb, D. J., & Harris, K. E. (2001). Do consumers expect companies to be socially responsible? The impact of corporate social responsibility on buying behavior. Journal of Consumer affairs, 35(1), 45-72.
Moliner, C., Martínez-Tur, V., Peiró, J. M., Ramos, J., & Cropanzano, R. (2005). Relationships between organizational justice and burnout at the work-unit level. International Journal of Stress Management, 12(2), 99.
Niazi, G.S.K., J. Siddiqui, B.A. Shah and A.I. Hunjra. (2012). Effective advertising and its influence on consumer buying behavior. Information management and Business Review, 4(3): 114-119..
Proctor, R. and M. A. Stone. (1982). Marketing Research Great Britain: Macdonald and Evans Ltd. Phymouth.
Ramaswami, V.S. and Namakumari, S. (2004), Marketing Management, 3rd Edition, sMACMILLAN, India.
Smith, E.G., Meurs, L. V., and Neijens, P.C. (2006). Effects of Advertising Likeability: A 10-Year Perspective. Journal of Advertising Research, 46, 1 (2006): 73-83.
Srinivasa, D. (2008). Advertisements Do They Match Consumer Preferences?. Marketing Mastermind, pp.59-62.
Vinod Kumar Bishnoi and Ruchi Sharma, (2009). The Impact of TV Advertising on Buying Behaviour: A Comparative Study of Urban and Rural Teenagers. JK Journal of Management and Technology, 1(1): 65-76.
YavuzOdabaşı, TüketiciDavranışı, 5. Baskı, İstanbul, Mediacat, (2005), p.27.
Zain-Ul-Abideen, Salman Saleem. (n.d.) advertising and its influence on consumer buying behavior. European Journal of Business andManagement, 3(3): 55-66.



Share on Google Plus