Ang Kean Hua
1. Department of Science and Technology Studies, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
 Religious Perspectives On Emerging STI

New biomedical technologies are used nowadays everywhere in the world, and thus in countries of different cultural and religious backgrounds. They constitute emerging technologies and promise a wide variety of benefits for humanity. They also caused much legal and theological debate. While some forms of its application were prohibited in the beginning, they have now started to be used in many countries. Application of these new methods of research and treatment in modern medicine makes new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions possible, but also often raises new complex bioethical problems, which cannot be discussed and judged independently of cultural attitudes. Recent advances in the field of cloning and stem cell research have introduced new hope for treatment of serious diseases. But this promise has been accompanied by enormous questions. Currently, cloning is a matter of public discussion. It is rare that a field of science causes debate and challenge not only among scientists but also among ethicists, religious scholars, governments and politicians. One important concern is religious arguments. Various religions have different attitudes toward the morality of these subjects; even within a particular religious tradition there is a diversity of opinions. This article briefly reviews Islamic perspectives on emerging technologies such particularly biotechnology (reproductive/ therapeutic cloning, stem cell research, genetically modified food). The discussions throughout the paper demonstrate that while some ethicists and religious scholars argue that some emerging technologies are unethical in the Islamic tradition, tradition permits them as long as such research are aimed at improving human health.
Keywords: Emerging Science, Reproductive Cloning, Embryo Research, Ethics, Stem Cell Research.
1. Introduction
The Prophet said science is of two sorts: The science of bodies and the science of religions.” (Nezami). Of all its accomplishments, the West is perhaps most proud of its scientific revolution, which has been unfolding for the past half-millennium. In the centuries preceding this intellectual sea change, the Arab world played a pivotal historical role. Its own scholars studied nature and pushed the bounds of knowledge, while its scribes preserved the discoveries and insights of earlier thinkers whose works did not fit well with the prevalent Christian dogma of a world unfolding according to a divinely predetermined plan. In recent times, however, Arab and Muslim societies have turned away from science, precluding these societies from enjoying its many benefits. Most Muslim scholars argue that every individual should have a vested interest in advancing science and technology in the Arab and Muslim world. Not only can science and technology help to feed people, improve their health, and create wealth, but they can help reduce societal tensions and build international bridges for badly needed dialogue and mutual understanding. Islam and science describes the relationship between Muslim communities and science in general. From an Islamic standpoint, science, the study of nature, is considered to be linked to the concept of Tawhid (the Oneness of God), as are all other branches of knowledge.
In Islam, nature is not seen as a separate entity, but rather as an integral part of Islam’s holistic outlook on God, humanity, and the world [24]. This link implies a sacred aspect to the pursuit of scientific knowledge by Muslims, as nature itself is viewed in the Qur'an as a compilation of signs pointing to the Divine. It was with this understanding that the pursuit of science was tolerated in Islamic civilizations, specifically during the eighth to sixteenth centuries, prior to the colonization of the Muslim world [25]. The 21st century is aptly designated the biotechnology century. The 20th century of physics, which saw the transformation of silicon into computing magic, was embraced with enthusiasm by virtually every household. However, unlike her predecessor, the same cannot be said about the advancements in biomedicine. This revolutionary procedure in biotechnology has probed the outermost boundaries of what is scientifically possible and acceptable. Micro manipulation at the very earliest stages of human development, at the level of the embryo, single cell and genetic structure is undoubtedly a very delicate and sensitive issue with potentially explosive ethical, social, medico-legal and religious ramifications. Hence, the turbulent and not uncommonly hostile controversies that has since evolved [15].
Some of the issues in biotechnology which are debated contentiously and extensively across all segments of human society, include assisted reproductive technologies, human reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning, embryo research, genetic engineering, euthanasia, organ transplantation, abortion and contraception. As a complete and comprehensive way of life, the teachings of Islam encompasses all fields of human endeavours, spiritual and material, individual and societal, economics and politics, national and international. This is well understood from the revelation during the occasion of the prophet’s farewell pilgrimage. This article highlights the contemporary challenges of advancing biotechnologies focusing on three areas of cutting edge biotechnology, namely:
i. Reproductive human cloning
ii. Genetic technology and human embryo research (stem cell research)
iii. Genetically modified food
2. Challenges and Opportunities in Emerging Science, Technology and Innovation
Islam always encourages the use of science and the scientific method. Even Prophet advocates his followers to learn knowledge as far as possible and impart to the people. Acquiring knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith 74). In Islam, science and technology should be used for moral ends and serve humanity’s legitimate needs, and be considered as yet another means to understand and see God’s power and glory. Contribution of medieval Islamic scholars to science and technology is tangible and vast. They were inspired by the teaching of Qur’an and Hadith to discover much knowledge about the world especially in the field of science and technology. This shows the importance of religion in science and technology play an important role as a basis for the discovery of the scholars that do not conflict with the teachings since medieval.
With all these developments taking place so rapidly, how well do people really understand on emerging technologies particularly biotechnology? Most of us are probably aware of certain bio-technological terms and concepts, as they may have been used in the media especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. In a simple sentence biotechnology means any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use. Though biotechnology is another scientific field that gets much attention by major part the world, the progress towards maturity level can be seen after the discovery of the structure of the gene (deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA) five decades ago in 1953 which propelle
d genetic sciences to the forefront. From there biological science has continue to evolve, with protein protein synthesis in the 1960s, tissue culture in the 1970s, molecular markers in the 1980s, genetic engineering in the 1990s and genomics at the turn of the millennium.
Nowadays, new technologies have always produced unintended consequences and faces number of new ethical challenges today with the rise of technology and our interaction and dependence on it. While the new emerging technologies such as biotechnology have promoted some benefits to the world, yet, it raises some ethical issues especially to public. For example, genetically modified food on food safety, human cloning on family institutions and stem cell on the status of embryo produced. The futures of emerging technologies clearly depend on the capacity to meet a range of key challenges; technical, social, economic, and political. On the other hand, some uses of technological innovation have the possibility of having many more innocent victims than others. As Islamic countries strive to enhance their scientific and technological capacities to respond to the environmental stresses and seize the development opportunities of the 21st century they confront several ethical challenges on emerging technologies.
3. Islamic Perspectives on Emerging Science, Technology and Innovation
As a complete and comprehensive way of life, the teaching of Islam encompasses all fields of human endeavors, spiritual and material, individual and societal, economic and politics, national and international. The instructions which regulate everyday activity of life by an observant Muslim are called Shari’aa (Islamic law). There are two primary sources of Shari’aa; the Qur’an, words of God and Sunnah, the authentic traditions of the Prophet. The process of interpreting the two primary sources of Islamic law called fiqh or Islamic jurisprudence. Fiqh covers all aspects of law, including religious, civil, political, constitutional and procedural law. Fiqh depends on 4 sources; interpretations of the Qur’an, interpretations of the Sunnah, Ijma (consensus among scholars) and Qiyas/ Ijtihad (analogical deduction). Shari’aa describes itself as a guide, a light and a mercy. It is this philosophy of the law which is alive to the contemporary challenges of advancing technologies.
3.1 Islamic Perspectives on Reproductive Human Cloning
There have been tremendous interest and anxiety expressed by the people regarding human cloning. Although recent advances in cloning have been offered new hope for curing diseases such as diabetes, Parkinson’s, neurologic degeneration, Alzheimer’s, osteoporosis and so forth, the technology has been accompanied by social, political, economic, legal, religious and ethical questions worldwide. Even the Islamic world concerned about the recent developments in genetic engineering because it interferes with the process of creation and lead unethical and immoral practices.
According to Qur’an, human beings are created through a family system, through a male and female: (al-Nisa 4:1; al-A'raf 7:189; al-Hujurat 49:13).
O mankind, fear your Lord, who created you from one soul and created from it its mate and dispersed from both of them many men and women. And fear Allah , through whom you ask one another, and the wombs. Indeed Allah is ever, over you, an Observer.
- al-Nisa 4:1
It is He who created you from one soul and created from it its mate that he might dwell in security with her. And when he covers her, she carries a light burden and continues therein. And when it becomes heavy, they both invoke Allah , their Lord, "If You should give us a good [child], we will surely be among the grateful."
- al-A'raf 7:189
O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted.
- al-Hujurat 49:13
Thus, the proper and acceptable way of producing children is through the joining of males and females in marriages and then through their union the procreation should take place. In this way the family is preserved. The children born in this way carry the genes of both parents and this combination gives them identity, balance and a wholesome personality. Islam does not allow producing children without marriage. While modern jurists allow a woman to carry the fertilized ovum of a person to whom she not married, Shari’aa prohibits the production of single-cell to allow a woman to carry the embryo produced from a single cell of even her husband or herself. As we move on to understand the ethical issues associated with cloning, at the center of the debate in Islam is going to be the question of the ways in which cloning might affect inter-human relationships as it against the natural process (fitrah).
Besides, a true Muslim believes in the system of cause and effect in the world; all creation takes place solely through His will. Cloning would be only manipulating God’s creation. Therefore scientists would not become God or replace God. Nevertheless, cloning technology is also haram because it may cause problems such as danger to human personality, dignity, honor and family system as well to society. Furthermore, human reproductive cloning is expensive and highly inefficient. For example, Dolly, the first mammal successfully cloned after 227 attempts cost a great deal with a failure rate exceeding 98% and died due to premature rheumatism.
3.2 Stem Cell Research
Stem cells are cells that have not gone through the process of cell differentiation and therefore have the potential to give rise to many different kinds of specialized cells. This ability allows a stem cell to act as a repair system for the body to replenish other cells as long as the organism is alive. One source of stem cells is from embryos that were formed from a process called in-vitro fertilization (IVF). In Islam, IVF is only allowed for married couples those have difficulties in pregnancy in a normal way as long as the fertilised ovum is placed in the womb of the woman from whom the egg was taken. Scholars agree that there is nothing in Islamic law which forbids many types of fertility treatment, as long as the treatments do not go outside the bounds of the marriage relationship. There are major disagreements about:
i) whether the child should follow the name of the infertile father or the sperm donor; and
ii) whether donation is permissible at all if the donors are anonymous.
Another issue arises from IVF is when doctors used some of the embryos before they are implanted to uterus to produce all kinds of tissues, from liver cells to heart muscle cells to brain cells for scientific understanding of human development and for its potential to treat human disease. There are two crucial questions raised to be answered in religious view. First, should an embryo which is formed within few days after the artificial fertilization and is not yet in the womb of its mother, be considered as human being with all the rights of human being? Secondly, will it be acceptable to destroy an embryo for the sake of research even the research can cure many diseases? Some Muslim scholars believe that embryos develop souls at concep
tion, while bigger number of Muslim scholars argued that this happens 120 days after conception whether grown in petri dish (IVF) or inside the uterus of a mother (natural environment). Excess embryos which produced using IVF will be destroyed or frozen indefinitely. These contrary to some Muslim scholars view which described human existence as occurring in stage. Therefore any disturbances that cause death to potential life are forbidden under Islamic law and liable to punished for homicide, so, it is encouraged to use adult stem cells instead of embryonic cells. In Islam, any therapeutic study or research is not violent against the Shari’aa as long it not to promote destructive purposes. Thus, stem cell research is acceptable from viewpoint of Islamic jurisprudence. The Islamic World League has declared that stem cell research is permissible if its source is legitimate without disregarding the standard of informed consent.
3.3 Islamic Perspectives on Genetically Modified Food
Food is one of the basic needs for survival and good health. For Muslim thinkers of the early tradition, view food consumption as one aspect of the commandment to “live a good life”. Qur’an urges:
“O messengers, eat from the good foods and work righteousness”
- Al Mu’minun 23:51
thus for Muslims, food must be permissible. In other words, the food must be halal. Besides that, an equally important but not given much attention by many is tayyib or good quality. For instance, junk food and fast food, although the contents may be halal, but from the health perspective, it is not good for consumption. Although nowadays food related issues are many, such as nutritional value, metabolic disorders, hunger and etc., issue of genetically modified (GM) food is highly debated among peoples those in favor and against the production of GM food.
The term GM food is commonly refer to crop plants which was created for human or animal by using biological technique that have undergo genetic material (DNA) change through a process called genetic engineering that combine different genes of another organisms. The main purpose of the food being modified is to enhance desire traits such as increase or improved nutritional content. Although biotechnology may be permissible under Islamic law when it is used for the benefit of the public, it is questionable whether such use will be sanctioned if the biotechnology is for the benefit of a certain group of people especially the GM food producers whom stand to profit and also control the food production.
On the other hand, Muslim scholars argued that the production GM food would violate certain Islamic principles. Muslims strongly believe that Allah is the only creator that has put everything in order on Earth. Qur’an exhorts:
“It is He who created all things and ordered them in due proportions”
- Al-Furqan 25:2
“We have created everything according to fixed decree”
- Al-Qamar 54:49
These 2 verses explain that there is no need for genetic modification of food crops as God created everything perfectly and man does not have any right to manipulate anything that God has created using His divine wisdom. Therefore, just from the above, it seems that GM food is actually a deviation from what is acceptable in Islamic teachings. However, in Islam a human should help each other for survival. Thus, some Muslim scholars believe that production of GM food is tolerable as long as the technology do not cause harm to people or the environment and ensure that genetic modification remain mercy-driven and promote righteousness to help those in need as the food supply is not enough to support the increasing number of world populations.
Biotechnology become as a tool of technological advancement in both developed and developing countries though at different levels in scope and content. Although from Islamic point of view, it seems biotechnology regarded as one of scientific field one should prosper, many Islamic countries are still lag behind in the advancement of biotechnology. Differences in view on certain field by different group of scholars are one of rising crisis for these. For example, human embryo research. While a group of Muslim scholars state that killing embryos is forbidden by the religion as they believe that embryos develop souls at conception and it has the right to its own life, another group expressed that this happens only 120 days after conception. These two different views has brought Islamic countries in dilemma whether to proceed in stem cell research or not until some leaders of Islamic countries issued Fatwa (Islamic law) on these matters. Countries like Malaysia and Iran permitted embryonic stem cell research only using frozen embryo or extra embryo in vitro fertilization process is permissible for research purpose. However, permission must be granted from the married couple who are under treatment. The research on the embryo must be done before the embryo reach the alaqah stage (stage of human prenatal development). Embryonic stem cells represent the good, the bad and the ugly. When they are good, they can be grown to large numbers in the lab and used to give rise to tissues, organs or body parts. When they are bad, they don’t know when to stop growing and give rise to tumors. This is one of the main problems facing stem cell research. This has evoked scholars including Muslim scholars to oppose against stem cell research.
While paternity in terms of Islamic law is established only within a heterosexual marriage. Asexual reproduction threatens the biological architecture that informs classical Islamic law. Intergenerational inheritance of property occurs along the lines of kinship associations in Islam, and therefore the hype of biotechnology surrounding genetic engineering threatens that specific narrative of kinship relations the way it is known. It is feared that genetically engineered offspring will find themselves in a legal and ethical no-man's -land in terms of existing Islamic criteria, challenging the entire system. One concern most religious experts voice is that asexual reproduction will promote discrimination between different kinds of offspring: children with naturally reproduced genetic make-up who will be subject to one set of rules versus children bearing artificially engineered genetic make-up who will be subject to a different set of norms [8]. Much of the reaction to genetic engineering on the part of Muslim traditional jurists and ethicists points to cloning of the sheep named Dolly as an indicator of the malevolent trajectory of techno-science. Most fear that human cloning would be the ultimate perversion of reproduction the way it is known, and fears of its sinister consequences abound. While a very few scholars are unconditionally open to the possibility of therapeutic uses of genetic engineering, majority express extreme caution blended with suspicion about the purposes of such techno-science [18]. Others in south Asia, especially Pakistan, were outright dismissive of the merits of therapeutic uses of genetic engineering [8].
It is also undeniable that biotechnology could solve many of human problems such as hunger. They present solutions to overcoming poor crop yields, while reducing crop losses due to pests and drought. If those days it was impossible to grow fruits in the desert, now with the advancement of science and technology has made it possible. In Qatar, they convert desolate salt flats irrigated with treated sewage int
o an agricultural oasis. They did it by applying a special fungus that enhances the ability of plant roots to absorb water. They utilize the knowledge of biotechnology to address issues such as soil salinity and pest infestation, particularly in date palms, yet there are no biotech-enhanced crops under commercial production for either local consumption or export. As Islamic view permit on GM foods/ crops for the public interest, many of Muslim countries stil impose strict regulations on importing GM foods as there is still strong debate going on the status of foods that been modified through biotechnology. Among of the questions raised was on the concern
about the theoretical production of foods with genes from pigs as Islam too forbids eating of pork. Although there are fears about the possibility of the harmful effects of GM food technology and GM food products on human beings and the environment, there are no laws within Islam which stop the genetic modification of food crops and animals. Other risks are ruining biodiversity and killing beneficial insects like ladybugs and bees, which also unlawful in Islamic teaching.
And when it is said to them, "Do not cause corruption on the earth," they say, "We are but reformers."
- Al – Baqarah 2:11
With the world on the brink of conflict that is likely to reverberate for years to come especially on the issues of security, Islamic teachings hold that the application of biotechnology are not only permissible but also obligatory if they result in either alleviating human suffering or in saving human life. While religious groups are active in influencing the public regarding bioethical positions, and this is particularly evident with issues concerning human cloning, stem cell research and genetically modified food, much collaboration and discussion are needed between ulama and scientists to address bio-technological issues. This in turn would assist them to not only provide the necessary Islamic input, but also explain to Muslims - through Friday sermons (khutbah), religious lectures and the like — the Islamic perspective on biotechnological issues. Finally, opposition of any kind to biotechnology does not mean that Islam is opposed to technological progress. Rather, Muslim scholars seek to examine and understand all aspects of biotechnological applications to ensure that these applications are consistent with basic teachings and fundamental principles of Islam. Serious discussion of the moral justifiability of biotechnology must consider all kinds of potential risks such as political abuse, commercial exploitation, and adverse effects upon interpersonal relationships. Moreover, Islam is a flexible religion and acknowledges the need to accommodate its teachings to life's realities and necessities and to human well-being. (Mirza 2004). Muslim scientists should be encouraged to play a leading role in biotechnology research. If they take the lead, many evils that exist now will certainly vanish and humanity will receive the real reward of biotechnology researches. In Muslim countries, therefore, biotechnology research should be made a priority area and for fostering it all kinds of incentives should be provided.
1. Abu Bakar Abdul Majid. (n.d.). When cloning benefits mankind. Retrieved from
2. Abu Bakar Abdul Majid. (n.d.). Ethical dimension to biotechnology. Retrieved from
3. Abu Bakar Abdul Majid. (n.d.). Pros and cons of genetically modified food. Retrieved
from http://www.ikim.gov.my
4. Aida I. Al Aqeel (2010). Prevention and care of genetic disorders: An Islamic perspective.
In Ahmad S. Theebi (Eds.), Genetic disorders among Arab populations (pp 705-724).
New York, NY: Springer.
5. Bibi-Aisha Wadvalla. (2012, August 30). Stem cell research and Islamic regulations.
6. Daud Batchelor. (2012, November 7). Islam open to stem cell research. New Straits Times.
Retrieved from http://www.nst.com.my

7. Dickson, D. (2013, April 18). In Perspective: What really holds back Islamic science.

Retrieved from http://www.scidev.net/en/science-and-innovation-policy/science-in-the-islamic-world/opinions/in-perspective-what-really-holds-back-islamic-science.html.

8. Ebrahim, M. (2012), Muslim ethics and biotechnology, London, England: Routledge.
9. Gertsberg, D. (2009, July 28). GM foods: The Islamic perspective. GMO journal.
Retrieved from http://www.gmo-journal.com/2009/07/28/gm-foods-the-islamic
10. Maularna. (2012, May 23). Cloning in Islamic Perspective. Retrieved from http://islamic
world.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2048: cloning-in-islamic
perspective - part-2 &catid=36:islamic-sosiology&Itemid=68.
11. Michio, K. (2011). The physics of future. New York: Doubeday.
12. Mirza, B. (2004). Islamic Perspectives on Biotechnology. In Bannigan, M.C. (Eds.),
Cross Cultural Biotechnology (pp. 105-114). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & littlefield Publishers.

13. Mitchell, C. B., & Kilner, J. F. (2008, June 6). The Challenges of Biotechnology.

Retrieved. Retrieved from http://cbhd.org/content/challenges-biotechnology.

14. Monroe, K.R., Miller, R. B., & Tobis, J.S. (Eds.). (2008). Fundamentals of the stem cell
debate. London, England: University of California Press.
15. Musa Mohd Nordin. (2004, September 27). Islamic medical ethics amidst developing
biotechnologies. Article posted to http://mpf.org.my/wp/?p=221.
16. Muzammil Siddiq
i. (n.d.). An Islamic perspective on stem cell research. Retrieved from
17. Nor Azaruddin Nuruddin. (n.d.). Truly food for thought. Retrieved from
18. Sachedina, A.A. (2009). Islamic biomedical ethics: Principle and application. Oxford
and New York: Oxford University Press.
19. Schacht, Joseph. An introduction to Islamic Law. Reprinted 1966, 1971:1
20. Shaikh Mohd Saifuddeen Shaikh Mohd Salleh. (n.d.). Understanding genetically
modified food. Retrieved from http://www.ikim.gov.my.
21. The World Bank Group. (2013). Science, Technology and Innovation. Retrieved from
viewed 13 May 2013, Retrieved from http://web.worldbank.org/.
22. UNCTAD. (2002). Key Issues in Biotechnology. Retrieved from
http://unctad.org/en/Docs/ poitetebd10.en.pdf
23. United Nations. (n.d.). Science, technology and innovation. Retrieved from
24. Wikipedia. (n.d.). Human cloning. Retrieved from
25. Wikipedia. (n.d.) Islam and science. Retrieved from

Paid News and Election Commission

The issue of paid news has come to forefront in subsequent state and central election. The constitutional power endowed to Election Commission is limited and the court case involving Ashok Chavan has exposed the loopholes in the stringent implementation of the model code of conduct during the election process.
The election commission should be empowered with more regulatory powers so that persons with criminal background and history of using unfair means during election can be better dealt with. Unless and until a candidate fears of cancellation of his candidature, he won't refrain from using his muscle and money power in election to get a upper hand.
Indian democracy stands on the strong base of free and fair election which must be protected and preserved rather than diluting their stand in the Supreme Court through reminder of its power and limitation by the central government. Strong legislation without any loopholes can create a strong buffer between the regulating agencies like Election Commission, Comptroller and Auditor General, Vigilance Commission etc.should be made more autonomous and independent so that they can fulfill their jobs in an impartial manner.
The debarring of erring candidates for next few terms will ensure better result and this will prove to be good lesson for others too.
Many political parties prefer to give their party ticket to their previous candidates or say winning candidates or new emerging leader with strong economic and criminal backgrounds. The weak system perpetuates bad system.
The election commission should deal with the erring candidates with iron hand and teach electorate that virtues prevails over the vice, development and good agenda will decide the fate of political parties and not the leaders with criminal history and unrevealed sources of money and finance for election.
Shashikant NIshant Sharma
Mrs. R. Kalaivani, M.A. (History),
M.A., M.Phil. (Human Rights), PGDCA.
Assistant Professor,
Department of History,
SFR College for Women,
Sivakasi- 626 130

The year 1917 was significant for many reasons. The important one is the formation of Women’s Indian Association (WIA).1 This association was started at Adayar, Madras on 8 May 1917.2 The founding members of this organization were Annie Besant, Margaret Cousins3 and Dorothy Jinarajadasa.4 It was the first organization to create an overall awakening among women and to train them to shoulder their responsibility in public services and bind them together for mutual service and the good of the country.5 It was also concerned with influencing government policy on women’s suffrage and issues related to educational and social reforms. Since its inception the Women’s Indian Association was involved in political matters. The presence and leadership of Mrs. Annie Besant provided an impetus to women to think in terms of political freedom.6 In 1917, Annie Besant stimulated the Home Rule movement in Tamil Nadu. Women’s Indian Association (WIA) branches proposed that equal treatment and status should be given to Indians. They also supported to compulsory primary education for girls and Hindu women’s inheritance laws.7 Describing themselves as the "Daughters of India".
v To guide the nation
v To serve the poor
v To promote women's education and compulsory universal primary education
v To abolish child marriage
v To raise the age of sexual consent to sixteen for women
v To win female suffrage
In 1917 itself the Women’s Indian Association started 33 branches in many towns. In 1922 this association had 43 branches and 2300 members.8 In 1924 it had 51 branches, 18 centers and a membership of 2700.9 In the year 1927 the Women’s Indian Association (WIA) had 71 branches, 21 centers and 3800 members.10 From all major cities in India, Women’s Indian Association (WIA) was the premier women’s association in that time. It not only secured franchise for Indian women but also secured for them the right to sit in the council. The political policy of this association was to work for reforms through the legislative councils. The other work of this association was to promote education and religious tolerance. 11
Stri-Dharma was the official organ of Women’s Indian Association (WIA) and it was a monthly publication and it became a journal after three and half years. It was published in English but included articles in both Tamil and Hindi. It carried news and events of interest to women, reports from the branches and articles on women’s condition. It was “ the voice, ear, eye of our members, it will speak what we would say to each other and through the words written on its pages we shall see what sisters would say to us.”12 The association insisted that women should dedicate their responsibilities to India as wives and mothers. It had the tendency to train, guide and form character of the future rulers of India. 13
Constitution was drafted for Women’s Indian Association (WIA) and the article- I dealt with the name of the association i.e. “The Women’s Indian Association”. It started growing and the numbers increased steadily. In 1930 it had 72 branches, 23 centers which had more than 4000 members.14 Many branches were formed in places where ever it was possible and local secretary was appointed to look after and arrange the work in order to suit the local conditions in order to report to the head quarters. Each branch was to chart its own course of work in four main areas like religion, education, politics and philanthropy. The organization defined women as religious “by nature” and encouraged non-sectarian religious activity. But the most important work was education and the branches were encouraged to set up adult classes for literacy, sewing and first aid. The Women’s Indian Association (WIA) had been politically active from the beginning when they sent a delegation to meet with secretary of state Montague in 1917 to request the franchise for women. The fourth area of work was philanthropy, it involved feeding the poor, setting up shelters for widows and providing relief for disaster victims.15
The annual subscription of twelve annas must be paid to the head quarters of the association by its members. After some years of its formation, Women’s Indian Association (WIA) added a clause to its constitution which said the political policy of the association was to work for reform through the legislative councils, for voting rights.16
Many of the Indian women already belonged to the Tamil Madhar Sangam (Tamil Ladies’ Association) and had joined with British women in forming the National Indian Association to promote female education, particularly English language instruction, and the teaching of crafts. As the two groups began to mix more freely, they decided to form Ladies’ Recreational Club to sponsor tea parties and games like badminton and tennis. Cousins and Dorothy Jinarajadasa were proposing a new organization that would combine education, crafts and sports.17
Women’s Indian Association (WIA) dispersed mainly in the political development, social upliftment, educating women, eradicating the grievances of womanhood and struggle for freedom. Like East and West, the service to India and humanity was build with the spirit of internationalism. Annie Besant became the first president and continued to be in the post for seventeen long years till her death. Margaret Cousins, Dorothy Jinarajadasa, Ammu Swaminathen, Mrs. Dadhabhoy and Ambujammal served as honorary secretaries.18
In 1922, the 43 branches of Women’s Indian Association (WIA) supported that equal status and treatment should be given to Indians, compulsory primary education to girls and also supported the Hindu women inheritance law. In 1922-1923 the compulsory primary education was provided by all branches. In this period there were a number of appointments in municipal councils and local government to women. Most of the board members belonged to Women’s Indian Association (WIA). Margaret Cousins, Secretary of Women’s Indian Association (WIA), was the First woman in India to be an honorary magistrate. She also prohibited the labour of women and children in coal mines.19
In May 1923 Dorothy Jinarajadasa, Mrs. Patwardhan and Mrs. and Miss Tata attended as delegates to the Congress of International Suffrage Alliance in Rome. This association sent protest to the South African Government against their continued exclusion of women from the rights of citizenship. This association also wrote League of Nations to include women in their committees. It supported Japanese women to attend political meetings
and to form political associations. Madras Corporation accepted the compulsory primary education for boys and girls in 1924 and it started in 1925. During this period Women’s Indian Association (WIA) started women’s home of service for women’s development in Mylapore, Madras. The period between 1924-1926 was called the child welfare period. All the branches made interest to increase child welfare work. All the members were involved in guiding girls for protecting the children in a systematic manner.20
The sixth All India Women’s Conference was held in Madras in 1931 for which Women’s Indian Association (WIA) was the reception committee. The main resolution passed in this meeting was to support to all that was “Swadeshi”. In 1932-1933 the resolution of Temple entry for all was passed. Women’s Indian Association (WIA) members were spending much from their own pockets for their work. Many social service institutions were established by this association such as Madras Sevasadan, Madras children’s aid society, Swadeshi emporium and Montessori schools. 21
The Women’s Indian Association was instrumental in starting the vigilance association at Madras for the betterment of women and children in Madras. The police of Madras with the help of the vigilance association closed one hundred and fifty houses of illfame at Madras in 1934 itself. This association started and maintained Rescue homes and Orphanages. It was due to the efforts of the association and its members that the Madras Children’s Aid Society came into existence and the “Juvenile Court” was established. Mrs. Margret Cousins was appointed as the first honourable magistrate for the Juvenile Court. The Seva Sadan, Avvai Home, the Montessorie School at Patteon Garden and Rescue home were initiated and set on foot by the efforts of Women’s Indian Association.22 Women’s Indian Association (WIA) offered its valuable suggestion on four important reform bills before the Assembly. They were,
· Mr. B. Das’s Sarada Act amended bill.
· Dr. Deshmukh’s bill to Amend Hindu Law governing Hindu Women’s rights to property.
· Dr. Bhagavan Das bill to validate marriages among caste of Hindus.
· Rao Bahadur M.C. Raj’s bill for removal of caste disabilities.23
Annie Besant was one of the important persons to establish the Women’s Indian Association in Adayar, Madras. She was born on 1st October 1847 in London, the capital of England. Param Emilet, her mother, Dr. William page wood, her father was from Ireland. When she was 5 years old, her father passed away. 24 So her family faced great difficulties. So she had to leave home at the age of thirteen in 1861. She came to stay with Miss Maryat in Paris who was stern and religious. Besant did not spend all her time in religious activities and found time to read translations of Plato, Dante and the Iliad. These readings laid the foundation of her political career. 25 The two main tragedies of her early life were her rejection of Christianity and her marriage. She was married in 1867 to Frank Besant, a clergyman, but the marriage proved to be a failure. Mrs. Besant had to seek divorce of family life. As a consequence she had to come out into the world. This gave her the opportunity to gain experience in the varied professions which she had to adopt to earn her living. She worked as a cook, nurse to support herself. 26
She joined the Theosophical Society under the influence of Madam Blavatsky.27 In 1892 Madam Blavatsky died and Mrs. Besant along with Mr. W.O. Judge became joint head of the Esoteric Section of the Society. She came to India in 1893. 28 She had lot of interest in the Brahma Samaj in India. So she stayed in Adayar, Madras, because the head quarter of Brahma Samaj was there. 29
Mrs. Besant raised her voice against the caste system. Her interpretation of the East was not very tasteful to the people with the result she had to face a certain amount of opposition, but this opposition was insignificant, because the majority were appreciative of her service to induism. She also raised her voice against child marriage and untouchability.30 Mrs. Besant began her crusade for education, with the declared ideal that it was to be “an education founded on Indian ideals and enriched not dominated by thought and culture of the west.” In 1897 she established Central Hindu College at Banares and was able to build a full-fledged college in the next two years.31 Later she opened schools and colleges for girls as well. Among such institutions are, Central Hindu Girls school at Banares, Madanapalli High school and College and Adayar National College.32
In 1911 Mrs. Besant organized the “order of the Rising Star.” This organization was for the protection of the good, for the destruction of evils, for the sake of firmly establishing righteousness. Mrs. Besant blamed England for ruling Indians on Western lines.33 In 1912 Mrs. Besant organized a band of public workers, namely “The Brothers of Service” with a view to promoting union amongst the workers in the spiritual, educational and political fields under the parentage of Indian National congress. She also suggested at the congress session of 1913 to sponsor a national movement embodying religious, educational, social as well as political reforms. She brought out a weekly paper the ‘commonweal’ to do the required propaganda. 34
Mrs. Besant joined the congress in 1914 and she brought new ideas, talents, new resources and altogether a new method of organization and a new outlook into the field of congress. 35 The same year she was elected as a delegate for the congress session and spoke for the first time moving a resolution which was carried asking for reciprocate between India and the colonies in the matter of emigration. Political equality with the other citizens of the empire was also demanded. 36
To educate the people and to make know the demand of a nation to the ruling power, Mrs. Besant felt the necessity of having a press of her own. She bought the daily news paper ‘Madras Standard’ in July 1914, and was registered herself its sole proprietor, publisher and printer. The title of the paper was later changed to ‘New India’. In her paper she wrote a series of articles on self-government and announced her intention to lead a political campaign in favour of ‘swaraj’. 37
Her writings and speeches during this period mainly dealt with arguments against the British rule. i.e., the poverty of India, employment of Indians in the public services, executive bias in the administration of justice, army commissions and railway policy. At the same time she paid glowing tributes to India’s past greatness. 38
She attended the Muslim League and Congress sessions in 1915. At the conference of the All India Muslim League she criticized the Government. The commissioners of Bombay police ordered Mrs. Besant to leave the platform. She questioned his authority and asked about warrants for arrest. The commissioner did not take further step. 39
In 1917 she started ‘Scout Movement’ in India. Its head quarter was in London. But the London head quarter did not recognize the Indian Scout Movement. So she started ‘Indian Boys Scouts Association’. In the same year she was selected the president of Congress Party. She was the first woman president of Congress Party. In 1917 Calcutta session of Congress, she introduced the tri-colo
ur flag for Congress party. In 1918 she started ‘India Madar Sangam’ at Madras and she was the first president of this association. Through these associations she fights for Indian women’s development. She died on 1933 September 20 at Adayar, Madras.40

1. Ralhan, Indian Women Through Ages, Vol.III, New Delhi, 1995, P.IX.
2. Stri- Dharma, Tamil Monthly, Madras, August, 1933, P.29.
3. She was an Irish feminist, theosophist and musician arrived in India in 1915.
4. Dorathy was an Irish feminist, married to Singalese theosophist C. Jinarajadasa.
5. Maitrayee Chaudhuri, Indian Women’s Movement Reform and Revival, New Delhi,
1993, P.113.
6. Nirmala Jeyaraj, op.cit., P.106.
7. A.R. Caton, The Key of Progress, London, 1930, P.178.
8. Women’s Indian Association Golden Jubilee Celebration Souvenir, Madras, 1967, p.1.
9. Ibid., P.2.
10. Ibid., P.3.
11. Lindsay, Women’s Voices, New Delhi, 2002, P.185.
12. Women’s Indian Association Golden Jubilee Celebration Souvenir, op.cit., PP.1-2.
13. Kamaladevi Chattopadhyayya, The awakening of Indian Women, Madras, 1939, P.53.
14. Stri- Dharma, Tamil Monthly, Madras, July, 1930, P.1.
15. Geraldine Forbes, Women in Modern India, Cambridge University Press, 2007, PP.73-74.
16. Stri- Dharma, Tamil Monthly, Madras, November, 1921, P.19.
17. Report of the Madanapalli Branch of the Women’s Indian Association, 1917-1937, P.12.
18. Geraldine Forbes, op.cit., P.73.
19. Sudasamitran, Tamil Daily, 17 May 1923, P.4.
20. Maitrayee Chaudhuri, op.cit., PP.116-117.
21. Muthulakshmi Reddy, Autobiography, Madras, 1964, P.48.
22. S.K. Pandit, Women in Society, New Delhi, 1998, PP.232-233.
23. Ramasami, Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly 50 Years (1937-1987), Madras, 1990, p.24.
24. A. Swaminathan, Tamilaga Varalarum Panbadum (Tamil), Chennai, 2003, P.166.
25. Manmohan Kaur, Women in India’s Freedom Struggle, Jalandhar, 1995, P.112.
26. R. Prema, Pen Kulathin Pon Vilakku (Tamil), Chennai, 2002, PP. 11-12.
27. Madam Blavatsky was one of the founders of Theosophical Society which was founded
in New York in 1875.
28. Manmohan Kaur, op.cit., P.113.
29. A. Swaminathan, op.cit., P. 166.
30. Manmohan Kaur, op.cit., P.114.
31. R. Prema, op.cit., P.14.
32. Manmohan Kaur, op.cit., P.114.
33. New India, English Daily, 4 April 1917, P.6.
34. R. Prema, op.cit., P.15.
35. Sitaramayya and Pattabhi, The History of Indian National Congress, Vol. I, Madras,
1946, P.119.
36. Manmohan Kaur, op.cit., P.118.
37. Home Political Confidential Proceeding No. 652/657, September, 1916.
38. Manmohan Kaur, op.cit., P.119.
39. Ibid., P.120.
40. R. Prema, op.cit., PP.17-18
The Issue of Tamil Agitation in Sri Lanka

The issue of grievance redressal and the issue of equal and justified opportunities for self governance within the realm of Sri Lankan system of democracy has surfaced more emphatically on the international fora and India must act in a dignified manner. India has special stake in Sri Lanka and on the same time India has to act in a more matured manner than what it did last year as the result of not voting in the resolution. The message which India wished to convey got diluted and the Sri Lankan government did not acted in a responsible manner. The undue pressure from the political bracket of Tamil Nadu will distort the view and stand of India in dealing with her neighbour. 
We must keep in mind that no matter whatever be the thinking and mandate of Tamil Nadu, India must present her stand as a nation and good neighbour not as a supporter of sectarian bifurcation of Sri Lanka. Nation must strive to provide all its citizen socially and politically just environment for growth.
When there will be international consensus and resolution will get passed in United Nations then it will surely have a impact on the top politicians of the Sri Lankan government.
Indian has always aspired to withhold the unity and integrity of her dominion and will surely assist neighbouring countries in doing so.
Shashikant Nishant Sharma
Main Author: Dr. Reuben Nguyo Wachiuri Lecturer under mentorship Programme,
Department of Educational, Administration and Planning University of Nairobi P.O. Box 4518-00100 Nairobi, Kenya
Co-Author: Jedidah Nyawira Kimathi, North-Eastern Hill University, India. Department of Education P.O. Box 793022, Meghalaya Shillong

Dynamics Influencing Performance i


The study focused on exploring the dynamics that influence performance in the non-formal schools. Some of the factors that were reviewed include instructional materials, physical facilities, human resources, Learners’ characteristics and teaching methods. The findings of the study were that these factors affected the performance in non-formal schools however the availability of qualified teachers ranked as the most instrumental. Another finding was that the condition of the school facilities have sometimes been ignored as a lesser factor but just as the environment affects everybody else the condition of the physical facilities affects the attitude of the learners in a immense way and hence their performance. The recommendation of the study is that it is indisputable that the benefits of non-formal education can significantly compensate for the weaknesses found in the formal education like irrelevance, rigidity, dropout rates, its being very expensive, its inadequate space to accommodate all learners, and for this reason these dynamics that affect performance in non-formal schools should be provided for well.
Key Words: Dynamics, Non formal Education, Instructional materials, Physical facilities,
Non-formal education became part of the international discourse on education policy in the late 1960s following an international conference in Williamsburg USA in 1967, where concerns that many countries were finding difficult (politically or economically) to pay for the expansion of formal education to meet the demands of basic education (Coombs, 1968). Additionally, there were complaints that the formal school system was extremely faulty with there being inadequate places for children in formal schools, a lot of wastage and its lack of relevance (Hoppers, 2000).
The concept of non-formal education became more prominent following a major research study done by Coombs for UNICEF in the United States of America in 1971, on how non-formal education could help meet the minimum essential learning needs of millions of educationally deprived children and adolescents and to help accelerate social and economic development in rural areas (Coombs, 1973). Non-Formal education is, taken to refer to the learning and training which takes place outside recognized educational institutions or those “deliberate” educational activities not conducted in the formal system of schooling (Grandstaff, 1974).Generally, non-formal education programmes are normally flexible, versatile, adaptable and have capacity to carry out educational tasks, which the formal schools cannot (Coombs, 1976) (Evans, 1981) and (Thompson, 1995).Certain factors affect the performance in non-formal schools and they include:
Instructional materials
According to Abdullahi (1982), instructional materials are materials or tools locally made or imported that could make tremendous enhancement of lesson impact if intelligently used. The relevant instructional materials, equipment and resources include text books, teacher’s guide, chalk boards, television, and computers for interactive computerized lessons among others. In many countries of the developing world, the text book is the major, if not the only media of instruction (Barasa, 2003). It is the main resource for teachers, setting out the general guidelines of the syllabus in concrete form, providing a guide and foundation to the content, order and pacing of instruction, supplying exercises and assignments for students to practice what they have learned. It is both a source of essential information and the basis for examination and appraisal UNESCO (2005, 2006).
Orodho (2005) stated that student’s high performance is influenced by the availability of instructional resources. UNESCO (2007) indicated that availability and use of text books improves the students learning and counteracts socio –economic disadvantages particularly in low income setting. Wanjohi (2004) found out that the teaching resources enhanced retention of what has been learned. Wanjohi’s study expressed that other than enhancing communication between teachers and pupils, the resources also facilitate child – centered learning through the discovery method.
Materials and tools are an integral part of learning in non-formal education centers. Barret (1982) asserts that materials combined with technique are the means through which our impulses, feelings, ideas are transmitted and expressed. Materials oscillate between being the medium for expression and the source of that expression. As such, materials are basic and should be availed in schools to provide opportunity for exploration and manipulation. They include; clay, wood, paper, paint, brushes, boards, pencils, pens, dyes and textiles. Gaitskell (1958) adds that, indeed, lack or limited materials in each form of artistic expression and the variety of the same tends to inhibit expression in performance. Availability of such basic materials and tools in schools also contribute directly to learner motivation because they provide a favorable environment for learning. Gakunga (2004) records that, teaching resources make a difference in the students achievement across categories of schools. Distribution of resources such as textbooks is also a major factor that accounts for scholastic difference in academic performance among schools. In order to raise the quality of education, its efficiency and productivity, better learning materials are needed.
Several people have written on the importance of instructional resources to teaching, Oluyori (1986) while stressing the importance of instructional technology commented that if the recently introduced system (6-3-3-4) in accordance with the National Policy on Education is to be a success, then instructional technology has a role to play. Balo (1971) commented that “Audiovisual materials, as integral part of teaching-learning situations help to bring about permanent and meaningful experience. He said that, they provide first-hand experience where possible or of vicarious one where only that is feasible. Instructional resources which are educational inputs are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. Wales (1975) was of the opinion that the use of instructional resources would make discovered facts glued firmly to the memory of students. Savoury (1958) also added that, a well-planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much to banish apathy, supplement inadequacy of books as well as arouse students’ interest by giving them something practical to see and do, and at the same time helping to train them to think things out themselves. Savoury (1958) suggested a catalogue of useful visual aids that are good for teaching history i.e. pictures, post cards, diagrams, maps, filmstrips and models. He said that selection of materials which are related to the basic contents of a course or a lesson, helps in depth understanding of such a lesson by the students in that they make the lesson attractive to them, thereby arresting their attention and thus, motivating them to learn. He suggested a catalogue of aids which could be used to teach history. He advocated the use of pictures which will help chi
ldren in grounding their thoughts and feelings. He said that pictures are used as alternatives to real objects where it is impossible to show students the real objects, and they do serve effectively in tan imagined activities.
In order to achieve a just and egalitarian society as spelt out in the Nigerian National Policy of Education (1981), schools should be properly and uniformly equipped to promote sound and effective teaching. Suitable textbooks, qualified teachers, libraries which are adequate should also be provided for schools. Scarcity of these, according to Coombs (1970), will constraint educational system from responding more fully to new demands. Iraki (2014) found out the availability of qualified teachers, adequate instructional materials and physical facilities were very essential in implementing curriculum in non- formal schools in Kenya.
Physical Facilities
Lackney (1999a) argued that school buildings were critical to the teaching and learning process. Lackney also took the viewpoint that “the factors responsible for student achievement were ecological – they acted together as a whole in shaping the context within which learning took place. The physical setting – the school building was an undeniably integral part of the ecological context for learning” (p. 2). The physical factors that had a profound impact on the teaching and learning process were (a) full-spectrum and natural lighting, (b) the reduction and control of noise, (c) the location and sighting of schools, (d) optimal thermal conditions,(e) school size and class size, and (f) the building condition (Lackney, 1999a,). Research had shown that there was an explicit relationship between the physical characteristics of school buildings and educational outcomes (Lyons, 2001, Kaugi, 2015)
School facilities and the classroom must be flexible enough to accommodate changing learning patterns and methods. According to Chan (1996), the learning environment had a direct and an indirect impact on student achievement. Direct impact included: color, lighting, controlled
acoustics, and air ventilation (Chan 1996). A good learning environment freed students from physical distress, made it easy for students to concentrate on schoolwork and, induced students in logical thinking. According to Chan, students responded to good and poor learning environments by expressing positive and negative attitudes. With a positive attitude towards their learning environment, students learned with high motivation and undoubtedly were able to demonstrate better performance. When educators disregard the improvement of learning environment, they ignored the physical difficulties of learning (Chan). Frazier (1993) indicated that people were influenced and affected by their environment. Therefore, there were no exceptions to children being exposed to the environmental conditions in school facilities (Frazier, 1993).
Deferred maintenance on school facilities could cause adverse problems and create an environment that affected the health and morale of the students and the staff of the school (Frazier, 1993). Research studies of Anderson (1998),) Cash (1993), Earthman (1998) and O’Neill (2000) had provided support for research that found that the condition of the school building had a sizeable and measurable influence upon the achievement of students. There was a growing research literature that had held the belief that there was a relationship between student achievement and the conditions condition of school buildings (Hunter, 2006). The United States Department of Education (2000) found that the environmental conditions in schools, which included the inoperative heating system, inadequate ventilation, and poor lighting, affected the health and learning as well as the morale of students and the staff.
Availability of Human Resource
It is also very vital to have sufficient and adequate human resources in terms of teacher quality for the teaching of all subjects in the school curriculum. Without the teachers as implementing factors, the goals of education can never be achieved. On human resources, various educators for example, Ukeje (1970) and Fafunwa (1969) have written extensively on the prime importance of teachers to the educational development of any nation be it simple, complex, developed or developing. From the writings of these educators, one can infer that whatever facilities are available, whatever content is taught, whichever environment the school is situated and whatever kind of pupils are given to teach, the important and vital role of the teacher cannot be over-emphasized. Assuming that necessary facilities are adequately provided for, the environment is conducive to learning, the curriculum satisfies the needs of the students and the students themselves have interest in learning, learning cannot take place without the presence of the teacher. Moronfola (1982) carried out a research in Ilorin Local Government Area of Kwara State. She used questionnaires to collect data on the material resources available for the teaching of some selected subjects in ten secondary schools and related these to students’ achievements in each of the selected subjects and to the amount of resources available for the teaching of the subjects. Finding showed a significant effect of material resources on the students’ academic performance in these subjects.
Aguilando (2012) argues that the teacher is the developer and implementer of the curriculum. He or she writes curriculum daily through a lesson plan, lesson notes and schemes of work. He then addresses the goals, needs and interests of the pupils by creating experiences from where they can learn. In the process, the teacher designs, enriches and modifies the curriculum to suit the needs of the pupils (Aguilando, 2012). Teachers use their knowledge, experiences and competencies to interpret and execute the curriculum on day-to-day basis (Zeiger, 2014). Salamuddin, Harun & Abdullah (2011) noted that teachers being the main executors of the curriculum should possess sufficient knowledge and skills in order to ensure success of the education.
The school administration also has the responsibility of ensuring there is sufficiency of teachers in the school to teach the students. A teacher is the implementer of the curriculum without which the learning process in school will not be complete. Bennett (1963) acknowledges the significant role of a teacher to the success of the program. He states that; “there is no other person, no group, no amount of materials, no physical facility, no community, exceeds in importance of the teacher as the single element of greatest potential value in the field school”. Prentice (1995) asserts that, when learners are left alone without guidance, facilitation, stimulation and motivation, they slowly drift to boredom and lack of interest education activities. Kaugi (2015) discovered that lack of qualified teachers affected the quality of education in non -formal schools in Kenya.
Learners’ characteristics
Learners hold the key to what is actually transmitted and adopted from official curriculum. Since learner factors influence teachers in their selection of learning experiences, there is need to consider their diverse characteristics in curriculum implementation (University of Zimbabwe, 1995). Ross (2000) and Schiro (2008) argue that the purpose of education is to train students’ skills and procedures they will need in the workplace.
Findings of a study done by Sharp, George, Sargent, O’Donnell & Heron (2009) as quoted by Igoki 2014 revealed that pupils who are younger in the year group do less well in attainment tests. The findings also indicated that children who are younger in year group are more f
requently retained, that is, they have to repeat a year of schooling. The finding further revealed that relatively younger children are more frequently identified as having special needs. According to this study, though there is a smaller relative age difference among older primary children the difference remains educationally significant in primary school (P:1)
The vision of the National Special Needs Education Framework (2009) in Kenya is to have a society in which all persons regardless of their disabilities and special needs achieve education to realize full potential (MOE,2009). It also advocates an inclusive education where pupils with special needs are integrated in normal education system. As a result of the government commitment towards Universal Primary Education, the demand for services for children with special needs has increased (UNESCO, 2005)
Teaching methods
In order for the teacher to effectively implement the planned curriculum, he/she must use diverse styles to teach the pupils and not just the subject (Chittom, 2012). This is because different pupils require different styles of teaching in order to grasp curriculum content that will in turn lead to effective curriculum implementation. According to Felder and Silverman (1988), when mismatches exist between learning styles and the teaching style of the teacher, the student may get bored and inattentive in class, do poorly in class and get discouraged about the subject. They argue that teachers should strive for a balance of instructional methods. Davidoff (1990) argues that students learn better and more quickly if the teaching methods used match their preferred learning styles. He argues that appropriate teaching methods motivate
Auditory learners learn best through hearing the message and therefore such pupils will respond well to lecture teaching method and verbal instructions. According to NDT Education Centre (2014) auditory learners do well with lecture and classroom discussion. As such, teachers should use memory aids such as acronyms, short songs or rhymes. At the same time, since auditory pupils learn best when they read loudly, flip cards that can be read aloud can be used during class instructions (Chittom, 2012). Visual learners on the other hand process information according to what they see and the images they create in their minds. This group benefits from learning by observation, following written and drawn instructions and they like to read (NDT Education Centre, 2014). While teaching such pupils, illustrations, diagrams and charts are very helpful as this aid helps them understand the curriculum content better. Kinesthetic or tactile learners learn best through touching, feeling and doing. These pupils learn through experience and physical activity, benefit from demonstration and learn from teaching others what they know. In teaching these pupils, teachers should incorporate role plying, drama, playing games etc (NDT Education Centre, 2014).
Conclusion and Recommendations
The above discussion indicates that various dynamics influence acquisition of non-formal education. These include instructional materials, physical facilities, human resource, students’ characteristics and teaching methods. The availability of qualified teachers was found to be very paramount despite the provision of all other necessities. It was also noted that the availability and maintenance of physical facilities is down played sometimes but it significantly affects the attitude of the learners. Non- formal education can significantly compensate for the weaknesses found in the formal system of education and therefore these dynamics need to be considered more seriously so that non formal education can achieve its goals.
Aguilando, H. B. et al, (2012). The Role of Stakeholders in Curriculum Implementation. http://www.slideshare.net
Anderson J.E. (1974):The formalization of Non-formal Education: Village Polytechnics and Pre- Vocational Youth Training in Kenya, World Year book of Education,1974:283-301
Cash, C. S. (1993). Building Condition and Student Achievement and Behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.
Coombs, P. (1968 a). The World Education Crisis. New York: Oxford University Press.
Coombs, P.H. (1970b). The World Educational Crisis: A system Analysis. New York. Oxford University Press.
Coombs, P. (1973 c). New Paths to Learning for Rural Children and Youth. New York: ICED.
Coombs, P. (1976 d). NFE: Myths, Realities and Opportunities. Comparative Education Review, 20(3), 281–293.
Chittom, L. (2012). Integrating Multicultural Education in the Classroom. http://www.brighthubeducation.com
Earthman, G. I. , and L. Lemasters. “Review of Research on the Relationship between School Buildings, Student Achievement, and Student Behavior.”Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the Council of Educational Facility Planners International., Tarpon Springs, FL 1996.
Evans R. (1981). The Planning of Non-formal Education. UNESCO.
Federal Republic of Nigeria. (1989). National Commission for nomadic education, Decree No. 41 of December 12, 1989. Lagos: Government Printers.
Fafunwa, B. (1969). “The purpose of Teacher Education” in Adaralegbe A. (Ed.) A Philosophy for Nigerian Education, Ibadan. Heineman Educational Books (Nig.) Limited. P. 84.
Felder, R. M. & Silverman, L. K. (1988) Learning and Teaching Styles in Engineering Education. Engr. Education, 78(7), 675-681(1988).
Grandstaff, M. (1974). Alternatives in Education: a Summary View of Research and Analysis on the Concept of NFE. Michigan State University East Lansing.
Hoppers, W. (2000). Non-formal Education, Distance Education and Restructuring of Schooling: Challenges for a New Basic Education Policy. International Review of Education, 46(1/2), 5– 30.
Iraki ,J. W.(2014). School Factors Influencing Curriculum Implementation in Non-formal primary Schools in Westlands Sub-county, Nairobi.
Kaugi, E. M. (2015) An Evaluation of Dynamics of Quality of Education Provided by Non- formal Primary Schools in Nairobi, Kenya
Lackney, J. A.( 1999) “Assessing School Facilities for Learning/Assessing the Impact of the Physical Environment on the Educational Process.” Mississippi State, Miss.: Educational Design Institute.
Moronfola, B. (1982). “Effects of Instructional Resources on the Academic Achievements of Secondary school Students in Ilorin Local Government of Kwara State. Unpublished M.Ed Research Thesis.
MOE, (2009). Policy for Alternative Provision of Basic Education and Training. GOK
Republic of Kenya (2009)National Special Needs Education Policy Framework. Ministry of Education
NDT Education Resource Center (2014), The Collaboration for NDT Education, Iowa State University, www.ndt-ed.org.
Oluyori, F.O. (1986). “Delimiting Factors to Instructional Media Utilization in Nigeria School”, Journal of Curriculum and Instruction. vol. 1 pp. 196 – 206.
O’Neil, J.M. (2000) Review of the Gender Role Journey Measure (GRJM). In J. Maltby, C. Lewis, & A. Hill (Ed
s.) Commissioned reviews of 250 psychological tests. Credigion, Wales: The Edwin Mellon Press.
Orodho, M (2005. Elements of Education and Social Science Research Method. Masola Publishers Nairobi
Ross, A., 2000. Curriculum Construction and Critique. London: Falmer Press.
Salamuddin, N. Harun, M. T & Abdullah, N. A (2011). Teachers Competency in School Extra- Curricular Management World Applied Sciences Journal 15 (Innovation and Pedagogy for Lifelong Learning): 49-55, 2011
Savoury, N. J. (1958). “Visual aids in teaching History”. West African Journal of Education. Vol. 2. No. 1 pp. 5 – 9.
Schiro, M.S., 2008. Curriculum Theory Conflicting Visions and Enduring Concerns. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Felder, R.M. and L.K. Silverman, “Learning Styles and Teaching Styles in Engineering Education,” Presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, New York, Nov. 1987.
Thompson, E. (1995). Curriculum Development in Non-formal Education: African Association for Non-formal Education (AALAE).
Tight, M. (1976). Key Concepts in Adult Education and training. London: Routledge.
Ukeje, D. O. (1970). “Performance Oriented Teacher Education”: Report of the 5th Annual Conference, Western Council of the Association for Teacher Education in Africa. P. 59.
UNESCO. (2005). Challenges of Implementing Free Primary Education in Kenya: Assessment Report. Nairobi. UNESCO.
University of Zimbabwe (1995). Curriculum Implementation, Change and Innovation. (Module EA3AD). Center for Distance Education, University of Zimbabwe. Harare.
Wales, J. (1966). “The Place of Teaching aids in Nigerian Education”, West African Journal of Education, Vol. 3 No. 2.
Zeiger, S. (2014). Role of Teachers in Curriculum Process. Demand Media. Chron.co
Think and Act like Indian

It is really matter of great worry that our police force is in great hurry to play the blame game and make Muslims easy victim of any act of terror and anti-social activity. The police and public should be sensitised that all Muslims are not terrorists and if one is terrorist then he must be put to death without bothering to know his race or religion only then crime will get uprooted. Don't support a person only on the ground of his social and religious identities but on the virtues and merits he has acquired in this world. When people will start giving more weightage to acquired qualities more than the inherited social and religious identities only then there will be establishment of true society based on natural and rational human thinking. If you live in India you must think like Indian and act like Indian only then there will be no doubt on your character and intention.

Shashikant Nishant Sharma
Article Type: Journal Article
Author’s: Dr. Philemon Sengati
Dr. Philemon Sengati
The University of Dodoma
P.O. Box 395, Dodoma- Tanzania

Tremors of the East African Community
This article endeavors to explicate the inevitable tremors conceived in the East Africa Community integration with the inception and prospective addition of new members to join the integration scheme. These new developments are happening while each of the five former members ( Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda) are experiencing  huddles to cross over before they allow the invitation of external forces (new members) intervention which will add more challenges to the integration. This piece argues for a fragile potential EAC because of the many reasons including conflicting forces to expanding markets and competitive advantages by inviting new members, which challenges the bonding forces and a risk of exposure to interest of big nations.  The armed conflict in Sudan and Burundi tests the strength of the community in terms its ability to accept new members while ensuring peace and security as part of the objective of the EAC. And indeed the political huddles to the majority of the EAC members like Tanzania with cancellation and recalling of a new election in Zanzibar. In Rwanda the constitutional change to allow more  leadership tenure in power  to president Kagame while in Kenya the threats of Al Shabab attacks  and more the incidence of an aborted election in Uganda continue to retard efforts toward a more stable and composed EAC. The materials used in this paper are secondary in nature obtained through review of books, literature and articles. While a qualitative method to the analysis specifically the thematic analysis to describe issue on investigation was employed in the paper. The paper recommend recommitment of the EAC to its founding principle on acceptability of new entry in the integration, because the main issue here may not be a big number of countries forming the EAC, but the disparities between South Sudan and DRC to the rest of EAC members in the sense that, several domestic characteristics of state, influence the success of regional integration.  
Key word: The East African Community, Tremors, Political Federation
African frontrunners have long recognized the need for closer regional connections as a way to overcome the fragmentation of the continent which is one of the major constrictions towards its economic development. The economic integration of Africa was the central theme of the 1980 Lagos Plan of Action, the special United Nations Session on Africa in 1986 and numerous other high level statements and reports on African policy and development strategy (Ojo et all, 1985), More recently it has found expression in the creation of the Africa Union and regional and sub-regional integration (Munster, 2009).
In view of the above  Sub-regional and regional groupings is a dominating agenda to the attainment of socio economic, political development; the approaches complements as necessity  for improving Africa’s competitiveness, mindful of the fact that as markets most African countries are small by standing independently (EAC Annual Trade Report, 2008).  In line with the vision and objectives of the region, East African Community was formed to create a well-connected, economically prosperous and peaceful region by supporting both public and private sector engaged in the regional integration process (Munster, 2009).
The Republic of Southern Sudan joined recently on March 2016 at the ordinary EAC summit held in Arusha Tanzania, and therefore making a total of six countries in the region (Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and South Sudan) which form the EAC integration. -The Permanent Tripartite Commission for East African Co-operation was first formed in 1967, but collapsed in 1977 due to political differences among the participating countries; again it was re-established in January 2001 by a Treaty, which entered into force on 7 July 2000-
 “One people, one destiny” – so runs the slogan of the East African Community (EAC), which was re-established in 2001. The recent conceived EAC will comprise 13 countries: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Sudan, and Uganda and, as of 3rd March 2016, the newly-independent Republic of South-Sudan was declared new member in the capital of EAC at the Summit of the EAC. It draws on the analyses and conclusions of various sector studies and benefits from discussions with the country and regional stakeholders (Munster, 2009). At the same time, it pays close attention to specific concerns in the region such as fragility, insecurity, cross-border conflicts, governance challenges, as well as cross-cutting issues related to gender, the environment and climate change.
The EAC is a key driver of the regional integration process and has achieved positive results, including a common market status in July 2010. The target date for establishing a monetary union was 2012. The vision of EAC is to create a prosperous, competitive, secure and politically united Eastern Africa. The objective, according to Article 5 (1) of the Treaty, is to develop policies and programs aimed at widening and deepening cooperation among the Partner States in political, economic, social and cultural fields, research and technology, defense, security and legal and judicial affairs for mutual benefit (EAC Annual Trade Report, 2008).
The East African Community is organized into different organs provided in the Treaty which formed the integration and are found in Chapter III Article 9(1) of the union Charter. These organs include, the Summit of the EAC that consists of the Heads of State of the Partner States and at present these are:
“ President Pierre Nkurunzinza of Burundi, President Uhuru Kenyatta of Kenya, President Paul Kagame of Rwanda, President Dr. John Pombe Magufuli of  Tanzania, President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni of Uganda and Salvakil of Republic of Southern Sudan”. The six presidents take the Chair of the Summit in turns of one year and the present chairperson of the Summit is Dr. John Pombe Magufuli of Tanzania. It is equally important to unravel that, the Summit meets at least once in each year (Chapter Four Article 10 of the EAC Charter of, 1999).

The other organ of the East African Community is the Council of Ministers consisting of the ministers for regional co-operation of each Partner States and other ministers to be determined by the Partner States. The Council of Ministers meets twice a year; one of the meetings is held immediately preceding a Summit Meeting (Chapter Five Article 13 Charter of the East African Community). In connection to this organ, there is a Co-ordination Committee consists of the Permanent Secretaries responsible for regional co-operation in each Partner State. It reports to the Council of Ministers and co-ordinates the activities of the Sectorial Committees (The EAC Charter of 1999, Chapter 6 (Article 17).
There is another organ called Sectorial Committees of the EAC which reports to the Co-ordination Committee and are established by the Council of Ministers. Their task is to prepare programmes and to implement the objectives of the Treaty (Chapter 7 (Article 18) of the 1999 Charter of the EAC). Another organ is the East African Court of Justice has the major responsibility to ensure the adherence to law in the interpretation and application of and compliance with the Treaty. This includes for example disputes between Partner States regarding the Treaty, disputes between the Community and its employees or the compliance of national laws with the Treaty (Chapter 8 (Article 23) of the 1999 EAC Charter).

The East African Legislative Assembly is the Parliament of the East African Community. It has 52 members – nine members from each Partner State – plus 7 ex-officio members, namely the five Ministers responsible for regional co-operation, the Secretary General and the Counsel to the Community (Chapter 9 (Article 48) of the 1999 EAC Charter). The Secretariat is the executive organ of the EAC and runs the day-to-day business. It is headed by the Secretary General. He is supported by four Deputy Secretary Generals who deputies for him and have the following special responsibilities. The Counsel to the Community is appointed by the Council of Ministers and acts as the principal legal adviser to the Community. The Counsel is also entitled to appear in the Courts of the Partner States in matters regarding the Community and its Treaty (Chapter 10 (Article 66) of the 1999 EAC Charter).
There are other autonomous institutions with special responsibilities to perform in the EAC, one of which is the Lake Victoria Basin Commission, this oversees the management and development of Lake Victoria Basin and serves as a centre for promotion of investments and information sharing among the various stakeholders. Its headquarters are situated in Kisumu, Kenya. The other institution is Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization (LVFO), this coordinates fishery issues in Lake Victoria to ensure that fish and fish products are available in East Africa and has access to international markets (Chapter Four Article 10 of the EAC Charter of 1999).
The other institution is called Inter-University Council of East Africa (IUCEA),
IUCEA encourages and develops mutually beneficial collaboration between member universities and Governments and other public and private organizations.
East African Development Bank (EADB). EADB was established in 1967 to redress the development disparities between the member states of the former East African Community. EADB has a critical role to play in setting up the East African Common Market in terms of mobilizing external lendable resources for the East African Market. Civil Aviation Safety and Security Oversight Agency (CASSOA).CASSOA is a specialized agency of the East Community responsible for ensuring the development of safe and secure civil aviation system in the region. The main objectives of the Agency are to ensure coordinated development of an effective and sustainable civil aviation safety and security oversight infrastructure in the Community (Chapter Four Article 10 of the EAC Charter of 1999).
Generally the community is organized and vision to a political federation in the future. The progress is underway through customs union, common market, common currency, and harmonization of policies toward a political integration. However this journey goes hand in hand with looking for opportunities to expand membership and so doing adding market potential and other integration advantages. This article anticipates tremors in future endeavors of the EAC and assessed the danger of having a fragile community if the admission of new members is done with disregard of the criteria set in the treaty for inception of new membership. In this dimension it evaluates the recent admission of the Republic of South Sudan and prospective admission of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Issue on board
The EAC has, as Meredith (2005) argues, realized tremendous progress in regional co-operation and significant impact on regional development. In real growth terms, the region’s combined GDP has risen to $ 75 billion, up from $ 20 billion in 1999. Following the enlargement of the EAC in 2007, the EAC region now boasts a sizeable market of a combined population of 130 million. The membership of the EAC has expanded from the original three, Kenya Uganda and Tanzania, to the current six members. - -  Beyond this success, EAC is today considering further enlargement to allow new members, In this sense the DRC, and  Somalia a are among the countries of eastern, central and southern Africa that have indicated interest to join the EAC integration scheme..
According to EAC treaty (2002:12-13):
 “The objectives of the East African Community shall be to develop policies and programmes aimed at widening and deepening co-operation among partner states in political, economic, social and cultural fields, research and technology, defense, security and legal and judicial affairs, for their mutual benefit.”
However, according to the EAC Treaty and rules of procedure for admission of a new country as full member, certain criteria have to be met. They include: acceptance of the community as set out in the treaty, adherence to the universally acceptable principles of good governance, democracy, the rule of law, observance of human rights and social justice, potential contribution to the strengthening of integration with the East African region, geographical proximity to and interdependence between it and EAC partner states, establishment an d maintenance of a market driven economy, and compatibility of social and economic policies with those of the community ( EAC Treaty).
Despite Southern Sudan reception and inception in the EAC on 3rd March 2016 truly the newly sovereign state does not qualify these conditions and cannot be considered as relevant member in the EAC. The country faces serious development and governance challenges and many observers assert that it will take many years to achieve a sustained economic growth in this country. The country needs to adopt and implement principles of governance, establish and maintain a market driven economy as well as efficient social and economic policies before expecting to gain from it
s EAC membership. That is why in this paper we argue for a fragile EAC in the future as more new members are anticipated to join like the DRC and Somalia with worse domestic condition politically, socially and economically. Respectively the paper recommends genuine recommitment of the EAC to its founding principle in terms of new entry in the integration.
Theoretical and Empirical Debate
The theory of regional integration has been associated with Haas (1950) a prominent neo-functionalist known for his concept of “The uniting of Europe”. This is because Europe remained the focal point for most of the works on regional integration theory although in the recent past the application of integration theory to Latin America, Africa and Asia has increased. Haas and Schmitter (1961) developed a conceptual framework that has spread the process of regional integration beyond Europe in industrial and non-industrial settings with a concept approach that is applicable to both. The basic postulation of neo functionalists is the decline of nationalism and nation-states and their replacing by large units more suited for the roles they play in society. The neo functionalist thus does not see nation-states as units of analysis but the whole region as a unit. Modern neo-functionalist who were inspired by European integration still exist and put emphasis on supranational institutions, among them are Sandholz and Sweet (1997) and multilevel governance, Marks, Hooghe and Blank (1996) among the opponents of regional integration was Haas himself, Lindberg and Scheingold. This was after the European integration process started to experience a crisis in the mid 1960s. Haas and these scholars concluded that his theory was too deterministic and Haas admitted that he had not foreseen a rebirth of nationalism and resilience of sovereign nation-states within functionalist organization of supra-national institutions referred to as regionalism.
Lindberg and Scheingold singled out some of the major mechanisms and dynamics. It was concluded that neo-functionalists had not studied domestic politics sufficiently and that they could have exaggerated the role of supranational institutions. The other opponent of neo-functionalism is Pierson, Pollock (1996), Schneider and Aspinwall (2011) who used the new institutionalism approach to integration studies. According to Pierson there are gaps that emerge among the member states which are difficult to close. These gaps are created by autonomous action of integration institutions, the restricted time horizons of political decisions makers, unanticipated consequences and shifts in policy preferences of governments.
This makes the gaps very difficult to close because of the reluctance of supranational actors, institutional barriers to reform and various costs to change. Due to this gaps and the difficulty in closing them, Pieson, Pollock and Scheneider and Aspinwall argue that this forms the foundation of disintegration rather than integration. Therefore these authors see nothing than disintegration as states pursue their own agenda defined as state interest among community of states. This disintegration and the consequent pursued by individual interest is therefore a source of disharmony since it is equivalent to a chaotic state of nature. With this state of nature, states are likely to disagree and by extension war erupts. The war is a war in a whole community of states. As states push and shove over their interests, there is likely war in the whole community while in the individual states, there will be peace. This in Nye phrase is the “peace in parts”. The parts are individual states which internally are at peace but externally in relation to other states are not, as each state attempts to promote and protect its own self interests, there is no peace i.e. the states are in a state of war always in their protection and promotion of self interest. Nye’s thesis rests on rather simple question of how there can be integration as proposed by neo-functionalists when there is no peace in the whole but only in the parts. Rather how can the peace existent in parts be utilized to guarantee peace in the whole. Simply how can states be at peace while they all pursue their own self interest in the same environment? This according to Nye’s thesis is impossibility. This theory is relevant because it talks about collective decision making. Policies in EAC are determined by consensus which covers a varying number of functional areas. Ernst Haas came up with the concept of spillover which “refers to a situation in which a given action, related to specific goals, creates a situation in which the original goals can be assured only after taking further actions, which in turn create a further condition and a need for more action and so forth”60. This refers to policies that are agreed upon and the partner states need to implement them for the prosperity and continuous existence of the integration.
Liberalism is another theory related with the formation of the East African Community. Liberals argue that the universal condition of world politics is globalization. States are, and always have been, embedded in a domestic and transnational society, which creates incentives for economic, social and cultural interaction across borders. State policy may facilitate or block such interactions. Some domestic groups may benefit from or be harmed by such policies, and they pressure government accordingly for policies that facilitate realization of their goals. These social pressures, transmitted through domestic political institutions, define "state preferences" –that is, the set of substantive social purposes that motivate foreign policy (Hurrel, 1995).
Mukandala (2000) argues that State preferences give governments an underlying stake in the international issues they face. Since the domestic and transnational social context in which states are embed
ded varies greatly across space and time, so do state preferences. Without such social concerns that transcend state borders, states would have no rational incentive to engage in world politics at all, but would simply devote their resources to isolated existence. To motivate conflict, cooperation, or any other costly foreign policy action, states must possess sufficiently intense state preferences. The resulting globalization-induced variation in social demands, and thus state preferences, is a fundamental cause of state behavior in world politics (Durgesh, 1984). This is the central insight of liberal international relations theory. It can be expressed colloquially in various ways: “What matters most is what states want, not how they get it- “Ends are more important than means.”
Three specific variants of liberal theory are defined by particular types of preferences, their variation, and their impact on state behavior. Ideational liberal theories link state behavior to varied conceptions of desirable forms of cultural, political, socioeconomic order. Commercial liberal theories stress economic interdependence, including many variants of "endogenous policy theory." Republican liberal theories stress the role of domestic representative institutions, elites and leadership dynamics, and executive-legislative relations. Such theories were first conceived by prescient liberals such as Immanuel Kant, Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, John Hobson, Woodrow Wilson, and John Maynard Keynes-writing well before the deep causes (independent variables) they stress (e.g. democratization, industrialization, nationalism, and welfare provision) were widespread (Duncan, 2008)
What basic assumptions underlie the liberal approach? Two assumptions liberal theory makes are the assumptions of anarchy and rationality. Specifically, states (or other political actors) exist in an anarchic environment and they generally act in a broadly rational way in making decisions. The anarchy assumption means that political actors exist in the distinctive environment of international politics, without a world government or any other authority with a monopoly on the legitimate use of force. They must engage in self-help.  The rationality assumption means that state leaders and their domestic supporters engage in foreign policy for the instrumental purpose of securing benefits provided by (or avoiding costs imposed by) actors outside of their borders, and in making such calculations, states seek to deploy the most cost-effective means to achieve whatever their ends (preferences) may be (Daniel,1984).
 Liberal theory shares the first (anarchy) assumption with almost all international relations theories, and it shares the second (rationality) assumption with realism and institutionalism, but not non-rationalist process theories. The second core assumption shared by liberal theories is that the interdependence among of state preferences influences state behavior. Rather than treating preferences as a fixed constant, as do realists or institutionalisms, liberals seek to explain variation in preferences and its significance for world politics. The precise distribution and nature of the “stakes” explains differences in state policy and behavior (Willis, K. 2005).
States, liberals argue, orient their behavior to the precise nature of these underlying preferences: compatible or conflictual, intense or weak, and their precise scope. States require a “social purpose” a perceived underlying stake in the matter at hand in order to pay any attention to international affairs, let alone to provoke conflict, inaugurate cooperation, or take any other significant foreign policy action. If there is no such interdependence among state objectives, a rational state will conduct no international relations, satisfying itself with an isolated and autarkic existence. Conflictual goals increase the incentive for political disputes. Convergence of underlying preferences creates the preconditions for peaceful coexistence or cooperation (Duncan, 2008).
 Rational choice Theory is also one of the theories related with the formation of East African Community. An economic principle that assumes that individuals always make prudent and logical decisions that provide them with the greatest benefit or satisfaction and that are in their highest self-interest. Most mainstream economic assumptions and theories are based on rational choice theory (Ojo et al. 1985). Indeed, the East African Community might have put in perspectives rational choice theory in devising coercive apparatuses among member states such like the Interpol-to crack down criminality beyond borders. The road map into the formation of East African Monetary fund is related with the concept of rational choice theory which looks into maximizing members’ states advantage or gain, and to minimize their disadvantage or loss.
Realism is the last theory in the analysis of the formation of East African Community. Descriptive political realism commonly holds that the international community is characterized by anarchy, since there is no overriding world government that enforces a common code of rules. Whilst this anarchy need not be chaotic, for various member states of the international community may engage in treaties or in trading patterns that generate an order of sorts, most theorists conclude that law or morality does not apply beyond the nation’s boundaries (Holst, 1990).
Arguably political realism supports Hobbes’s view of the state of nature, namely that the relations between self-seeking political entities are necessarily a-moral. Hobbes asserts that without a presiding government to legislate codes of conduct, no morality or justice can exist: “Where there is no common Power, there is
no Law, no justice if there be no power erected, or not great enough for our security; every man will and may lawfully rely on his own strength and art, for caution against all other men. In this case integration of countries is the best strategies to enforce moral behaviors or acts amongst actors within regional agreements (Pentland, 1973).
Either descriptive political realism is true or it is false. If it is true, it does not follow, however, that morality ought not to be applied to international affairs; what ought to be does not always follow from what is. A strong form of descriptive political realism maintains that nations are necessarily self-seeking, that they can only form foreign policy in terms of what the nation can gain, and cannot, by their very nature, cast aside their own interests. However, if descriptive realism is held, it is as a closed theory, which means that it can refute all counter-factual evidence on its own terms (for example, evidence of a nation offering support to a neighbor as an ostensible act of altruism, is refuted by pointing to some self-serving motive the giving nation presumably has it would increase trade, it would gain an important ally, it would feel guilty if it didn’t, and so on), then any attempt to introduce morality into international affairs would prove futile (Breen,  and  Rittman, 1995).
 Examining the soundness of descriptive political realism depends on the possibility of knowing political motives, which in turn means knowing the motives of the various officers of the state and diplomats. The complexity of the relationship between officers’ actions, their motives, subterfuge, and actual foreign policy makes this a difficult if not impossible task, one for historians rather than philosophers. Logically, the closed nature of descriptive realism implies that a contrary proposition that nations serve no interests at all, or can only serve the interests of others, could be just as valid.
Realism under the East African Community hinges on the assumption that some leaders, because of their ethnic background, would always think of remaining in power and controlling others. It has been assumed that President Museveni and Kagame belong to Tutsi ethnic background. The motive behind Tutsi generation is hegemonic power. They (Tutsi) have a propensity of ruling others forever and ever more. Example of tyrannical utterance once put forward by Museveni justifies this contention.  President Museveni has been in power for almost 28 consecutive years 40 per cent of his lifetime. Given the country’s very young population, 75 per cent of Ugandans have only had one president all their life. When asked if he would run again in 2016, Museveni’s response was, “one of the real points for me politically is the East African Federation. I cannot leave this issue if I think there is a possibility of advancing it. This is something I have been working for all my time in politics and is one of the reasons why I continue to be in power (The guardian 17 August 2015)
This is the classic case of a leader thinking that he is indispensable, a very dangerous mind-set for democracy. In 2011, when President Museveni was asked how he would react if Ugandans contested election results with demonstrations, Museveni responded that “we just lock them up ... bundle them into jail and bring them to the courts.” There you have it – a theoretical model for democracy. The maturation of region integration elsewhere in Africa is engulfed by both optimists and pessimists leaders, and scholars.  Empirically there are vast literature by both African and Africanist scholars which point out a dark picture about the prospects of getting it right in terms of bringing together different countries in a specific region in Africa. Dieter (1997) for example, writes: “in Africa, attempt to create regional integration prospect have a long, albeit discouraging history”. Odhiambo (1981) writing specifically about East Africa, shares the same view by arguing that: “when it comes to the question of African attempts at territorial politics, the experience is one of failure, or alternatively of inability”.  There are a few other scholars who concur with this trajectory (Hentz, 2005) writes: “Thus schemes in Africa such as the Economic Community of West African states and the East African Community adopted a blueprint from a very different place and time, and like others such schemes in sub Saharan Africa, they failed”.
These views are credible and can be substantiated by facts. For example west and central African states tried regional integration soon after gaining political independence from European colonizers but all these attempts failed. The French colonies of Mali and Senegal formed a federation but a few months later Senegal seceded from the federation and declared itself as the Republic of Senegal. In other areas Ivory Coast, Dahomey and Niger formed the council of the intent but this too collapsed (Melady, 1961). Patrice Lumumba of the present day the Democratic Republic of Congo and Kwame Nkrumah once contemplated combing DRC and Ghana, an idea that never materialized. Some of the post independence regional organization includes the West African Economic Community (WAEC) and the central African customs and Economic Union (CACEU), which were established in the 1960s later disintegrated too. Even the Pan African Freedom Movement of East, Central and Southern Africa (PAFMECSA) did not survive due to ideological differences among African leaders and their excitement about their newly found freedom from colonial rule. Thus the argument by the pessimists is tenable and can be substantiated
Increasingly, in spite of these features the spirit of regional integration did not die out amongst Africans. Consequently, when the East African Community territories their political independence in early 1960s they also tried to follow the same route by establishing the East African Community. Unfortunately, like its predecessor organization the EAC’s life was also ephemeral as it collapsed after a single decade. It is in this context therefore that the view expressed by those scholars who state that the African experience with regional integration or territorial politics is one of failure cannot be summarily refuted (Veit, 2010).
However it would be wrong to over generalized and argue that all attempts to establish regional institutions in post colonial Africa failed because some of these regional organizations are still operational even today.&
nbsp; Among these that have survived to date is the ECOWAS, established in 1976. In this paper we stand out to argue that the survival, development and prosperity of the current East African Community is totally dependent on the commitment of its member states to forming the political federation. Uniquely is the strategic status of Tanzania in promoting such development and prosperity within the East African Community.
Musonda (2006) is of the view that, Western European countries started experiencing regionalism in the 1950’s. From these countries, the project of regionalism spread to other parts of the world including Asia, Latin America, and Africa among others. The formation of the European Economic Community EEC   and later the signing of the Treaty of Maastricht in 19936 ushered in a big leap as far as European integration was concerned. These were to later emerge as case studies of successful regional integration. The change of name from EEC to EU signified the expansion growth the union was undergoing. These developments were not only political, but also economic, social, cultural and linguistic changes. The institutions created under this community played a significant role in strengthening and buttressing the community to what it is today. That the EU integration is developed to the extent of having a full legal system and jurisprudence is pointer to how successful integration can be. A reference to EU law8 which has become part of comparative legal studies across the world is one such proof. Among the EU laws are legislations on and provisions of the EU treaty on immigration, visa regulation, and free movement of persons within the union9 and outside the union who are citizens of member states or non members. A study of this EU law will reveal the impact of the aforesaid law on integration in the EU.
Materials and Methods
The materials used in this paper are secondary because the investigation is purely descriptive in nature. The qualitative analysis of the article, books and journal on similar debates forms the base for key arguments in this article. The documentary data reinforced qualitative information obtained in scholarly literature on the EACs’ enlarged membership and its implication in term of effectiveness and efficiency to achieve the integration objectives. In this case it is a mixed methodology that intended to capture the whole information on the effectiveness of EAC to bring about strong or weak integration with respect of its intention of adding more members anticipated the DRC and Somalia while Sudan is already acceptable and received as new member.
Figure 1: Conceptual Framework
Source: Authors’ Creativity
The figure 1 shows a conceptual framework with varies variable pointing to the challenges and prospect of a multiplication of members in the EAC.  The dependent variable in this model are the members of the EAC currently which  include Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Southern Sudan and Burundi, with future prospective members of Democratic Republic of Congo, and Somalia. The dependent variable as argued is a fragile or strong integrated future EAC in the sense of weakened bond or strong in terms of custom union, common market, monetary union, policy harmonization and indeed political federation. Such achievement of objective is totally dependent on the intervening variables in  the diagram which  include but not limited to a committed member to the vision and mission of the EAC which covers  implementation of  governance, the potentiality to contribute in the integration, the level of convergence criteria, geographical proximity and indeed  economic consideration. These variable if contravened the product to get a  is a weak, non proactive and fragile EAC.On the other side  observed the product  is a strong, proactive, and composed EAC, the one able to pursue and secure competitive advantage in the globalized environment.
Results and Discussion
This section assesses the potential tremors of the entry of the new Republic of Southern Sudan into the East African Community while debating the potential implication of entry of DRC in the EAC as aspirants to the same. The guiding principles in the assessment are the fundamental doctrines that govern the community and the conditionality laid down in the EAC for new entry in the integration.
The fundamental principles are laid down in Article six (6) of the EAC charter they include:
“ Mutual trust, political will, and sovereign equality; peaceful co-existence and good neighborliness; peaceful settlement of disputes; good governance including adherence to the principles of democracy, the rule of law, accountability, transparency, social justice, equal opportunity, gender as well as the recognition, promotion and protection of human and people’s rights;  equitable distribution of benefits and corporation for mutual benefits”
While the condition for admission of new members According to the EAC Treaty and rules of procedure for admission of a new country as full member, certain criteria have to be met. They include:
“acceptance of the community as set out in the treaty, adherence to the universally acceptable principles of good governance, democracy, the rule of law, observance of human rights and social justice, potential contribution to the strengthening of integration with the East African region, geographical proximity to and interdependence between it and EAC partner states, establishment and maintenance of a market driven economy, and compatibility of social and economic policies with those of the community”
Southern Sudan
About Southern Sudan results of the analysis show that currently, South Sudan does not satisfy conditions to be admitted as a full member of EAC. It faces serious development and governance challenges and many observers assert that it will take many years to achieve a sustained economic growth in this country (Mason, 2012). In addition, to benefit that accrues from regional integration, South Sudan needed first to solve many problems including the building of good leadership, security, peace and condition for sustainable and inclusive growth and development. In addition, the admission of South Sudan complicates the process leading up to th
e proposed EAC monetary union because the country is unlikely to satisfy the EAC convergence criteria.
 To analyze the potential implications of the entry of Southern Sudan into EAC, we examine if EAC including South Sudan may be a successful regional integration by considering factors which are key for the viability of a regional integration. These factors as explained by Ngowi (2009) include the number of countries composing a regional block which has implication on enforcement and coordination mechanism as well as other fundamentals such as political and economic factors. Southern Sudan applied on November 11, 2011 to join the EAC. The Summit directed the Council of Ministers to verify the application on the basis of the criteria for admission of a new member and submit recommendations to the summit at its 10th extraordinary meeting. It was on 3rd March 2016 that the country was admitted as new member in the EAC.
It is obvious reason that, the delay of about five years from 2011 to 2016 to approve Southern Sudan admission into EAC may have been complicated by the missing of good criteria for Southern Sudan to harmonize with the EAC treaty requirements. And we may agree to emphasize that, the recent inception of this new member to the EAC is a direct compromise and violation of the tenets and principles guiding the EAC. The acceptance of this member can also be viewed differently by considering the EAC countries interests which are seeking to benefit from Oil resources, expanded market from Southern Sudan. Likewise through comparative advantage analysis and economic technical spillover, Southern Sudan has a lot to gain than loosing when a member of the EAC becomes. By joining the EAC, the Republic of Southern Sudan expects to reduce its dependency on Sudan, especially for its external trade by finding alternative transport corridors. Currently, Southern Sudan has plans to build domestic refineries to export petroleum products to regional markets such as Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia. The projects include construction of an oil refinery and sea port in Lamu (Kenya), a 1 400 km oil pipeline that will link Juba to Lamu port and construction of a new Mombasa-Kampala standard rail way line. Important investment is also being made in a 1 130 km road to link Nairobi to Juba.
 These projects are expected to serve Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Eastern Congo, Southern Sudan and Ethiopia and likely to attract more FDI, especially from Asia’s economic giants (Japan and China). Kenya and Uganda are particularly expected to benefit from the thousands of jobs that the large infrastructure projects are expected to create. Becoming a member of EAC, South Sudan may benefit from all arrangements under the EAC customs union and common market agreements as a new country that needs to build the foundation for its social and economic development. Being member of EAC may also provide the new country opportunities to increase market size reduce transaction costs and increase economic efficiency by implementing common policies with other EAC members. In addition, this may provide opportunities for mobilizing the human and financial resources necessary to undertake investments supporting trade expansion and economic development. It would also provide an overall supportive policy framework that helps to increase policy transparency, stability and enhance policy credibility and build institutions that match the EAC standards contrary to original members which have to adjust existing institutions to the regional requirements.
However, for these expectations to be realized, South Sudan needs first to solve many problems including the building of good leadership, security, peace and condition for sustainable and inclusive growth and development. Good leadership is key for economic growth and development, since sustainable growth requires committed, credible and capable government (Commission on Growth and Development, 2008). Indeed, sustainable growth and economic development does not just happen, it must be consciously chosen as an objective by the country’s leadership and as an organizing principle of the country’s politics (Kigabo, 2010).
Sound governance reduces the potential for corruption and lessens the risk that scarce public resources become diverted from their intended purpose. The Government of south Sudan has while a member establish good governance practices and improve the human capacity for credibility and effectiveness of overall development efforts in the medium to longer term. The country needs to establish and strengthen the basic principles of accountability, transparency, integrity, inclusion and professionalism as applied to the operation of government systems and administration. Another challenge for South Sudan as member of the EAC is its ability to face the completion in a common market with free movements of capital, labor, persons, services and right of establishment given that its economic development and institutions are at their infancy.
Based on these challenges, it is clear that for the moment, South Sudan was not a relevant candidate to joined EAC. Indeed, according to the EAC Treaty and rules of procedure for admission of a new country as full member, certain criteria were to be yet met by South Sudan to be a member. They include: acceptance of the community as set out in the treaty, adherence to the universally acceptable principles of good governance, democracy, the rule of law, observance of human rights and social justice, potential contribution to the strengthening of integration with the East African region, geographical proximity to and interdependence between it and EAC partner states, establishment and maintenance of a market driven economy, and compatibility of social and economic policies with those of the community (EAC Treaty).
As mentioned, the analysis of the implications of the entry of Southern Sudan into EAC is done by considering factors such as the number of countries composing a regional block as well as other fundamentals, which are key for a viable regional integration. Contrary the traditional K-group theory argues that more participants lower the benefits of cooperation as it increase the enforcement problem (Olson, 1965). The enforcement mechanism is very important because to build viable regional integration countries have to agree on surveillance and enforcement mechanisms for convergence criteria. The experience shows that, whereas there are some examples of regional organizations that started small and have been successful, there are no cases of large regional organizations that have achieved the same level of regional integration (EDB, 2010) showing that starting out with few states is a better strategy for regional integration. In the case of South Sudan and EAC, the main issue here may not be a big number of countries forming the EAC, but the disparities between South Sudan and the rest of EAC members because several domestic characteristics of state influence the success of regional integration.
The differences in economic and socio development fundamentals between South Sudan and the rest of EAC country members can do more to hamper the cooperation in EAC than the number of members itself. In addition, the lack of sufficient capacity (political, human resources...) to implement the obligations of membership in EAC may negatively affect the EAC regional integration efforts. The admission of South Sudan complicates the process leading up to the proposed EAC monetary union. The country is unlikely to satisfy the convergence criteria that are intended as pre-requisites to joining monetary union. Hence, South Sudan has joined the EAC, and if the existing members want to continue to fast-track monetary union, then necessarily there will be a two-speed process, with a first group proceeding to monetary union and South Sudan and perhaps others joining the monetary union later, if at all.
As indicated, the domestic socio economic conditions of South Sudan are far from those of other EAC countries and this limits the success in regional integration (Russet, 1967), especially the monetary union because these countries cannot form an optimum currency area. This will limit the effectiveness of the EAC central bank monetary policy. Another issue concerns South Sudan’s reliance on oil revenues for financing government and as a source of export receipts. The volatility of world oil prices means that this induces considerable fluctuations on the domestic economy. In a common currency area, these fluctuations spill over to the partner countries. If the country is large enough to influence the monetary policy and exchange rate of the currency area, then it may cause “Dutch disease” problems for its neighbors (see Masson, 2012) that is appreciation of the real exchange rate that crowd out other sectors, in particular manufacturing and agriculture. With Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda also with prospects for exploiting oil and gas discoveries, South Sudan may however not be the outlier.
DRC Prospective New Member
The DRC Records indicate that there have been tremendous incidences of conflict in the region and believed that an estimated over five million (5.4) Congolese died as a result of the conflicts in the last decade (Rupiya, 2005).These conflicts are associated with many factors as Sengati (2012) discusses them ranging from lack of democracy, scramble for resources, poor administrative system, external forces interests, ethnicity and scramble for power. Besides, Bellamy (2004) argue that, the critical factors involved in the conflict, among others, are external forces in the DRC, which are said to include Rwanda, Uganda, Belgium, and the United States of America. These conflict actors have acted differently at varied times in the conflict. For example, the United States, generally, has had a lower profile than some of the other key international actors in the DRC, especially, since the genocide in Rwanda in 1994(Gilbert, 2009).
For more than a decade, many people in DRC   felt that Washington saw its policy toward the DRC as secondary to and defined by, its relationship with and policies toward Rwanda. In this case, the sceneries in DRC is contrary to the founding principles of the treaty establishing the EAC, furthermore contrary to the conditionality of admission of new members that call for “adherence to the universally acceptable principles of good governance, democracy, the rule of law, observance of human rights and social justice“ .  Otherwise, the risk of having DRC into the EAC conflict the interests of big nations like the USA in the DRC, therefore as EAC pushes ahead rebuilding itself to the potentially entry of DRC this could retard such efforts if interests of big nations could be jeopardized in the course of inviting the DRC in the integration. Stephen (2008) argued that, the USA huge investment in the DRC in terms of minerals and other trades in timber are amazing that has a close eye in social, political and economic progress in DRC.
Furthermore Just like Southern Sudan, DRCfaces serious development and governance challenges and many observers assert that it will take many years to achieve a sustained economic growth in this country. In addition (Kamala, 2012) argue that, to benefit from regional integration, DRC needs first to solve many problems including the building of good leadership, security, peace and condition for sustainable and inclusive growth and development. In addition, the admission of DRC would complicate the process leading up to the proposed EAC monetary union because the
country is unlikely to satisfy the EAC convergence criteria. Despite such huddles the DRC has the positive trend towards political stability since 2000, as well as the implementation of   economic and structural reforms backed by the development partners have contributed to the gradual consolidation of the country’s macro-economic framework.
However, this positive trend of the macro-economic aggregates has not been accompanied by an improvement in the country’s social indicators, since economic growth has been driven by a very small number of areas of activity in sectors with little job creation. The DRC is also faced with the episodic and recurrent resurgence of political and security tensions that are sources of vulnerability. This situation underscores the fragility of this Central African giant and the need for the country’s authorities to speed up institutional, economic and social reforms with a view to creating the necessary conditions for lasting peace, sustained and inclusive economic growth before joining the EAC.
The specific characteristics of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) provide it with both challenges and opportunities that determine its long -term potential if accepted in the EAC. With an area of 2.34 million square kilometers and a population of about 71 million inhabitants, the DRC has the continent’s fourth largest population and is the second biggest in terms of area these two provide market and land for investment for the East African countries.
 According to Nduku, (2002) the DRC is located at the crossroads of the continent; it shares common borders with nine other countries (Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Zambia, Angola, Uganda, Central African Republic, and Sudan, Congo Brazzaville, ). It has significant natural resources and has some of the largest reserves in sub-Saharan Africa. However, DRC remains a fragile country that is slowly recovering from over two decades of political and economic instability. It continues to face rebellions threatening to its institutions and the population’s security. The country’s specificities provide it with unrivalled economic and social development opportunities, but also entail enormous challenges in terms of security and peace, central government’s Capacity and authority, decentralization and political economic governance. The 2011-2015 Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (GPRSP) adopted by the government in November 2011 recognizes these challenges and aims to lift the country out of its fragile situations and ensure it is firmly anchored on a path towards development, commensurate with its potential.
Based on these challenges, it is clear that for the moment, the Democratic Republic of Congo is not a relevant candidate to join the EAC. Indeed, according to the EAC Treaty and rules of procedure for admission of a new country as full member, certain criteria are not met by the DRC to join EAC they include: acceptance of the community as set out in the treaty, adherence to the universally acceptable principles of good governance, democracy, the rule of law, observance of human rights and social justice, potential contribution to the strengthening of integration with the East African region, geographical proximity to and interdependence between it and EAC partner states, establishment and maintenance of a market driven economy, and compatibility of social and economic policies with those of the community (EAC Treaty). An analysis of these in relation to the DRC shows that, it has not met such criteria and therefore a spoiler member if incepted in the EAC integration.
This paper assessed the implications of the entry of the Republic of Southern Sudan as a new member into the East African Community and the prospective entry of the DRC in the same integration scheme. According to the EAC Treaty and rules of procedure for admission of a new country as full member, certain criteria have to be met. They include: acceptance of the community as set out in the treaty, adherence to the universally acceptable principles of good governance, democracy, the rule of law, observance of human rights and social justice, potential contribution to the strengthening of integration with the East African region, geographical proximity to and interdependence between it and EAC partner states, establishment and maintenance of a market driven economy, and compatibility of social and economic policies with those of the community ( EAC Treaty). Currently, Southern Sudan and indeed DRC do not satisfy these conditions and can’t be considered as relevant candidate for the EAC despite a recent admission of South Sudan in the respective integration. These countries face serious development and governance challenges and many observers (Rupiya, 2005; Sengati, 2012; Bellamy,2004; and Gilbert, 2009), assert that it will take many years to achieve a sustained economic growth in these countries. The countries need to adopt and implement principles of governance, establish and maintain a market driven economy as well as efficient social and economic policies before expecting to gain advantage from its EAC membership. Since Southern Sudan has become member of the EAC, just like DRC is a potential member of EAC, it may benefit from all arrangements under the EAC customs union and common market, mobilize the human and financial resources necessary to undertake investments supporting trade expansion and economic development and limit its dependency to Sudan and other states for the external trade.
However, to benefit from regional integration, Southern Sudan just like DRC needs first to solve many problems including the buil
ding of good leadership, security, peace and condition for sustainable and inclusive growth and development. EAC countries may benefit from the important economic resources, especially the oil from South Sudan and reliable market and natural resources in the DRC. However, the admission of South Sudan and other fragile countries like DRC and Somalia would complicate the process leading up to the proposed EAC monetary union because these countries are unlikely to satisfy the EAC convergence criteria. That is why in this paper we anticipate a very fragile EAC, a community that is skeptical to attainment of its set objective in the EAC Treaty of 2002. The admission of Southern Sudan and a prospective admission of the Democratic Republic of Congo in the EAC integration seem to be politically motivated rather than strategically calculated to bring genuine development in the EAC.
The paper commends for a genuine recommitment of the EAC to its founding doctrines on admission of new entry in the integration, because the main issue here may not be a big number of countries forming the EAC, but the disparities between South Sudan and DRC to the rest of EAC members in the sense that, several domestic characteristics of state, influence the success of regional integration. Therefore such politically motivated and membership interests rather than envisioned long-term calculated reasons for admission should be avoided in the process of building a composed and prosperous EAC for the furtherance of the future EAC.
Asian Development Bank (ADB) working Paper (2010). “The role of membership rules in regional organizations.
Assefa, H. (1996), Peace and Reconciliation as a paradigm; A Philosophy of Peace and its implication for the conflict, Governance and Economic Growth. Kampala- East African Publishers.
Baldoni E. (2003). The Free Movement of Persons the European Union: A Legal – Historical Overview. Pioneer Working Paper No.2,

           Baregu, M. (2004) Understanding obstacles to Peace: Actors Interests and Strategies in Africa’s Great Lakes Region, Fountain Publishers, Uganda-Kampala.

Bellamy, A. (2004), Mass Atrocities and Armed Conflict: Links, Distinctions and Implications for the Responsibility to prevent, The Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA52961, and USA

          Breen, R. and Rottman D. (1995) “Class Stratification: A Comparative Perspective. Hemel Hempstead”: Harvester Wheat sheaf.

Chingoni M. and Nakana S. (2009), the challenge of Regional Integration in Southern Africa-African Journal of Political Science and International Relations. Vol. 3 (10): 396-408, October 2009.East African Community Facts and Figures 2009.
Congressional research service report, 2011 Ernest Aryeetey at al (2012), “The Oxford Companion to the Economics of Africa” Oxford University Press.
 Daniel, E. (1984), American Federalism: A View from the States, vii. New York: Harper and Row
 Duncan S. (2008) The Oxford Handbook of International Relations. University Press Cambridge
Durgesh K. (2010) “Asian Economic Integration and Cooperation: Challenges and Way Forward for Pan-Asian Regionalism,” GIGA Working Papers,
EAC (2002), the Treaty for Establishment of the East African Community, EAC Sercetariat, Arusha Tanzania.
EAC (2004), Protocol on the Establishment of East Africa Common Market, EAC Secretariat, Arusha Tanzania.
EAC (2004), Report of the Committee on Fast Tracking East African Federation,EAC Secretariat, Arusha Tanzania.
EAC monetary Affairs committee (2008). “Review of monetary affairs committee achievements and challenges since its inception report (1998-2008).
EAC Treaty (1999). the Treaty for Establishment of the East African Community, EAC Sercetariat, Arusha Tanzania
Ernst .H. (1961), the Obsolescence of Regional Integration Theory, Berkeley, University of California Fanon F. 1964: Toward the African Revolution: Political Essays. Grove Press.
Estevadeordal, A. and K. Suominen (2003) “Rules of Origin: A World Map”, Paper presented at the seminar 'Regional Trade Agreements in Comparative Perspective: Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia Pacific.
Folayan O.  (1975) economic intergration: the Nigerian experience since independence, Faculty of social science at University of Lagos
Gilbert M. Khadiagala (2009), “Regionalism and conflict resolution: Lessons from the Kenyan crisis”, Journal of Contemporary African Studies. Vol.19 (6) pp 155-175
Hakim P. and Litan R. (2002). The Future of North America Integration: Beyond NAFTA.
Haas. B (1950). Theorizing European Integration: Revisiting New Functionalism and testing its Suitability for explaining the Development of EC completion policy. McGowan, Lee.
 Holst R. (1990) Inter Industry Analysis with Social Accounting Methods: Economic Research.
Hurrell A. (1995). Regionalism Theoretical Perspective. Oxford University Press.
IMF (2011). “South Sudan Country report”. In East Africa: Case of Regulations on Free Movement of Persons M. A Thesis. University of Nairobi
Kamala, D. (2012) Tanzania: The Gateway to East African Community Common Market. The Celebrations of Tanzania’s 50 years of Independence Organized by Britain: Paper Presentation
Marks, Hooghe and Blank1996. Mbogoro D.A.K 1978: The common market Concept and Economic Development : Tanzania’s Experience in the East Africa Common Market. University of Dar- Es- Salam.
Masson, P. (2012), “Effect of Oil and Gas Discoveries on the Proposed EAC Monetary Union,” (draft, National Bank of Rwanda, May.
Melady P.  (1961) Profile of African Leaders. New York. Macmillan.
Meredith A. (2005), trade intergration in EAC: an assessment in Kenya, Free press.
Mpangala G. (2004) Democracy and Development Challenges in Africa: The African Union Perspective in Tanzania Journal of Development Studies.
Mukandala 2000, A Political Federation, the East Africa Countries Joint Export and Investment Strategies fo EAC 2006-2010.
Munster,  K. (2009). Customs Law of the East African Community in light of WTO Law and the Revised Kyoto Convention.
Musonda (2006),Migration Legislation In East Africa, international labour organization 2002/HLWG/40
New Times Newspaper of Rwanda 20th April69 Papagianni G 2006: Institutional and Policy Dynamics of E.U Migration Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Ngowi (2009) economic development and change in Tanzania since independence: the political leadership factor, economics department at mzumbe university
Odhiambo M. (1981) The Impact of Financial Liberalization in Developing Countries: Experiences from Four SADC Countries. OSSREA

           Ojo et all., (1985), African International Relations, London: Longman

Olson, Mancur (1965). “The Logic of Collective Action”. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Pres
Pentland C. (1973) International Theory and European Integration. The Free Press.
Philippe schmitter, A Revised Theory of Regional Integration. In Lindberg and Scheingold, Eds.Pollock 1996: 1971 Pieson 19 Reina A (2006) Kenya Immigration border Procedures Manual Guidelines on Policies and Procedures for Immigration officers: Nairobi: IOM
Reith S et all., (2011) The East African Community Regional Integration Between Aspiration And Reality.
Rupiya, M. (2005), UN Panel of experts. A peace Building Tool? ISS Paper 112, New York
Rummel R.J., (1995) “ Democracy Power, Genocide and Mass Murder, Journal of  onflict Resolution. 5(2). Pp-214 230
Russet (1967). “International regions and international system: A study in political ecology.”. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally
Sachdev I. (1995). Language and Identity: Linguistic Vitality of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada.The London Journal of Canadian Studies 1995 Volume 11/41
Salim A., & Eyakuze A. (2012) Tanzania and the EAC: From Timid defensiveness to Confident Engagement. De Montfort University Press. UK
Stephen, G (2008). Causes of the Congolese civil Wars and their implications for Humanitarian assistance. Cologne  University Press.
Sandholtz W. and Sweet A. S. “European Integration and Supranational Governance.” Journal of European Public Policy 4 (1997)
Scheneider and Aspinwall (2011): Regionalization: Spain, France and The United Kingdom. University of Amsterdam. Shiraku M. R. 2013: A critical Analysis of the Implementation of Migration Law and Regulation
Southern Sudan Centre for Census, Statistics and evaluation (2011), “ key indicators for Southern Sudan”.
Veit B. and James D. (2010) “African regional integration and European involvement: external agents in the East African Community,” South African Geographical Journal. Vol.13 (5). Pp 12-30
Venables (1999) “Integration Agreements: A Force for Convergence or Divergence?” Proceedings of World Bank ABCDE Conference, Policy Research Working Paper Series no. 2260, World Bank.
Wendt, A. (1994), Collective Identity Formation and the International State; African Political Science Review, Vol.88, No.2, pp 384-396

            Willis, K. (2005) “Theories and Practices of Development”. London and New York: Routledge.