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What has India gained by conferring special status to Jammu and Kashmir? What has India gained by conferring separate laws, separate Constitution and separate flag to Jammu and Kashmir? What has India gained by not allowing people from other parts of the country to come and settle in Jammu and Kashmir? It is separatists and anti-Indian forces who have gained by all this!

                                       Why when late Maharaja Hari Singh had unconditionally acceded to India did Centre at that time not allow Jammu and Kashmir to be fully merged with India? Why do we keep treating Jammu and Kashmir as special and different from the rest of India? Why politicians claim Jammu and Kashmir to be the head of India and yet never ensured that this head is fully attached with the rest of the body by merging it completely with India with no ifs and buts? Why Centre fails to realize that this separate head would be just reduced to nothing?
                                      Why Centre allowed discriminatory provisions like Article 370 and Article 35A to be incorporated in our Constitution? Why all this was done through a Presidential order way back in 1954? Why it was not revoked later? Due to sheer lack of political will!
                                          Why can’t Centre amend Constitution to merge Jammu and Kashmir fully with India? Why Centre inspite of majority in both the houses of Parliament is not taking any step in this direction? Why Centre fails to appreciate that so many concessions given to Jammu and Kashmir has only served to further alienate the people of Jammu and Kashmir from India? It has encouraged separatists to wave Pakistani flags, flags of dreaded global terror groups like ISIS among others and still get security from Centre worth crores of rupees! This must stop forthwith! NIA raids on Hurriyat leaders and their probe into their funding and nexus with terror leaders in Pakistan is welcome but just house arrest will not do! They must be put behind bars because that is their right place! Anyone who hobnobs with Pakistan and puts our soldiers and national security in grave peril don’t deserve freedom of any kind! Their case must be pursued with full vigour and taken to its logical conclusion!
                                        Why can’t Centre rescind Article 35A that empowers the state’s legislature to define Jammu and Kashmir residents and accord citizenship rights to them? Why can’t Centre rescind Article 35A which bars non-residents from buying property in the state, applying for government jobs, voting in the Jammu and Kashmir Assembly elections? Why can’t Centre actively argue in favour of its abrogation in the Supreme Court where it is currently being debated as it has been challenged?
                              Truth be told, a five-Judge Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court is examining a law which denies Kashmiri women and their descendants of their property rights should they marry anyone outside the state and bars them from applying for local jobs. What nonsense! Why  should a Kashmiri women be barred from property rights or any other rights just because she marries someone from outside the state? This alone explains why Article 35A has been challenged many times in the past.
                                          Before proceeding ahead, it is imperative to first understand what Article 35A is all about and how it crept inside our Constitution. The President while invoking the powers vested in him under Article 370 clause (d) issued “The Constitution (Application to Jammu & Kashmir) Order 1954 on May 14, 1954 (C.O. 48)” where under many provisions of Constitution and entries of Schedules were made applicable to J&K. The order, inter alia, states, “After Article 35, the following new Article shall be added, namely:
“35A. Saving of laws with respect to permanent residents and their rights- Notwithstanding anything contained in this Constitution, no existing law in force in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, and no law hereafter enacted by the Legislature of the State: (a) defining the classes or persons who are, or shall be, permanent residents of the State of Jammu and Kashmir; or (b) conferring on such permanent residents any restrictions as respects: (i) employment under the State Government; (ii) acquisition of immovable property in the State; (iii) settlement in the State; or (iv ) right to scholarships and such other forms of aid as the State Government may provide, shall be void on the ground that it is inconsistent with or takes away or abridges any rights conferred on the other citizens of India by any provision of this Part.”

                                               While craving for the exclusive indulgence of my esteemed readers, let me inform them that a Kashmiri woman Charu Wali Khanna has challenged Article 35A of the Indian Constitution to make special laws regarding the state. Another state law which bars outsiders from picking up property or jobs in the state is already under challenge. All such raw discrimination must end forthwith once and for all! The 1954 order which ushered in Article 35A was only supposed to be a temporary provision and same is the case with Article 370 but why it is that even after 70 years of independence they have still not been scrapped?
                                             For my esteemed readers exclusive indulgence, let me also inform them that the top court is also examining a challenge to the special status guaranteed to the state under Article 370 of the Constitution. In its preliminary observations, a Bench led by Chief Justice-designate Dipak Misra said the law seemed to be violative of the right to equality guaranteed under the Indian Constitution. Very rightly so! He said that this may have to be examined by a Bench comprising five Benches. Even former CJI JS Khehar had raised the question while he was CJI that, “How can one country have two Constitutions and two flags and two laws? This disgrace must be set right by a Constitutional amendment and Jammu and Kashmir must be merged fully with India! Why when Pakistan can merge PoK with Pakistan can we not do the same with J&K?
                                      To put things in perspective, the Supreme Court is hearing a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) petition by Seema Razdan Bhargav and Charu Wali Khanna thereby challenging the Constitutional validity of Article 35A, which prohibits a non-Jammu and Kashmir resident from buying property in the State and ensures job reservation for residents. It came up before a Bench of Justices Dipak Misra and AM Khanwilkar, was tagged along with another petition challenging the Constitutional validity of Article 35A which has already been referred to a three-Judge Bench. Discrimination between citizens of one state as compared to that of another cannot be justified under any circumstances!    
                                       A bare reading of Article 370 (1) (d) of the Constitution of India would show that there is no power conferred to the President of India to amend the Constitution by adding any new Article by himself. It also states that Article 368(1) empowers the Parliament to amend, vary and repeal any provision of the Constitution and states that it is beyond the power and jurisdiction of the President to inculcate any Article to the Constitution. Therefore, it is unconstitutional for the President to drive a new Article by himself.
                                               Not stopping here, it is further contended that this Article is violative of fundamental rights which are Article 14, 21 and 19 of the Constitution as it creates a difference among people of the rest of India and Jammu and Kashmir. It was prayed in the petition that a declaration be made that Constitution can be amended only by Article 368. It was also demanded in the petition that the Article 35A be held “unconstitutional” as the President could not have “amended the Constitution” by way of the 1954 order, and that it was only supposed to be a “temporary provision”.   


                                        Truth be told, the Centre is likely to take a divergent opinion from that of the Jammu and Kashmir government on Article 35A, on the ground that it discriminates against women who marry outside the State from applying for jobs or buying property which is in violation of Article 14 of the Constitution. Article 14 stipulates that, “The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India.” It is beyond a straw of doubt that Article 35A falls foul of the direction laid down in Article 14 of the Constitution.
                             In all fairness, Article 35A and 370 must be scrapped and Jammu and Kashmir must be integrated with the rest of India. As far as protests in J&K are concerned, that has been happening since 1947, nothing new. Kashmir Valley cannot alone be allowed to hold the whole State of Jammu and Kashmir to ransom!
                                     When India always maintain J&K as an integral part of India, it is high time and now it must be fully integrated with the rest of India so that it becomes an inseparable part of India in reality and not just on papers or on lips alone! Too much importance should not be attached to what Mehbooba says or what Abdullahs says or what Hurriyat says who love chanting anti-Indian slogans! Unity and integrity of India is more important and not their petty vested interests!
                                   One can only laugh when Mehbooba says that “Any attempt to tinker with Article 35A would have repercussions, and India will not get a shoulder to carry its national flag in J&K.” This is certainly not a laughing matter. J&K is the head of India and we have lost countless soldiers to ensure that it remains with India! No force not even God can ever snatch away J&K from India! Mehbooba must know this fully well that India has not sacrificed more than one lakh soldiers in J&K just for gifting it to Pakistan or anyone else! Centre is quite capable to deal sternly and strongly with the anti-national forces that don’t want the full and final merger of J&K with India!
                                      Why those Indians who settled in Jammu are still treated as refugees and why they are not allowed to become owner of the land they cultivate even though they can build houses on the allotted land nor can they sell or dispose the land? Why they are even denied jobs, admissions in higher educational institutions, and worst of all even denied the right to vote in elections for panchayats, local bodies and State legislature and cannot avail of any scholarships like Prime Minister Special Scholarship Scheme for J&K and any other benefit as this can be achieved only by the production of Permanent Resident Certificate which is mandatory and which is again denied to them? Why the people who migrated from West Pakistan at the time of partition or those migrants from Nepal who were brought to serve in the Maharaja’s Army before partition and about 200 odd Valmiki families who migrated from Punjab in late fifties and were mostly employed as safai karamcharis are still discriminated against due to this shameful “Special Status” enjoyed by J&K by virtue of Article 35A and 370? But in contrast, Muslim families who migrated to Pakistan and became Pakistani citizens are allowed to return even today and claim their property in accordance with Section 6(2) of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir amended vide 6th Amendment enacted in 1965. This is beyond absurdity and discrimination of the highest order!
                                            One fervently hopes that the Constitution Bench will act decisively so that merger of J&K becomes complete and final with India! Two wrongs can never make a right. Just because Article 35A and Article 370 have existed for 70 years it does not mean that they can never be abrogated! I am sure that the Supreme Court will keep the larger picture in mind and render a landmark decision on this very soon! Centre must also immediately amend Constitution to allow the complete assimilation of J&K into India! All citizens of India must back Centre in doing so because this alone can wipe out the sense of alienation and separatism that has been cultivated by anti-Indian forces assiduously since 1947 and complete the full and final merger of J&K with India! But the billion dollar question is: Will Centre ever do this? I have serious doubts!    
Sanjeev Sirohi, Advocate,
s/o Col BPS Sirohi,
A 82, Defence Enclave,
Sardhana Road, Kankerkhera,
Meerut – 250001, Uttar Pradesh.
0
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Mohammad Kamrul Ahsan
Assistant Professor
Department of Business Administration
Metropolitan University, Sylhet, Bangladesh


Abstract
Job satisfaction is an important and burning researchable issue for academicians and researchers.  The success or failure of any organization especially banking sector largely depends on employees’ job satisfaction. The main purpose of this paper is to find out some important factors that affect the employees’ job satisfaction and to compare both private and public banks. The sample consisted of 80 bank employees from both 4 public sector banks (40) and 4 private sector banks (40). Questionnaire method is used to collect information. The questionnaire consists of two parts including demographic part and another part is on factors affecting job satisfaction. A five-point Likert scale has been used to rank the collected data. The researchers have used percentage, mean, standard deviation and t-test to analyze the collected data.The major findings of this study are the employees of public banks perceive greater satisfaction with job security and compensation packages as compared to private banks employees. On the other hand, private sector banks employees have expressed greater satisfaction with salary and co-worker relationship as compared to those of public sector banks employees.
Key Words: Private; Public; Bank; Employee; Job Satisfaction


1. Introduction
At present, human life has become more stressful and complicated. The needs and requirements of the people are increasing and changing. When needs are not fulfilled, they become dissatisfied. Dissatisfied peoples’ contributions are very low. Job satisfaction is one of the most popular and widely researched topics in the field of organizational psychology (Spector, 1997). Locke (1976) defines job satisfaction as ‘a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences’.  Employees who have higher job satisfaction are usually less absent, less likely to leave, more productive, more likely to display organizational commitment, and more likely to be satisfied with their lives (Lease, 1998), (Sharma and Khanna, 2014). Job satisfaction is the positive and negative attitude towards the job of the employee. When a person says that he has high job satisfaction, it means that he really likes his job, feels good about it and values his job dignity. Job satisfaction is an important technique used to motivate the employees to work harder. It is often said that “a happy employee is a productive employee” (Chahal et al. 2013). A satisfied, happy and hardworking employee is an important asset of any organization, including banks. Banking financial institutions are the backbone of a nation's economy; so the efficient human resources management and the maintenance of higher job satisfaction levels affect the entire economy’s growth and performance. Mizan et al. (2013) said that the environment of banking sectors in Bangladesh is fairly competitive and they need to ensure the employee’s job satisfaction to perform efficiently. There are a variety of factors that can influence a person’s level of job satisfaction. Some of these factors include Organizational policy and strategy, salary, promotion, bonus and rewards, job security, relationship with coworkers/supervisors, work culture, working condition, motivation, training, and Efficiency, etc. Banking sectors are growing fast in last ten years in Bangladesh. The banking sector comprises four categories of scheduled banks: i) State Owned Commercial Banks (SOCBs), ii) Specialized Banks (SDBs), iii) Private Commercial Banks (PCBs): a) Conventional PCBs b) Islami Shariah-based PCBs and iv) Foreign commercial banks (FCBs). There are now 4 non-scheduled banks in Bangladesh, (BB, 2016). The workforce of any bank is responsible for its productivity and profitability. So, for the success of banking, it is very important to manage human resource effectively and to find out whether it’s employees are satisfied or not. High job satisfaction indicates well-managed organization. It is a measurement of a supportive working environment in an organization.

1.1 Objective
The main objectives of this study are as follows:
i.                    To identify the factors that satisfy the bank employees in Bangladesh.
ii.                  To compare the factors of job satisfaction in public and private sector banks.
1.2 Hypothesis
H0: There is no significant difference between the employees of public and private banks in respect of their job satisfaction.
H1: The Level of job satisfaction in private sector banks is lower than public banking sectors.
1.3 Methodology
Data collection is one of the major requirements to conduct any research. In this paper data has been collected from two sources:
i) Primary Sources: A structured questionnaire has been used to collect the data from four public and four private banks in Sylhet city. From each bank, ten employees are selected by the researchers. Here judgmental sampling has been used to collect the data from the respondents.  Judgmental sampling is a non-probability sampling where the researchers select the units to be sampled based on their knowledge and judgment. This type of strategy is termed as purposive sampling technique.
a) Population: All the employees of the selected banks such as managers, senior officers, officers and junior officers have been addressed in this study.
b) Sample Size: The total number of sample is 80 bank employees. 40 employees are taken from public banks and 40 employees are taken from private banks. Here is a table of collected data.
Table No. 1: Name of the banks and number of employees.
Public Banks
Total
Male
Female
Private Banks
Total
Male
Female
Sonali Bank
10
6
4
Southeast Bank
10
7
3
Agrani Bank
10
6
4
City Bank
10
8
2
RupaliBnak
10
10
0
Dutch Bangla Bank
10
5
5
Janata Bank
10
10
0
Trust Bank
10
8
2
Total
40
32
8
Total
40
28
12
Percentage
100
80
20
Percentage
100
70
30
Source: Authors’ Compilation based on Field Survey, 2016

Total respondents are 80 employees and of them, the male is 60 (75%) and female is 20 (25%) in numbers. The questionnaire has two parts. Part 1 has demographic information and part 2 has factors influencing job satisfaction. To find out the influencing factors relating to job satisfaction, fourteen factors have been considered as independent factors and only one factor is considered as a dependent factor that is job satisfaction. These fourteen factors are rated by Five Points Likert Scale. These are 1=Strongly Dissatisfied, 2=Dissatisfied, 3=Average, 4=Satisfied, 5=Strongly Satisfied. To verify the collected data relating to influencing factors several statistical analyses i.e., descriptive analysis and t test were conducted.
ii) Secondary Sources: Secondary data has been collected from websites, journals, books etc. Several articles from various journals have been consulted to develop the leading ideas.

1.4 Limitations
There are some limitations of this study. They are:
  1. The data have been collected from only the Sylhet region. So it is difficult so show the whole scenario of job satisfaction both in private and public commercial banks’ employees throughout Bangladesh.
  2. At the time of data collection, it is found that some respondents feel hesitate to provide actual information about their job. So, it may affect the actual results of the study.
  3. The ratio of female respondents is comparatively lower than the male respondents. The percentage is only 25%. So, it is difficult to know the actual situation of female employees’ job satisfaction.
  4. The sample size is only 80 employees (public 40 and private 40). Actually, this sample size is small to compare the public and private employees’ satisfactions in Bangladesh.
  5. Satisfaction level differs from person to person.

2. Literature Review
Literature reviews help a researcher to develop his or her ideas about a certain theme. There are thousands of research papers on job satisfaction because no organization can go a single day without employees. If employees are happy the organization can succeed very soon. For this reason, the researchers try to find out the influencing factors of job satisfaction and try to compare between the employees of private and public banks. To conduct this research, the researchers, take help from the following authors’ writings.
Bora (2014) observed that degree of job satisfaction of private sector banks was found to be comparatively slightly lower than in public sector banks. The main reasons for job dissatisfaction in Private sector bank were job security, salary not at par with experience, not much value or credit was given for the tasks accomplished and monotonous nature of a job. Employees of private-sector banks perceive that their jobs are not secure. In public sector banks, welfare policies are clearly defined and legally enforced. Retirement, pensions, gratuity and other related welfare policies are effectively executed. So there is no problem with social security. In private sector banks, welfare activities are neither well planned nor well executed. Employee turnover is very high and job security is very low. She also showed the factors that affect the job satisfaction. These are (1) Communication & information flow, (2) Interpersonal relationship, (3) Credit/value to work, (4) The job itself, (5) Degree of motivation for the job, (6) Current career opportunities, (7) Level of job security, (8) Involvement & identification with org goals, (9) Nature of supervision, (10) Implementation of change & innovation, (11) Kind of tasks required to be performed, (12) Extent of personal growth & development, (13) Conflict resolution, (14) Association of job with individual aspiration and ambition, (15) Participation in decision making, (16) Degree of skill utilization, (17) Flexibility & independence, (18) Organizational climate, (19) Level of salary with respect to experience and (20) Satisfaction with organization structure.
Pragya & Sandeep (2015) observed that degree of job satisfaction of private sector banks was found to be significantly lower than in public sector banks. At least three reasons were found to be responsible for the low job satisfaction level of employees of private sector
banks. These are (i) Pay, ii) Work relationships and iii) Use of skills and abilities
. In the study, Job satisfaction was measured on the basis of four variables. These are (i) Pay and promotion potential, (ii) General working conditions (for example, safety, heat, noise, and dust), (iii) Work relationships (for example relation with superiors, peers, subordinates, and workers) and (iv) Use of skills and abilities. Private sector jobs do not have the required reputation and prestige as compared to government jobs. If it is a private company then satisfaction will be very low and people will try to switch to a government job. Government jobs are symbols of status, prestige, security and social acceptance. Private sector jobs are the second choice.
Padhy & Bhuyan (2015) indicated that significant differences exist between employees of Public Sector and Private Sector Banks regarding various aspects of job satisfaction, pays, supervision, security, acknowledgment. But they are significant in the case of the aspects, secure, promotion, relation with co-workers, employee’s empowerment, supervision, and nature of a job. They observed that degree of job satisfaction of private sector banks was found to be comparatively slightly lower than in public sector banks. The main reasons for job dissatisfaction in Private sector bank were job security, salary not at par with experience, not much value or credit was given for the tasks accomplished and monotonous nature of a job. Employees of private-sector banks perceive that their jobs are not secure. In private sector banks, the environment in highly competitive and job security is based on performance and various other factors. Though it is true that this environment provides a challenging job profile, it also creates a less secure environment. Industriousness, dedication, devotion, and commitment are not enough to secure a job. On the other hand, in public sector banks, welfare policies are clearly defined and legally enforced. Retirement, pensions, gratuity and other related welfare policies are effectively executed. So there is no problem with social security. In private sector banks, welfare activities are neither well planned nor well executed. Employee turnover is very high and job security is very low.
Chothani (2015) said that ‘After the extensive literature review, Sowmya and Panchanatham (2011) reveals that job satisfaction is dependent on supervisor behavior, coworker behavior, pay and promotion, job and working condition and organizational aspects. In the case of job satisfaction aspects, commercial banks employee perceived pay and promotion as an indispensable factor to decide their satisfaction level. Public Bank Employees and Private Bank Employees differ significantly in their job satisfaction. Public Bank Employees have the high level of job satisfaction than Private Bank Employees. The main reasons for job dissatisfaction in the Private bank were job insecurity, salary not at par with experience, not much value or credit was given for the tasks accomplished and monotonous nature of a job.’
Devi & Suneja (2013) found that significant difference exists between employees of Public Sectors Banks (PSBs) and Private Sector Banks (PVSBs) regarding pay increments. The employees of PVSBs are more satisfied with pay increments and revision than that of PSBs employees. No significant difference has been found regarding various aspects of relation with co -workers which indicate that employees of both PSBs and PVSBs feel the same level of satisfaction in their organization.  They also found that no significant difference exists between employees of Public Sectors Banks (PSBs) and Private Sector Banks (PVSBs) regarding various aspect of employee empowerment except two. Employees of PVSBs are more satisfied than the employees of PSBs regarding the statement ‘I am happy with the amount of freedom I have to decide how I approach my work and 'the amount of time I have to perform various job activities’. Thus, in both statements, the level of satisfaction has been found more in a case of employees of PVSBs than those of PSBs. Again they showed that employees of both PVSBs and PSBs are satisfied with their supervision. The significant
difference has been found in the mean scores regarding the statement ‘I am comfortable with how much direction I receive from my boss’. It indicates that employees of PSBs are more satisfied than the employees of PVSBs in this regard. In short, they said that significant differences exist between employees of Public Sector and Private Sector Banks
regarding various aspects of job satisfaction, pay and fringe benefits, supervision, training, and development. But they are significant in the case of the aspects, relation with co-workers,
employee’s empowerment, supervision, performance appraisal and nature of a job.
Sehgal (2012) indicated that there is not much difference in the level of job satisfaction between public (UCO) banks and private (AXIS) banks, but regarding some factors like job security, salary offered to employees, benefits given to the employees and experience, the satisfaction level differs in both the banks. The employees of public Bank are highly satisfied with the level of job security as compared to the employees of a private bank, as UCO Bank is public sector bank whereas AXIS Bank is a private sector bank. When it comes to salary package in relation to the experience of employees, the employees at public Bank are more satisfied than the employees of private Bank. The employees at the public Bank are also happy regarding the benefits they get like promotions appraisals, incentives etc. The author also showed that highly experienced employees at public Bank are more satisfied with their job as compared to the employees at a private bank.
Jain et al. (2012) observed that degree of job satisfaction of private sector banks was found to be significantly lower than in public sector banks. Job satisfaction was measured on the basis of five variables. These are (i) pay, (ii) work condition (for example, safety, heat, noise, and dust), (iii) service conditions (for example, security, promotion, and welfare), (iv) relation with superiors, peers, and workers, and (v) company as a whole. Among four variables, the degree of difference is not noticeable. But low scores of the third variable, service conditions, were found to be responsible for overall low degree job satisfaction in private sector banks. Employees of private-sector banks perceive that their jobs are not secure. In public sector banks, welfare policies are clearly defined and legally enforced. Retirement, pensions, gratuity and other related welfare policies are effectively executed. So there is no problem with social security. In private sector banks, welfare activities are neither well planned nor well executed. Employee turnover is very high and job security is very low.
Monga et al. (2015) found that factors of salary, interpersonal relationship, and communication, the attitude of superiors, working conditions and teamwork are more significant in determining job satisfaction of employees.
Varshney & Malpani (2014) said that Job satisfaction is a psychological concept and it is mostly depending upon the internal feeling of employees. There are a lot of independent variables on which job satisfaction is depending. These are educational qualifications, nature of work, pay, job security, promotional opportunities and family & work life balance. The employee’s satisfaction improves the productivity and profit. So it is important both employees and employer also.
Parveen & Khan (2014) showed Salary, Compensation & Benefits; Promotion; Career Development &Training; Interpersonal Relations and Working Conditions (Independent variables) and Job Satisfaction (dependent variable) play a significant role in employee satisfaction, resulting in increased employee satisfaction and loyalty. They also showed that very high degree of positive correlation between the independent variables (working conditions and CareerDevelopment & Training) and the dependent variable Total Job Satisfaction.
Sharma & Khanna (2014) indicated that factors including the salary of employees, performance appraisal system, promotional strategies, employee’s relationship with management and other co- employees, training, and development program, work burden and working hours are found important for improving job satisfaction of bank employees in banks. The increase in level of these factors improves overall satisfaction of employees.
Sattar & Ali (2014) determined that all the variables promotions, work environment, leadership behavior and job satisfaction have a significant relationship with employees’ job satisfaction.
Chahal et al. (2013) defined job satisfaction as an extent of positive feelings or attitudes that individuals have towards their jobs and it is mainly depend on various factors such as salary of employees, performance appraisal system, promotional strategies, employee’s relationship with management and other co- employees, training and development program, work burden and working hours, nature of job, working environment, incentives linked job, promotional methods, etc., Employee’s welfare measures and Job security should be given utmost importance, so that the employee’s turnover may be restricted. If these factors are given little more care, the company can maintain good workers with a high level of satisfaction, organizational commitment, and involvement. This will, in turn, lead to effectiveness and efficiency in their work which leads to increased productivity. The researcher concluded that overall the job satisfaction of bank officers though is not very high but still satisfactory. But there is still considerable room for improvements. An organization should try to take every possible step to enhance job satisfaction among employees because if employees are satisfied then customers associated with it will also be satisfied.
Hong et al. (2013) indicated that work environment, pay and salary and promotion criteria significant impact towards employees’ level of job satisfaction whereas fairness of the company does not have a significant impact towards the employees’ level of job satisfaction.
Islam & Zaman (2013) identified organizations with pleased employees tend to be more helpful than associations with displeased employees. This learning accepted the affiliation between independent variables (motivation and job security) and a dependent variable (job satisfaction). Because high level of job satisfaction increases employees works involvement and task performance.
Saleem et al. (2013) found that job stress, communication and personality have a significant but weak impact on job satisfaction whereas recruitment & selection procedures, organizational policy & strategy, and nature of work have a significant and strong impact on employee job satisfaction.
On the basis of introduction and literature reviews, the researchers have formulated a research model which is given here.
 Source: Authors’ Compilation, 2016
This research model shows that hypothetically independent variables affect the dependent variable.
 3. Analysis and Findings
3.1 Demographic Information
Table No. 2: Profile of the Respondents
S. No.
Demographic Profile
Public Banks
Private Banks
Total
1
Gender




Male
32 (80.0)
28 (70.0)
60 (75.0)

Female
8 (20.0)
12 (30.0)
20 (25.0)
2
Age (Years)




Less than 30
6 (15.0)
16 (40.0)
22 (27.5)

 31 to 40
23 (57.5)
20 (50.0)
43 (53.75)

 41 to 50
6 (15.0)
4 (10.0)
10 (12.5)

51 to 60
5 (12.5)

5 (6.25)
3
Education




Graduation
9 (22.5)
3 (7.5)
12 (15.0)

Post-Graduation
29 (72.5)
37 (92.5)
66 (82.5)

Banking Diploma
2 (5.0)

2 (2.5)
4
Religious




Muslim    
25 (62.5)
32 (80.0)
57 (71.25)

Hindu
15 (37.5)
8 (20.0)
23 (28.75)
5
Marital Status




Married   
29 (72.5)
29 (72.5)
58 (72.5)

Unmarried   
11 (27.5)
11 (27.5)
22 (27.5)
6
Experience (Years)




Less than 1
5 (12.5)
4 (10.0)
9 (11.25)

1 to 5
19 (47.5)
21 (52.5)
40 (50.0)

5 to 10
11 (27.5)
14 (35.0)
25 (31.25)

10 to 15
4 (10.0)
1 (2.5)
5 (6.25)

Over 15
1 (2.5)

1 (1.25)
7
Working Position




Junior Officer
9 (22.5)
4 (10.0)
13 (16.25)

Executive Officer
18 (45.0)
23 (57.5)
41 (51.25)

Senior Executive Officer
12 (30.0)
11 (27.5)
23 (28.75)

Manager
1 (2.5)
2 (5.0)
3 (3.75)
Source: Authors’ Calculation based on Field Survey
From the table, the researchers have found that both private and public banks have few numbers of female employees. Most of the employees in private banks are young and energetic compared to public banks and here employees’ age is no more than 50 years. Most of the employees are highly educated compared to public banks. So the private banks’ manpower is greater than public banks.  These are the demographic information of the 40 respondents from public and 40 from private banks employees.
3.2Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction
Table No: 3 Descriptive Analyses
Public Banks
Private Banks
SN
Factors
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
1
Salary
2.97436
0.1298
4.00000
0.0900
2
Frequency and Amount of Bonuses
2.87179
0.1769
3.61538
0.1139
3
Fringe Benefits (Increment, Compensation)
4.33333
0.0848
3.02564
0.1663
4
Job Security
4.61538
0.0789
2.82051
0.1509
5
Workload
3.33333
0.1122
2.53846
0.1153
6
Training for Efficiency
3.71795
0.1216
3.61538
0.1252
7
Promotion Systems of the Bank
3.25641
0.1546
3.53846
0.1153
8
Flexibility of Working Hours
3.61538
0.1197
2.89744
0.1829
9
Attitude of Top Management
3.46154
0.0961
3.30769
0.1690
10
Leave Policy of Your Bank
3.48718
0.0890
3.23077
0.1578
11
Peers/Colleagues/Co-workers Relationship
4.07692
0.0852
4.15385
0.1135
12
Rewards for the Performance
2.61538
0.0945
3.84615
0.1073
13
Non-Financial Motivation
2.89744
0.1413
2.94872
0.1641
14
Working Condition and Environment
3.51282
0.1094
3.28205
0.1681

Overall Satisfaction
48.7692
1.5941
46.8205
1.9396
Note: More Mean and Less Standard Deviation indicates more important factors for job satisfaction. SD=Standard Deviation
Source: Authors’ Calculation based on Field Survey
After the analysis of Mean and Standard Deviation, the researchers have found some factors which are responsible for job satisfaction. For the public banks, i) Job Security (Mean=4.61538 and SD=0.0789), ii) Fringe Benefits: Increment, Compensation Packages (Mean=4.33333 and SD=0.0848 and iii) Co-workers Relationships (Mean=4.07692 and SD=0.0852) are the most influencing factors for job satisfaction. On the other hand, for the private banks i) Co-worker Relationships (Mean=4.15385 and SD=0.1135), and ii) Salary (Mean=4.00000 and SD=0.0900) are the most influencing factors for job satisfaction.
After that, the researcher has found some factors which are responsible for job dissatisfaction.  For the public banks i) Rewards for Performance (Mean=2.61538 and SD=0.0945) and ii) Non-Financial Motivation (Mean=2.89744 and SD=0.1413) are the most influencing factors for job dissatisfaction. On the other hand, for the private banks i) Work Load (Mean=2.53846 and SD=0.1153) and ii) Job Security (Mean=2.82051and SD=0.1509) and iii) Flexibility of working hours (Mean=3.200 and SD=0.887).
Finally, the researcher has found that overall satisfaction of public banks employees is greater than the private bank’s employees because of public banks have higher Mean of overall satisfaction than private banks. Public banks have a Mean value of 48.7692 and Standard Deviation of 1.5941. On the other hand, private banks have a Mean value of 46.8205 and Standard Deviation of 1.9396.
Chart No. 2: Overall Satisfaction

Source: Authors’ Calculation
So, it can be said that the employees of public banks are more satisfied than the employees of private banks

3.3 Hypothesis test
H0: There is no significant difference between the employees of public and private banks in respect of their job satisfaction.
H1: The level of job satisfaction in private sector banks is lower than public banking sectors.
Table No: 4 Mean, SD and ‘t’ values of overall satisfaction scores of Public and Private Banks Employees.

Overall Satisfaction
‘t’
N
Mean
SD
Public Banks
40
48.7692
1.5941
4.9110**
Private Banks
40
46.8205
1.9396
**Significant at 0.01 levels. (2.639)
From the table, the calculated ‘t’ value is found ‘4.9110’ which is higher than the table value of ‘2.639’ at the significance level of 0.01. Hence the Null Hypothesis “There is no significant difference between the employees of public and private banks in respect of their job satisfaction” is rejected. That means, there is a significant difference between the employees of public and private banks employees in respect of their job satisfaction. The Mean value indicates that the public bank employees scored better than private bank employees in respect of job satisfaction. So, Alternative Hypothesis “The Level of job satisfaction in private sector banks is lower than public banking sectors” is accepted.
4. Conclusion
The main cause of dissatisfaction of private bank employees is that they feel insecure in their jobs. The cause of higher job satisfaction of public banks is that welfare policies are clearly defined and legally enforced in public banks. Retirement pension, gratuity and other related welfare policies are carefully executed. So, there is no problem of social security. On the other hand, welfare policies are neither well planned nor well executed in private sector banks. So they feel the demand of pensions, security and sometimes an easy lifestyle. For the public banks, salary is not satisfactory, so it should be increased. Jain et al. (2012)provides general suggestions for any organization to keep its employees satisfied are i) Understand employee first, ii) Understand his requirement, iii) Understand his interest of domain, iv) Understand his problems, v) Understand how much time is devoted to his family, vi) Understand his family problems, vii) Understand his financial issues, viii) Understand what he is thinking about his manager or team leader, ix) Understand any exploitation, x) Understand any mind teasing if any. For both public and private banks, i) Salaries of the employees must be given in accordance with their experience in the jobs, ii) Work should be given according to their abilities and knowledge, iii) Healthy and flexible work environment should be created, iv) Healthy relationship should be maintained in the organization, v) There should have rewards and appreciations for good works and good decisions, vi) There should be special benefits for achieving goals. The researchers think that these benefits will increase the job satisfaction among both public and private banks employees.
Employees are the assets of any organization. Efficient human resource management and maintaining higher job satisfaction level in banks determine not only the performance of the bank but also affect the growth and performance of the entire economy (Jain et al. 2012).  So, it is essential to keep them satisfied for the success of banking sector as well as the prosperity of the economy. It is very important to handle human resources effectively and to find out whether they are satisfied or not. Only if they are satisfied, they will work with commitment and project a positive image of the organization.

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This is Mohammad Kamrul Ahsan, the research fellow of the Department of the Business Administration at Shahjalal University of Science and Technology. He has completed his BBA and MBA degree from the Department of Finance and Banking from the University of Rajshahi. His area of interest regarding research includes the field of human behavior and green banking. He has contributed several articles to the peer-reviewed national and international journals. He has also attended several national and international research conferences in the home and abroad. He is now working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Business Administration, Metropolitan University, Sylhet, Bangladesh. 




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