Frederick Herzberg’s “2-factor concept” (alias “motivator-hygiene principle”) tries to give an explanation for satisfaction and motivation at work. This principle states that “pride and dissatisfaction are pushed with the aid of using different factors–motivation and hygiene elements, respectively. An employee’s motivation to work is normally associated with system satisfaction of a subordinate. Motivation may be seen as an inner inspiration that pushes human beings to benefit private and company’s goals.”
“Motivating factors” are the factors that make humans want to carry out, and offer human beings with pleasure, for instance achievement in work, reputation, promoting opportunities. These elements are considered to be inherent to the process, or the job completed. Hygiene elements encompass additives of the running environment together with pay, organisation regulations, manager’s approach, and other working environment. Even as Herzberg’s model has stimulated an exquisite deal of studies, researchers have failed to empirically display the version with reliability. Hackman & Oldham suggesting that “Herzberg’s proper method of the version also is a methodological reality”. Moreover, the idea does not do not forget man or woman variations, conversely expecting that all personnel will respond identically to adjustments in motivating/hygiene factors. Subsequently, the model has been criticized in that it fails to specify that “how these motivating/hygiene factors should be measured”.


The idea of discrepancy concept is to present an explanation behind “the ultimate supply of anxiety and dejection”. A character that did not complete his assignment feels the texture of tension and regrets under-performing. He will feel dejected as he was “not able to acquire their hopes and aspirations”. In keeping with this principle, everybody will examine what is expected of them for a particular function, and in the event that they do not meet the ones expectations then they’re punished. Over the years, those obligations and duties together form an abstract set of concepts, exact as a self-manual. Agitation and tension are the number one reaction whilst a character fails to accumulate the duty or obligation. This concept additionally clarifies that “if success of the obligations is acquired then the praise can be praise, approval, or love, the achievements and aspirations moreover form an abstract set of concepts, known as the ideal self-manual. Even as the person fails to attain those rewards, they begin to have feelings of dejection, sadness, or maybe despair.”


The dispositional technique suggests that “people differ in their tendency to be glad with their jobs, in different terms, challenge pleasure is to a degree an individual trait”. This technique became a top notch rationalization of interest pleasure in mild of proof that activity pride has a bent to be solid over the years and throughout course of careers. Research also suggests that “identical twins raised aside have comparable stages of activity pride”.
A more refined model that further clarified the dispositional technique became the centre “Self-evaluations model”, proposed by Timothy A., Edwin A. Locke, and Cathy C. Durham in 1997 choose et al. argued that “there are 4 core Self-reviews that decide one’s disposition toward activity pride: general self-efficacy, locus of manipulate, and neuroticism”. This version states that “higher degrees of self- conceitedness (the price one locations on his/her self) and standard self-efficacy (the belief in one’s non-public competence) cause better paintings satisfaction”. If one has an internal method of control (“believing one has manipulated over her/his personal lifestyles, in place of outside forces having control”) ends in higher job satisfaction. in the long run, decrease ranges of neuroticism cause better mission satisfaction.
3.3.3 Equity theory
Equity principle indicates “how a person perspectives equity in regard to social relationships such as with a business enterprise”. Someone identifies the amount of enter (matters received) from a dating in evaluation to the output (matters given) to supply an enter/output ratio. They go on to compare this ratio to that of peers to identify if they have they had an equitable courting. “Equity Theory” suggests that “if a man or woman thinks there is an inequality between two social agencies or people, the character is probably to be distressed because the ratio the various enter and the output are not identical”.
Employees who complete same tasks, get hold of the identical remuneration. If a person receives an increment for performing similar task, then a good deal of less benefited character will get dissatisfied. If alternatively, everybody gets increment and promotion, then “the sensation of equity” might be maintained. Few other psychologists have extended the fairness idea, suggesting “three behavioural reaction patterns to conditions of perceived fairness or inequity.” The three types are “benevolent, fairness sensitive, and entitled”. The level by means of way of every type impacts motivation, hobby satisfaction, and activity performance.
1.         Benevolent- happy while they’re under-paid in comparison with peers
2.         Equity sensitive-trusts everybody wants to be fairly paid and appreciated
3.         Entitled- trusts that the whole lot they get hold of is their simply due


The idea of job satisfaction has been looked at in a number of ways with the aid of many exceptional researchers and industry experts. A widely acknowledged definition in “organizational research” is Locke’s (1976)- “an enjoyable or fantastic emotional nation on account of the appraisal of one’s job or process studies”. Few others have defined it as clearly “how content material a character is along with his or her job; whether or not she or he likes the pastime or no longer”. it’s miles assessed at both the global degree (“whether or not or not the person is glad with the activity normal”), or at the facet diploma (“whether or not or not or no longer the person is satisfied with particular factors of the hobby”). Spector (1997) lists 14 elements: “Appreciation, conversation, Co-people, Fringe benefits, activity conditions, Nature of the work, agency, growth, regulations and strategies, advertising possibilities, recognition, protection, and Supervision”. A recent definition of the concept of mission delight is from Hulling and Choose (2003), who have referred to that “job pride includes multidimensional mental responses to a character’s process, and that those personal non responses have cognitive (evaluative), affective (or emotional), and behavioural additives.” Job satisfaction scale differs depend on the parameters examined. The affective emotions approximately the activity or the cognitive assessment of the technique. Affective activity delight is a subjective output which represents the emotional feeling the workers have about their task. Consequently, affective interest satisfaction for people displays the diploma of delight or pride their task in famous induces.
On the other hand, Cognitive task delight is an objective and logical evaluation of numerous sides of a method. Cognitive task satisfaction may be one-dimensional if it incorporates assessment of just one side of a hobby, which consist of salary or leave policy, or multi-dimensional if one plus elements of a manner are concurrently assessed.
“Cognitive task satisfaction” does not examine the degree of satisfaction or happiness that arises from unique process elements, but as an alternative gauges the quantity to which the ones technique components are judged with the aid of the process owner to be great in contrast with goals they aim. While “cognitive job satisfaction” might likely bring about affective system delight, the constructs are exquisite, now not always related, and feature precise antecedents and effects.
“Task satisfaction” can also be looked at in a bigger context of the type of problems that have an impact on an individual enjoys exertions, or their operating existence. Activity delight can be explained with respect to its relationships with other key factors, which includes standard health, pressure, manage at paintings, home-paintings interface, and job situations.
A have an observation to become aware of "assessment of factors Affecting activity delight of the employees in Public and personal vicinity", in India concluded that “during India employees typically generally tend to love their task in the event that they get what they agree with is an critical feature of an great hobby”. Weightage of the elements is estimated mostly on exhaustive survey. “Place”, “sector” and “gender study” of “task pleasure” has given a better view. Analysis of information set tells that most Indian workers are not satisfied with their jobs except for some like male in trade place and lady in schooling sector. Normal venture delight diploma of grownup adult males is found to be better than that of female. Overall process pride stage in production region is found to be very low.


The Country additionally witnessed an enlargement inside the banking and monetary machine. Perhaps the most important of the achievements is the reallocation of sartorial credit score in favour of previously ignored sectors like- agriculture, MSMEs, entrepreneurs and exports that shaped the middle of the focused sectors. Sectors which needed loan allocation having experts and self-hired men and women, artisans and poorer sections of the society. On the other hand, the bank credit to scale industries saw a significant fall. “Nationalization of banks” became a mixed blessing. Post this banks shifted emphasis from enterprise to agriculture. India saw fast growth in bank footprints, even in rural areas. Branch enlargement application brought about movement of general public’s savings. The banks that began after reforms of ‘91 are referred to as the brand new personal banks. They brought financial and economic reforms in the India. “The Banking regulation amendment Act of 1993” authorized the entry of recent personal banks in India.


Farming and Rural Banking offers with all enterprise associated with farming and related sports, Loan against Gold, loans to Self Help Groups and lending to authorities-backed schemes. Working Capital and farming term Loans for hen, dairy, cold garage devices and so on. It is also catering to numerous endeavours of the farming community. The bank has expanded retail farmer lending at a few locations in North & Central India specifically in Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh.


The wholesale banking commercial enterprise gives company clients in India various enterprise, transactional and digital banking merchandise. The financial institution gives consumer-focused products along with financing capital, alternate and transactional offerings, forex, loans and cash manage offerings. The wholesale operations industrial corporation incorporates 4 industrial enterprise categories and, products and services. The commercial enterprise caters corporates and investment Banking, emerging company, Banking and monetary institutions and monetary markets.


Dr. Dara Sudhakara Rao M.A.,M.Phil.,Ph.D.,

Senior Lecturer in English, Vivekananda Degree College,Nellore, Andhra Pradesh.

Email: rinkusudhakar@gmail.com

Alice Walker is the first major writer to make a full-fledged attack on patriarchal domination within the black community itself and her revolutionary writing emerges as unique decolonization of traditional love. Walker has worked for civil rights in Liberty County, Georgia and a number of civil rights projects in Mississippi. Walker, with her writing of The Color Purple, gets placed among the most influential contemporary American Writers and is almost universally recognized as a spokeswoman for black people. Alice Walker is awarded with the Pulitzer Prize in 1983 for her epistolary novel The Color Purple (1982) which advocates women-bonding and their association leads to the self reliance to survive the manifold oppression and humiliation suffered by the Afro-American women. This paper projects the plethora of oppression suffered by the potaganist, Celie in the novel. It also explores the effects of male domination upon Celie’s spirit.
Keywords: oppression, sexual oppression, rape, incest, humiliation.

Alice Walker was born to sharecropper parents in Eatonton, Georgia, in 1944. She grew up to become a highly acclaimed novelist, essayist and poet. She is best known for her novel The Color Purple, which won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction and the National Book Award for Fiction in 1983. Walker is also known for her work as an activist. She is credited with coining the term ‘womanism’. Alice Walker's career as a writer took flight with the publication of her third novel, The Color Purple, in 1982. The novel is set in the early 1900s, and explores the struggles in the life of the protagonist, Celie who passes through oppression at the hands of her father, and later, her husband.
Alice Walker’s novel The Color Purple is written in an epistolary form. The entire novel is written in series of the letters by Celie, the protagonist of the novel and her sister Nettie. Celie’s letters reflect her internal conflict, her silent suffering, and the impact of oppression and humiliation on her spirit. The Color Purple is a novel that begins with Celie, is a poor, uneducated and very plain looking fourteen-year-old girl’s cry for help. Celie has suffered repeated rapes and brutal beatings by the man she believes to be her father, Alphonso, who tells her, in the novel’s opening line, “You better not never tell nobody but God. It’d kill your mammy.” (p.1) It is a warning or rather a threat from the stepfather of Celie which silences her, thereby depriving her right to even speak of herself with anybody. She is not even allowed to share her feelings of joy or sorrow with anyone except God. Celie writes about the misery of childhood incest, physical abuse, and loneliness in her letters to God.
Celie's letters are written in non-standard English dialect, what Walker has called black folk language. In fact, Celie writes as many as 50 letters to God in a simple broken language which symbolizes the broken heart of Celie. Her communication with God through her letters confirms her very existence and asserts that she is still alive. “The actual language of the letters, which are written in Celie’s folk speech without any attempt at editorializing on Walker’s part, is similarly reaffirming; something essential to her personality.”(Trudier Harris p.16)
Celie has been raped twice and impregnated by her stepfather whom she thought was her real father. She suffers from an overpowering sense of incest. She feels scared and ashamed to tell her mother what has happened to her, and she thinks she deserves it. Adrienne Rich in Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and Institution remarks, “But fear and hatred of our bodies often crippled our brains, some of the most brilliant women of our time are still trying to think from somewhere outside their female bodies hence they are still merely reproducing old form of intellection”(p.284).
 Oppression has become the order of the day in the life of Celie. Having lost faith in man for her rescue, she addresses her letters to God who alone understands her miserable plight and predicament. After being repeatedly raped by her stepfather, Celie is forced to marry a widowed farmer, Mr. __ (later called Albert), with three children. Celie’s marriage with him is another kind of oppression in her life .Celie is convinced that the patriarchal society, particularly the African American society, gives the right to a husband that he can use his wife as he wants and he can abuse and oppress her in any way he wishes. This is seen in her husband’s answer to his son Harpo’s question why he beats Celie. She realizes the futility of her existence with Albert and his children. Celie submits to his ill-treatment and accepts everything he does. The ceaseless psychic oppression and humiliation on a regular basis results in Celie’s sense of loss of identify and individuality.
Celie is constantly humiliated by making mention of her physical ugliness which makes her feel inferior in her own eyes and she ignores her own body which has been put to repeated sexual and physical assaults. Celie is forced to accept that she is ugly in the society standards because her step father stresses on this. “She ugly, don’t even look like she kin to Nettie” (The Color Purple P.8). Time and again Celie is called ugly and worthless by both her Pa and her husband, and eventually she comes to accept their judgment. She simply endures the humiliation and drastically curtails her emotional life.
Celie becomes a sexual servant to Albert and a step mother to his children: ‘an occasional sexual convenience’ she could escape from Alphonso who has forced Nettie to come for living with Celie. She believes that marriage as an avenue of escape and takes mainly to look after his unruly, children and to keep house neat and tidy, as well as to satisfy himself sexually. Celie is convinced that a woman has to serve and obey men in all respects and aspects and she is made a victim of patriarchy.
Celie physical body has exposed to untold series of rape and brutality by her victimizers. As Gabriele Griffin observes we can see that “the body constitutes the site of oppression and become the source of permanent anxiety. The body dominates the novel. The central character has no control over her body and her physical environment. Victimized from an early age she is the object of perpetual abuse”(p.21). A similar comment is voiced by Deborah Mc Dowell in her essay “Regarding Family Matters” in which she cautions the ways in which black women’s bodies are reduced to the terrain upon which white and black men enact a struggle for power and control over literary landscape.
Celie’s life continues to be miserable. She is beaten, abused, oppressed, and humiliated by her husband, Mr._ .To be wife means to be obedient, submissive, and Celie describes how her husband treats her. He beats me like he beats the children. He says, Celie, get the belt. The children are outside the room peeping through the cracks. “All I can do is not to cry. I make myself wood. I say to myself, Celie you a tree. That’s how come I know trees fear man” (The Color Purple P.22). Celie's attitude of resisting the oppression of all kinds’ is worth quoting. — To pretend that she is wood, a tree bending but not breaking. In times of extreme physical pain Celie transforms herself into a tree is a telling example of “a black woman’s proximity to the passive suffering and agony of nature”. ( Badode p.38).
A black woman, by name, Sofia has also experienced the experience of oppression and humiliation for a petty act of hitting a white man. The white Mayor and police beat Sofia black and blue in order to reassert their patriarchal dominance and Sofia is put in prison and she is sent to work as a maid in the mayor’s house for twenty years. She is not even allowed to see her children for twelve years which make her bury her sentiments deep. Sofia protests against the racial and sexual exploitation.
Sofia is able to escape oppression and humiliation by leaving her house and her husband, but she is unable to fight against the oppression and humiliation which is an evil force. Sofia struggles for a meaningful existence and shows her strong power to transcend the racist and sexist society. She struggles for redemption and deliverance from the clutches of manmade dungeon of oppression and humiliation in the patriarchal society.  
The thought of leaving her helpless sister at the mercy of Mr.__ troubles her deeply. But Celie sends her to the only person she thinks would be able to help Nettie, the minister’s wife, whom she had met once in town and seen her, accompanied by a little girl, whom Celie instinctively knows to be her own child, Olivia. Thus, Celie is separated from her sister Nettie, who is taken in by Samuel, the minister, and his wife, Corinne to look after their adopted children Olivia and Adam who are in fact Celie’s children by her stepfather.
Celie’s only confirmation of existence to herself is the letters initially written to God both in hope and hopelessness. And the little ray of hope left in her is lost when she discovers that Mr. __ has been intercepting Nettie’s letters addressed to her. Then she makes her strongest religious statement addressing God, “You must be sleep” (The Color Purple p.183). When Celie discovers the letters from Nettie the life of Celie undergoes a transformation and finds the truth about Pa that he is not her real father. In reality, her real father is killed by the white merchants.
 The liberation of Celie comes through Shug Avery, the blues singer the mistress of Mr._ Celie’s transformation is brought about by her journey along with Shug to the big city, Memphis, where a new life of independence and happiness with the establishment of her own business. Celie practices the ideologies of Marxist feminism and radical feminism to break the male supremacy. Celie tries to replace heterosexual love by lesbian association with Shug Avery in which she advocates the radical feminists’ ideology that a woman’s primary relationships are with other women.
Celie leaves Mr._ and lives with Shug and establishes a female centered household where there is beauty, love and laughter. She moves to the path of self-sufficiency not by the means of wage labour but by means of a trade that is both artistic and necessary. She attains her liberation when she is able to break the male dictated stereotype. Shug is the only reason of physical and psychological development of Celie. The Color Purple is a novel which highlights the oppression of women and it is also a saga of the black woman’s fight with oppression and humiliation to gain her identity. Celie is a representative of all women in general and African American in particular who suffers from the oppression and become a victim to social tyrannies.
The title of the novel is an important symbol and has its own relevance. In the western standards, Purple symbolizes elegance, authority and dignity. At the outset, Celie does not wear purple clothes, which suggests that she has not got self reliance and self- identity. With Shug's help, Celie begins to make a living by herself, gets self reliance in terms of economy. Towards the end of the novel, Albert, the husband of Celie, has carved a purple frog to her as a gift which denotes the recognition for Celie.

1. Badode, Ram. Contemporary American Literature, New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and   Distributors, 2000
2. Griffin Gabriele. “Writing the Body: Reading Joan Riley, Grace Nicholas, NtozakeShanghe”.  
            Black Women’s writing. Ed. Gina Wisher, Hong Kong: Lumiere Press Ltd., 1993.
3. Rich, Adrienne Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and Institution W. W. Norton        & Company; Norton Publication. Ed edition 1995
4. Trudier Harris, “From Victimization to Free Enterprise”: Alice Walker’s The Color Purple,”
            Studies in American Fiction, Vol. 14 (Spring 1986)

5. Walker, Alice The Color Purple phoenix 2011


Phone No:    9791508438
E-mail ID:   eunicevincy@gmail.com

Abstract:  Nature is a language by itself. It is a free gift given to us by God. We are the children of nature, but often we forget this fact and try to act like the creator of nature. We are used to Industrialization and Urbanization and due to this, we have lost our connection with the nature and our minds turned evil and the outcome of this is the devastation and extinction of nature. Due to this, in future...there may arise a situation, where people might forget that Flora and Fauna was once existed. It would only exist in the map. When we disconnect ourselves from nature, we will lose the major part of our life.
This paper highly concentrates on the poems,
'LAKE ISLE OF INNSFREE', 'KAANI NILAM VENDUM', ' BROOK IN THE CITY' and 'A WELSH LANDSCAPE'  which are from various cultures. No matter in which culture we belong to, nature remains the same. All these poems emphasize on the same ideology of the importance of nature and it also reveals the consequences, when we take nature for granted.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Key-words:  Nature, Culture, Industrialisation, Interconnected - relationship (Between nature and human) and Dystopia.                                                                                                                                                                                                        


 Nature is everything that was put on this earth whether it is the food we eat, the water we drink, or the wood we use to build our houses. Some may think nature is just the oceans and forests, but no matter what we think, nature is one which we all must take care of. We have so many different cultures around us. Culture may differ from place to place but nature remains the same. We cannot separate culture and nature because it all goes hand in hand. We can also say it in other words. Nature goes even beyond culture because culture varies, but nature remains the same. In this paper we are going to discuss few poems in which some poets create the world of utopia through nature and the rest    warn us

when we take nature for granted. The poems which we    are discussing are from various cultures. In the means of their own culture they imagine their own world of nature.
      Cell phones, ipods, videogames, car alarms, door slamming, people talking, laughing, shouting. We live in a noisy world. Regardless of whether we’re city folk or country people, we all need a peaceful place to live in. In the poem “THE LAKE ISLE OF INNSFREE”, W.B Yeats expresses his yearning to go and enjoy the site of the country side. There were so many opposing forces pulling him in different directions, he desperately longs for the change. In this poem he imagines a solitary world, where he can live in peace. He says:
“And I shall have some peace there…”
 The LAKE ISLE OF INNISFREE is a real place near the coast of Ireland. It is not inhabited and is on Lough Gill, a lake in country Sligo. Yeats spent his summer as a child there and this poem was born from his sudden memory. Innisfree is a real place, but the description given in this poem is imaginative. He wants to form his own world which will be far away from the city. He has decided to make the break from modern society and all of the hectic madness it can bring and go to a place he love, Innsfree. He says:
“And live alone in the bee-loud glade”
 This can also be taken as, being in the city had made him too old, and he was too tired of everything. So he wants to go back to his childhood experience, where he can be so young and live at peace. When we are around nature, it transforms us. We feel like very energetic. The noise which we hear in the cities very unpleasant because it is the noise of the machines and the harsh words of the humans but the noise in the country are very pleasing to our ears because nature whispers secrets to us. Yeats says:
“I hear lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore”

     The sad part of this poem is, he could only imagine the picture of Innsfree. He cannot go back to that place. But the best part is, he didn’t have a physical experience with nature but the spiritual experience. Physical will not last long but spiritual will be treasured up deep inside our hearts because nature and human builds a very strong relationship which will never die and remain firm in our heart beats. He says:

“I hear it deep in the deep heart’s core”

                                  Similar to this, we also have an Indian poem “KAANI NILAM VENDUM” Written by a tamil poet Subramaniya Bharathiyar. Like Yeats, his life was also filled with so many opposing forces. So he invoke his prayer to the supreme god and asking god to create a natural world filled with all the natural resources. He says:

“I need one kaani land, oh supreme power!...
You should build me a palace (home) in it,…”

     He didn’t ask god to grant him power or wealth to rule the world but he ask god to grant him happiness in his life. He knows the secret that, the city life will not grant him happiness. So, he wish to connect himself with nature. He ask god to give him wells, coconut trees and also he longs to hear the chirping sound of the cucukoos. According to him these are the greatest wealth. He very well knows that, only all these things can bring the true delight in his life.

“the melodious music from cuckoos chirping should subtly touch my ears,”

     He also wants a woman by his side as his life companion and he want to rejoice the scenery of nature along with her. All these things shows that how these poets desperately wanted to connect themselves with the nature. These two poets lived in a place where the conducive environment was denied for them. They were trapped between the modernized world and the natural world. They were tired both physically and mentally. This made them to wish for the natural world where they can enjoy and live like a recluse and admire the nature as it is. When all these things was chasing them, it was nature who was their fortress.  Nature consoled them and also served as the best teacher to them. Their wish was not something big, but it was very subtle. One best part of being connected with the nature is, nature never change like humans. It provides everything without any expectation.

     We should tend to nature. When we fail to do so, nature reacts in a opposite way. When we compare these two poems with the next two, they are completely contrast in themes. In the above mentioned poems, the poets have imagined the world of utopia and they were longing to get connected with nature. But in the next two poems “A BROOK IN THE CITY” and “A WELSH LANDSCAPE”, the poets brings contemporary issues in it. We are living in a modern world and we are longing to have all the luxuries in our life. This updated world connect all of us more with the man-made things than with nature. In the poem “BROOK IN THE CITY”, the farm house and the brook represents the rural landscape. Robert Frost pathetically picturizes the condition of the brook. He says:

“…But what about the brook
That held the house as in an elbow-crook?”

     Over time, the brook is not needed anymore. So the people of the city transformed it into a sewer under the streets. This shows the fall of nature and the rise of the industrial revolution. In the beginning of the poem, it tells how the person used to play with the brook by dipping his finger. He says:

“That held the house as in an elbow-crook?
I ask as one who knew the brook, its strength
And impulse, having dipped a finger length
And made it leap my knuckle, having tossed
A flower to try its current where they crossed.”

     As we consider trees are no more useful to us, these people considered the brook as no longer useful for them in this new landscape and they turned it into a sewer system and later it was covered by dirt. The last few lines tells that no one would know where the brook was and wouldn’t care for it at all. He says:

“No one would know except for ancient maps
That such a brook ran water.”

     This also shows the evil nature of the humans. Humans are not cautious to be responsible. Instead of protecting nature, they are destroying it. They didn’t have the sense of guilt at all.

     In the poem “A Welsh Landscape”, R.S Thomas portrayed the Wales and the Welsh Culture. Moreover, to live in Wales, also means to be part of the rural Welsh tradition. The poet says, to live in Wales means to be aware of the “Spilled blood”. This means that the people of Wales know that they have lost many things in their past. When we lose something, it will create a greater impact in our lives.  We clearly don’t know that what has happened in the past. But one thing is very clear that the people are struck in their past and they were not able to move on further. The poet says,

“And no future;
There is only the past,”

     There is no hope in this poem. This poem brings out the pessimistic view of the landscape because there are only leftovers in the landscape. Nothing is fresh. It lost its original glory. The poet says:

“At dusk of the spilled blood
That went into the making if the wild sky,
 Dyeing the immaculate rivers.”

     The spilled blood has spoiled the wild sky and also polluted the immaculate rivers. River is one of the most important natural resources and it is said to be the part of our culture. River travels through all the generations. When it gets polluted, our future generation will be the greatest sufferers. The poem clearly states that the people didn’t take any effort to get back their lost glory. The poet says:

“You cannot live in the present,
At least not in Wales:”

     These people are grumbling about their olden days. They fail to take effort to create a bright future. Their towers and castles were shaken. This is to be avoided. If any misfortunes occur we have to rectify it instead of grumbling. We do not know whether it is the war or natural calamities which are standing as a background for this poem. Whatever it may be, if any destruction comes towards nature, we should not leave it as it is. It is our duty to bring everything to normal. When we fail to do so, we have to face the consequences.

     All the above mentioned poems emphasis on only one thing. “Nature is all we need”. The first two poems “THE LAKE ISLE OF INNSFREE” and “KAANI NILAM VENDUM” brings out the world of utopia through nature. Both the poems shows the longingness for nature because they know that only nature can give us happiness and the other two poems “THE BROOKS IN THE CITY” and “A WELSH LANDSCAPE” portrays that, when we fail to  realize the existence of nature that, nature will be completely destroyed in the days to come. Then, we will all be able to identify nature only in the maps. We are so fond of machines because it simplifies all our works. But we should all understand one basic thing, that is, our body is not made up of spare parts but of blood and flesh. When god created Adam and Eve, their only companion was nature. They were one among nature. Time may change but our body is used to nature. For time being all these machines might give pleasure but it will not last long because we humans need a companion in our life. You may ask, nature doesn’t speak and react. Then how come it can be a good companion? When we connect ourselves with the nature, we will be able to hear the whispers of the nature. When we are depressed and dejected we can go and hide ourselves inside the nature because nature is our fortress. Nature goes beyond everything. Nothing can withstand before nature, because nature is true and it doesn’t change
its nature.


[1] Yeats,W.B., “The collected poems of W.B Yeats”, published by Wordsworth Editions Ltd., 5, September 2000
[2] Frost, Temple, Roboert., “Nature All Around Us: To Observe Is to Learn, Love, and Admire., Published by Strategic Book Publishing and Rights Agency, LLC.,8, February 2016      


Mallakunta Sreelatha,

Research Scholar, Department of English, K. L. (Deemed to be University) Vijayawada, A.P                                                                                                                                                                     Email: srinivasulumallakunta@gmail.com

R.K.Narayan, one of the most distinguished Indian novelists writing in English, brings out autobiographical element in his novel, Swami and Friends. It is the first novel of Narayan published in 1935. This is really creditable for a first attempt. The novel, Swami and Friends is an autobiographical in nature which owes much of its realism and authenticity that is rooted in Narayan’s personal experience as a boy at school. The autobiographical element is unmistakable. Swami’s experiences in the Albert Mission School seem to be based on Narayan’s own experiences as a school boy. Indeed, Swami is only the second half of Narayan’s original name, Narayanaswami, and the shortened form “Swami” was adopted out of deference to the novelist’s publishers, “not wanting the novel to be confused with an autobiography”. This paper describes the autobiographical element of  Narayan and it recalls his childhood and boyhood scenes in this novel.

Keywords: autobiographical, authenticity, childhood, boyish adventures.

Narayan is an Indian literary giant credited with establishing the Indian English novel genre and introducing the Indian sensibility to the world at large. Narayan’s literary output was amazing. He wrote fifteen novels, five volumes of short stories, a number of travelogues, non-fiction, English translation of Indian epics, and memoirs. The backdrop of nearly all his fiction is an imaginative town – Malgudi - which grows from a sleepy, dusty, unnoticeable town to a bustling hectic urban centre with the passage of time as the writer adds to this imaginative landscape, novel after novel.

Swami and Friends  was published in 1935, is largely autobiographical though the incidents are so filtered that the personal is universalised. It is located in a small imagined town – Malgudi, and its protagonist a lad - Swami, studying in a primary school in the British era.  Swami’s life has its little blitzkrieg when he is fired with the Swadeshi zeal and goes about vandalizing his school run by the British missionaries only to be rusticated from it. The novel is a paean to childhood – its innocence, bungling, friendships, breakups and its own non-duplicable unique world. Narayan is the greatest Indian writer who has marvelously crafted a world of childhood for his readers, a world to which each one of us relates irrespective of our national trajectories. Meenakshi Mukherjee rightly says, “R. K. Narayan successfully achieves a universal vision” through his non-metropolitan situations.

Swami and Friends which deals with the hero’s growth into maturity through a number of adolescent audiences. Being a child across the globe comes with its own set of problems and more or less has to do with the formal academic system which treats childhood as a phase through which a child has to be forcefully forded across. In Narayan’s time the use of cane, the degrading and humiliating nature of the ‘stand-up-on-the-desk’ punishment, the heavy workload - all are exposed for what they really are: a cruel education which mass-produces unimaginative clerks and subordinate staff to serve the British administrative machine. Childhood is never encouraged per se: children are always encouraged to grow out of their mould of innocence. Freedom to a child is far and between, snatched in between classroom and homework – when free play becomes possible – freedom for which a child is at times held criminally accountable. But the beauty of childhood, Swami and Friends tells us lies in its resilience and innocence. Swami and Friends begins with the sentences: “It was Monday morning. Swaminathan was reluctant to open his eyes. He considered Monday especially unpleasant…
After the delicious freedom of Saturday and Sunday”.

The novel’s first chapter titled ‘Monday Morning’ where the writer takes us into the world of children and in a non-didactic, un-acrimonious tone paints for us a world where children and their little tragedies and sorrows are consistently overlooked by the adults. His efforts merely earn him rebuke. Narayan was a life-long critic of the Indian educational system and he crusaded against academics’ burdening the child with homework and regimenting his life. As a child, Narayan disliked going to school - the novel is interspersed with autobiographical details. It is Narayan’s forte that he selects, alters and filters the autobiographical – Swami’s world enjoys “an objective existence… responsive to… things outside” the writer’s immediate life.  

Swami was especially close to his grandmother who is described as a “benign and ignorant old lady”– a widow with a kind attitude towards her grandson who adores her and still finds her a social embarrassment. Unlike her son, this old lady is not judgmental and critical of Swami. She has a genuinely magnanimous attitude towards Swami. She knows that children do not share the adult world’s social duplicity and that they speak their hearts without malice. As such, when Swami brings home his friend and asks his grandmother to give him a warm welcome but keep away from them, the elderly lady remains good humoured over the entire affair.
The grandmother epitomises an ideal parent figure whose unconditional love lets the child blossom naturally. Her guidance is kind, in glaring contrast to Swami’s father who is autocratic and stern and extremely hard to please. Where Swami can play around freely with his granny, he is not allowed to touch anything that belongs to his father. A tacit hierarchical demarcation exists in Swami’s home. Swami’s father brings strict regimentation to home – he is nearly as stifling as the school. The difference between the school and the father lies in the fact that at school Swami is one among the many students and is managed so that the school’s discipline remains undisturbed while at home Swami has the privilege of his father attending to his problems and trying to solve them. Despite his father’s strictness, Swami holds his father in awe and hero-worships him. Teachers are an altogether different ballgame to Swami – he dislikes them and finds going to school very tedious and boring. The rest of the teachers are not averse to handing out corporeal punishment to them. With his characteristic humour, Narayan balances the bleak with the comic.

Narayan was against formal schooling for small children for he believed “In every teacher there lurks a potential devil”. We are drawn into the vortex of an education system that believes in dumbing-down – a child is not allowed to be enthusiastic or expressive but is coerced into being an unthinking cog that is geared to respond to the teacher and never initiate.  Examinations and Swami are an incorrigible affair. Swami loves physical activities and has a laid back lackadaisical attitude towards lif. He is a proverbial child in whose life there is sheer spontaneity. The gravity of exams is beyond his ken. Once again, Narayan shows us the absurdity of academics’ evaluation yardstick which does not account for the individuality of the student – an insistent issue that runs through the novel is the incongruity of schooling where there is no place for children who are not academically inclined but bright otherwise. Swami is not loquacious: he writes an absolutely correct answer which is just a few lines long in comparison to his classmates’ half to one page long answers. Swami is badly graded despite being correct. Narayan has rightly observed said “I feel convinced that the… aims of education are hopelessly wrong from beginning to end”.
It is R.K. Narayan’s unique forte that his novels ravel the complete picture. We never ever have a world which is all black and bleak – sunshine and happiness radiate from the pages. School has its innocent charm where children get together, play, make friends, plot and learn to cope with various kinds of pressures and develop camaraderie and team spirit. We cannot begin to imagine Swami without his school and school buddies, some of whom are meek and timid while others are bullies or brilliant.  Swami’s group of friends has children with varying temperaments, some of whom are given nicknames like Pea. Living and growing up together in a small city with minimal distractions has brought these children very close emotionally and made them socially dependent on each other.
At the end of the novel, Swami is entirely changed. Now he grows mature and tries to understand and perform his responsibilities. He becomes somewhat serious and sincere. He repents on the act of escaping from home and he realises the real essence of life. Now, he understands that life is a total sum of joy and sorrow that one has to face it at the various stages of life. The normal order was temporarily disturbed by his escape, but now, by his return, normalcy is restored once again. His parents and his Granny are happy, and through the efforts of his father matters are set right and he is re-admitted to the Board High School. Swami and Friends makes for an easy read which helps us understand the everyday India of the nineteen thirties. The country, especially the South, comes to us through an inverted world where children, not adults, are in focus. Children are heard and their points-of-view matter.
It is an extremely refreshing change from the mainstream novel writing that exclusively concentrates on the world of adults and merely accommodates the world of children. One is humbled by Narayan’s extraordinary ability to create an authentic world of children with remarkable ease. Graham Greene understood the difficulty of rendering childhood successfully by adult authors and appreciated Narayan’s efforts in Swami and Friends.  Swami and Malgudi continue with us despite the novel coming to an end. Like Graham Greene, the reader continues to be intrigued: “Whom next shall I meet in Malgudi? That is the thought that comes to me when I close a novel of Mr Narayan’s. I do not wait for another novel. I wait to go out of my door into those loved and shabby streets and see with excitement...” India’s premier cartoonist, R.K. Laxman, lent his imagination and skill to sketching Swami and Friends, giving the characters an identity. 
In conclusion, it is a great work of art, and very creditable as a first attempt. As Graham Greene, to whom it was sent for review, said, it is, “a book in ten thousand”. R.K. Narayan never went to school in England, nor was he a bright student; still he has created a great work of art which must take its place with the great English masterpieces dealing with the school world and boyish adventures.

1.  Narayan R. K. Swami and Friends. Mysore: Indian Thought Publication, 1942. Print.
2. Narayan. R.K My Dateless Diary.  Delhi: Orient Paperbacks, 1969, pp. 189-190.
3. Ram. N, ‘Malgudi's Creator’, Frontline, The Hindu, Volume 18 - Issue 11, 2001
4. Susan K. Langer, Feeling and Form, The Theory of Art. Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd,             London, 1967, p. 292.
5. Srinath. C.N   R.K. Narayan: An Anthology of Recent Criticism. New Delhi: Pencraft                International, 2000, p. 93.
6. T.S. Satyan, ‘Walking With R.K. Narayan’, Frontline, The Hindu, Volume 18 - Issue 11,           2001.