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A question paper is a cogent tool for evaluation. It ensures whether an educational system is helping to meet its own objectives.
It seems a question paper has a godlike power. Anything that is justifiable to the objectives of learning can be asked by a question paper. In the process, does it need to be sensitive to what the students are likely to learn, what the students are likely to consider as easy or complex? Does it need to be sensitive to the ways teachers teach the students? Does it need to think about the content matter teachers likely to stress during teaching? Should it be cautious not to ask the things the teachers are not likely to stress while teaching? Before appearing in the examination hall, need it to consider making an impression as easy paper, difficult paper, not so easy, not so difficult, perfect....?

If the question paper thinks, "teachers are following text-book oriented teaching. Then I must not trespass its boundaries. I must stick to the patterns of questions textbook owns", what is the scope of measuring students’ thinking skills, conceptual understanding, ability to apply concepts in different situations, ability to carry over the knowledge to similar but different situations?. Asking from a set of predetermined questions belies the very purpose of a question paper intended to measure skills beyond rote learning and memorizing.
We Keralites dream about raising the standard of education to the international level. This will be impossible without students mastering the above-mentioned skills. In the coming future nobody is going o pay much attention to the marks students scores in the board exams. The job market is after the students who excel in the ability to apply what they learned. What they need is not mere knowledge or information but excellent practical strategies to weave the information into the unique fabric of different work settings. The certificate is only a proof that the student has attended the course. It does not always ensure that his very personality carries necessary creative impulse for applying what he has learned to the situational demands. For example, a student who possesses a master’s degree in literature with good grades need not promise effective communication skills.

UNSEEN PROBLEMS IN MATHEMATICS TEACHING

Mathematics question paper of higher secondary board exam of Kerala state was not easy. Almost all teachers declared it openly through social media.  Some even submitted a memorandum to the concerned authorities asking not to repeat the same mistake. Of course, they justified their stance by precisely stating mathematically, logically reasons.
But what is the ground reality?
At a particular point in time, a mathematics teacher is free to choose the aspect of teaching she wants to focus. Roughly speaking, she has three choices.
·         Facilitate conceptual understanding in mathematics
·         Facilitate procedural skills and fluency (problem-solving)
·         Facilitate application skills
It is true that all teachers attend to these three aspects of teaching but all the three are not grabbing an equal amount of attention from the teachers. Textbook oriented teaching, which most teachers follow, tailors the teaching methods in such a way to enhance procedural skills in problem-solving. Conceptual understanding is treated only as a means or as an aide to solve a set of pre-determined, textual, repetitive pattern of problems. Those aspects of concepts which fit into selected problem-solving purposes are emphasized depriving learning minds of a complete appreciation of various mathematical concepts. Sometimes conceptual phase of teaching is restricted to teaching formulas, mostly by rote repetition.
For instance, teachers think, (need not exclude me) “what is the point of going deeper into the concept of an ellipse, parabola, hyperbola when a set of readymade formulae can meet the kind of questions text-books put forward”. When the question paper also promises not to violate this boundary of problems, the teacher is convinced of the effectiveness of her short cut methods for teaching concepts.
When a question paper asks something that requires integration of two or more concepts say that of ellipse and circle the vulnerability of dead formulas crammed into the memory of a student is exposed. Teacher and student together declare the paper is beyond the expected level. Yes it is true. But who asked the teachers to conduct teaching from their personal expectations? Teachers are never expected to set boundaries for knowledge or make it rigid, distinct, dead pieces and perpetuate the habit into teaching community.
When a question paper demands the skill of integrating two more concepts, or the ability to delve into the concept from different angles (other than formula applications) from students its quite natural that we teachers who have followed text-book oriented teaching label the question paper as difficult. Our justification is, it is difficult for an average student to “apply” the concept he learned. With this in mind, we set apart application level questions for bright students. That means more than 50% of students are labeled as not capable of applying what they learned. Its an ignominy to the entire educational system. 
MATHEMATICS NEVER TOLERATE HALF-SOLVED PROBLEMS
Without appreciating the beauty behind each mathematical concept how can a student fall in love with maths? How the element of excitement in problem-solving can be experienced by the students?
Moreover, what does it mean by problem-solving skill?. The so-called problem-solving skill is not the ability to solve the same pattern of problems again and again.  In reality, the skill to solve math problem includes the ability to carry over the strategies learned for solving a set of familiar problems to an unfamiliar terrain of problems which are slightly different from the familiar ones in many aspects. The only thing that empowers the student to confront problems that are familiar as well as not-so-familiar with equanimity is his in-depth conceptual understanding.
If the question papers of Kerala educational system allow enough space for evaluating students' ability to think out of textbooks our educational system for sure will be cured of its stagnancy. It will soar far high up to the levels that we dream of.

QUESTION PAPER--THE NEW SPIRITUAL GURU OF KERALA EDUCATION SYSTEM


It seems only a question paper can trespass the boundaries of a textbook and prompt the teachers to come out of their fixed ineffective ways of teaching. The examination oriented teaching is pathologically ingrained into the mindsets of teaching community of Kerala state that no amount of awareness programmes or in-service courses can be helpful in transforming them in accordance with social-educational demands of the new millennium.
Question papers can create a classroom climate where there will be enough space to take the learning minds through the skills the world expect from the student population. A question paper has that power to replace rote learning by creative, active learning. It can refashion students as seekers and constructors of knowledge rather than passive receptors. Passive listening must give way to active questioning in the learning atmosphere.  Question papers can elicit this culture inside the classroom. In gist, it has the power to revolutionalize the entire classroom teaching. Year after year it can confirm the objectives which the classrooms of the new millennium are expected to accomplish. It is a powerful tool for making the possibilities into reality little by little.
Hey question paper, never be intimidated by the altercations and cries from teachers to come back and settle down into your old ineffective ways. Our students must grow. What we need is not an illusion of growth. We want to make it a reality.  
by: 
Dr. Jeny Rapheal
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Civil planners are skilled in both urban planning and civil engineering field. Basically they are one who have completed bachelor in Civil Engineering and then completed Masters in Urban Planning or working in planning field for a longer time and gained a lot of experience that urban planning requires.
Civil planners proved to be a good team member in the planning team. Planning is a well-known. multi-disciplinary area where professionals from socio-economic studies, engineering, planning, environmental studies, disaster management and economics work together.
Civil planners help in the research, design, and implementation of city projects and transportation systems. Job tasks can include analyzing city land-use plans or regional transportation systems for usability and economic impact. Civil planners also might establish plan-implementation practices and develop guidelines to address potential issues that might arise.
Civil Planners prove to be of great help in making of the detailed project reports of civic infrastructures like water supply, sewerage, drainage and improvement in the transport infrastructure like bridges, flyovers, bus stand design, mass transit system development etc.


Image result for civil engineering

Civil Planners having completed bachelor's degree in civil engineering will be equipped with a lot of knowledge which will of great help in urban planning, transportation engineering or infrastructure planning. Civil planners will be efficient in statistical modeling, traffic management, transportation systems analysis, behavior analysis, and urban forecasting.
Civil Planners will be good in functions like preparing schedules, working out resource requirements to achieve the planned targets, budgeting etc. which mandates knowledge of quantity survey. Experience in the field of survey, they will be comfortable in planning the activities at site. Civil Planners will be good at costing and estimation for the future projects that are projected in urban planning. They will be good at financial management, risk management, budgeting etc. too.

Civil engineers are responsible for the building of bridges, roads, skyscrapers, canals, dams, and other such big structures. Civil engineering not only creates the environment we live in but improves and protects our lives. Civil engineers are responsible for sustainable energy, in this era of fast depleting fuel and resources, and even the supply of clean water; a world without them would be unimaginable. Having a Civil Planner in team will prove to be of great help as in most of the planning projects, clients ask for Project Management Consultancy work or support for one year wherein we have to guide them in plan implementation. For example, construction of water supply network and water treatment plants under AMRUT can be better taken care by a civil planner.
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Data Science is the new buzz word in the computer science field nowadays. Also described as the Sexiest Job of the 21st century, most of the students are working hard in this field to change the future. From languages like Python to R, a data science aspirant must put hisher hands on these skills and move forward. There are many online sources providing exposure to data science courses and you can get many tutorials too. But, studying from the book has always been a great perk to catch the new skill sets of data science.
Do you want to learn data science in depth and get certified too? Then Intellipaat Data Scientist Course is for you. Intellipaat is an e-learning and professional certification company for IT professionals who provide AI, AWS, Bigdata, DevOps and Python Online Training Course.
That's why we have listed some of the best books that every student must read to get into a rocking data science career
Python Data Science Handbook (Jake VanderPlas)
Python being the hot buzz in the computer science and technology nowadays. It is an essential need in the fields of data science and machine learning. And, for boosting the Python skills, the Python Data Science Handbook is the best book for you. From manipulating data to cleaning it, a data engineer or data scientist needs to do all that. This book gives you deep knowledge about all that and manipulating data using Pandas and NumPy. Also, topics like IPython Shell, Data visualizations with Matplotlib, and Machine learning with Scikit-Learn are included in this book. Moreover, you can buy this book using Paytm Mall Coupons at affordable prices.
Think Python (Allen B. Downey)
As I just mentioned above, Python is the hotspot in the Computer languages nowadays- thanks to the hot buzz words data science and machine learning. And, this book is an advanced step to the language. From the data structures basics to inheritances and classes, this book covers every complex and advanced chapters. Also, at the end of every chapter, you will get some case studies to practice. Some of the topics covered in this book are Functions, Iteration, Data structures, Files, Classes, Methods, and Inheritance.
R for Data Science (Garret Grolemund and Hadley Wickham)
Not only Python but learning the R language in the field of data science will also enhance your skill set and boost your skills. Most of the current hiring companies require this skill set by the ones sitting in front of the interviewers. It is one of the top programming languages in the field of data science with Python. Recent studies show that 52.1% of responders use R which is tiny less than the ones who use Python i.e 52.6%. It is a saying that in the field of data science, 80% of the time is spent cleaning the data. And, this book by Hadley Wickham and Garret Grolemund helps you in sharpening your skills at it. From topics like the exploration of data, data wrangling and modeling of data, this book gives you a large exposure of data and new skills.
Think Stats (Allen B. Downey)
Honestly telling, in the area of data science, where it’s all about predictions and outcomes, one must have a good knowledge of statistics and probability. It is a really important area to brush up your skills. In machine learning, it has become really important to know the fundamentals of probability theory. In interviews too, you might get across the questions related to probability and statistics. So, this book might be of great help to your career. The book includes topics like Descriptive statistics, Cumulative distribution functions, Continuous distributions, Operation and distributions, Hypothesis testing, Estimation, and Correlation. In addition to this, you can make a purchase of this book by using Flipkart Sale offer.
Advanced R (Hadley Wickham)
Advance R by Hadley Wickham is a step ahead of the book, R for Data Science by Garret Grolemund and Hadley Wickham. If you want to get settled in the big company, then Advanced R can be of great use. From the basics to data structures and object oriented programming concepts, this book has everything. Not only this, the book feeds you the concepts of functional programming and performance code like increasing the speed of C++ using R package. So, if you have basic knowledge of R language and want to expand the ocean further, then this book might come in handy.
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