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Emerging trends of migration and economic Consequences: A case of district Udhampur

Jatinder Kumar
(Research Scholar) School of Management Studies, BGSB University, Rajouri (J&K)

Dr. Radha Gupta
Assistant Professor School of Management Studies, BGSB University, Rajouri (J&K)


CONTENT
S.no
Title
Page no
1.
ABSTRACT AND INTRODUCTION
3-4
2.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
4-6
3
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
6
4.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
6-7
5.
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
 (DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE)
7-9
6.
PATTERNS OF MIGRATION
9-12
7.
ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF MIGRATION
12-15
8.
CONCLUSION
 15-16
9.
REFERENCES
17-29
10.
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES
21-31


   Abstract: This paper is an attempt to understand the emerging migration patterns in udhampur district of Jammu and Kashmir state. Analysis of the pattern of migration helps us to assess the role of various economic factors influencing migration. With Globalization, Urbanization and accompanying changes in socio-economic Conditions, migrants are attracted to urban areas in recent times. The emerging migration pattern depicts confinement of migrants in lower socio-economic class in Urban India in response to the macro economic reforms. The latest NSS data (2007/08) on migration reveals a gloomy and divergent picture of recent migrants who have migrated prior to five year.  The study covered Udhampur district of Jammu Division as it is one of the district where people from all regions within or outside the state migrated. Sample has selected from the number of household who have migrated from all regions within or outside the state to Udhampur. The increase in number of household shall be the base for sample selection and data has been identified from 2001 to 2011 census. The reason for such divergent pattern of migration within a period of 10 years really needs to be investigated. Stratified random sampling has been used to select the sample from number of household migrated to urban area of different teshils of Udhampur district. Hence, an enquiry into the changing pattern of migration is critical to explore the emerging issues, identify the challenges and main precedence required at policy level for urban development.
Key words: Patterns, Globalization, Urbanization and socio-economic conditions.

1. INTRODUCTION:
The movement of people from one place to another place with the motive of settling in the new location temporary or permanent is considered as migration. It is a common feature of a vibrant population all over the world. In nearly all developing countries, the major form of migration is rural to urban. Migration may be of individuals, family units or in large groups (Adewale 2005). Behind migration there are many primary and purposive factors that compel people to migrate from one geographical region to another. Main among them are mostly rooted in social or economic situations. Violence, political instability, transfers of jobs, erosion & earthquake and environment etc. are   also some of the factors which   push people to migrate.
After independence, India has undergone rapid Urbanization. The pace of urbanization is not only due to natural increase in population growth but it has been mainly caused by heavy movement of rural migrants in urban area particularly in the large cities and metropolitans (Ganguly 2009; lendent 1982). The heavy movement of rural migrants in urban area are either due to the repulsive factors operating in the rural area in the form of high unemployment, lack of infrastructure development, low wages, small size of land holding, or due to attractive forces working in the urban area in the form of availability of jobs in the factories, shops , offices and public services, technical and higher education, better medical services, entertainments, high wages, expanding infrastructure facilities etc. (Champan 1971; Clarke 1966; Mitra 1968; Sen Gupta 1968; Zachariah 1964).
In India, as per census 2001, out of 1.02 billion people about 307 million have been observed as migrants by place of birth and 20.5 million have been observed as rural migrants in the urban areas. As per the state of Jammu and Kashmir the total population of the State is 12548926 (2011 census). Total population of Jammu division stands at 5350811 (Department of ecology environmental and remote sensing Jammu and Kashmir). It is around 42.63% of the total population of the state. Udhampur district has the population of 555357 out of which 445850 people are living in rural area and 109507 are living in urban area. The total numbers of household in Jammu division were 1021244 (Housing data directorate of census operation J&K) out of which 93562 were in the Udhampur district. It is the fourth largest district which has the maximum number of household in the division. Jammu is the first district which has 302016 numbers of household. In the comparative analysis of housing data for 2011 and 2001 census it is found that there is increase of 27.57% houses in urban area and 31.10% in the rural area.
2. Review of literature:
In order to work out the research gap, it is imperative to review the existing literature. The summary of core literature reviewed is as under;
Dass & Saha (2005), in this study the authors had tried to study the pattern and levels of inter-state migration in India and also tried to study how regional variation in development influences inter-state migration. It was concluded that people mainly moved to the states which have higher growth rates of urbanization and achieved higher economic development compared to the states where employment opportunities are less.
 Mahapaytro (2007), she focused on the basic trends and characteristics of migrants. In this study it was identified that seasonal migration of people from rural to urban is reduced because of some government schemes like NREGA.
Mitra & Murayama (2008), this paper analyzed the level of migration of men and women from rural to urban area in India.  It was concluded that migration of male is more than female. Most of the male are migrated in Maharashtra and Gujarat from poor and backward states like U.P and Bihar.
Vnyakayam & Sekar (2012), the study described the factors causative towards rural to urban migration. In rural areas lack of basic amenities, low wages, drought, less employment opportunities etc. are the factors that push people towards urban area and more employment opportunities, higher income, better wages,  and better facilities are  the pull factors that motivate people to shift from rural to urban area.
Khan (2011), the paper focused on sex -wise causes of rural urban migration in India. The study revealed that majority of the rural migrants arrived in the urban area due to social and economic reasons and further mentioned that females are less economic motivated than males in India. Most of the males are motivated with job and money. Therefore the percentage of male is more than female as migrants towards urban area.
 Kumar (2012), in this paper the author tried to make relation between migration, agriculture and weather variability and said that internal migration in India is a composite issue and number of factors affect it. On one side there is a concern that the economic growth in India is not contributing significantly to promote speedy urbanization in-line with the ordinary development arguments. There are also concerns that agricultural distress could be forcing migration of people to other economic sectors and regions in the short to medium term. In the later context, the role of weather variability in reducing agricultural productivity and hence contributing to migration is fast acquiring great importance as such; evidence may provide insights about the scope for migration as an adaptation strategy in the event of climate change.
Dineshappa & Sreenivasa (2014), the study focused on the extent and types of internal migration flow in India and also showed huge distresses connected with them. Before 1991 the rate of migration was less but it increased immediate after adaptation of new economic policy. Agriculture acted as the base of Indian economy as a result the type of rural to rural stream dominates in the migration process. Employment among males and marriage among female is the main reasons of migration in the country.
 Roy & Devnath (2014), this paper showed that net migration is positively inclined by level of per capita income and level of road infrastructure and negatively inclined by unemployment rate and cost of living. The other variable, crime rate, has been found insignificant as a determinant of migration, indicating that people migrating from one state to other do not concern about risk of life, they are rather concerned about basic needs of life.
3. Objectives of the study:  The review of literature was carried out in the last chapter helped to find out the research gap. In order to bridge the research gap, following objective have been framed
·    To study demographic characteristics of migrants.
·    To study the pattern of migration in District Udhampur of Jammu and Kashmir State.
·    To evaluate economic consequences of migration.
4. Research design and methodology:
 The research was evaluative in nature as it evaluated the impact of employment options on the economic status of the migrant families.  It also evaluates the impact of education and medical facilities on the social status of the migrant families. The study covered Udhampur district of Jammu Division as it is one of the district where people from all regions within or outside the state migrated. Sample has selected from the number of household who have migrated from all regions within or outside the state to Udhampur. The increase in number of household shall be the base for sample selection and data has been identified from 2001 to 2011 census. Stratified random sampling has been used to select the sample from number of household migrated to urban area of different teshils of Udhampur district.  To generate reliable schedule, both primary and secondary information has been worked out. The items under different parameters were included to cover all the aspect of economic consequences and pattern of migration. The schedule has been finalized after reviewing the existing literature and extensive discussion with different expert. The questionnaire has been prepared as per the requirement of the study. The respondents were personally contacted and they were explained the reason for the study. The data was collected from three different teshils of district udhampur. The basic purpose of study is to find out the socio-economic impact on families who migrated from different area to urban area of Udhampur district of Jammu and Kashmir state. For the above mentioned reasons, the study is based on both primary data as well as secondary data.
Primary data: Fresh data has been collected by personal visit to the household migrated in the urban area of Udhampur district from outside. The data was gathered by questioning to Head of the household. A sum total of 280 household were approached for finding social and economic consequences of migration in the study area.
Secondary Data: The secondary data was obtained from different sources like books, doctoral thesis, research papers, reputed research journal, census of India 2001 and 2011 and census of Jammu and Kashmir 2011, etc. Apart from this, unpublished sources and internet was also used to augment primary information.
5. Analysis and interpretation
After collecting the data from the respondents, it was tabulated and classified accordingly. Many tools and technique were used to deduct the research finding and required suggestions have been put forth to provide remedial solution to the problems which have been traced in the study. The detail analysis of the collected data is as under:
Demographic analysis: demographics are an important to study the mix of selected sample from the universe.                                                                       
i)  Age composition of the respondents: Age of the respondents plays very important role in the process of migration.  Table (5.1.0) under reference gives a statistical statement of age composition of the respondents.  Majority of the respondents who are migrated in Udhampur district comes under the age group of 41-50 years and it is almost 41% of the total migrants. Second highest percentage comes under the age group of 51-60 and it is almost 30%. The people who are in the age group of above 60 are only 22% and below 40 is 9% lowest among all.
ii)  Gender of Respondents: Gender wise detail of respondents is also important because it reflects how many females and males are migrated and acting as head of the household. Table (5.1.1) indicates that 88.2% of the household headed by the males and 11.8% by the females among total migrants.
iii) Marital status of respondents: From table (5.1.2) it was observed that 88.2% Heads of different households migrated to urban area of Udhampur district are married and 11.8% respondents are females are widow or divorced.
iv) Size of family if married: While analyzing the size of family from table (5.1.3) it was found that 141 households having size of more than four people and it is approximately 50% of the total households. 44.6% having size of 3-4 people and only 5% households have size of 1-2 people.
v) Religion of Respondents: Table (5.1.4) revealed the religion of people who are migrated within the urban area of Udhampur district. It was found that 85.4% of people are Hindu, 12.5% are Muslim and only 2.1% are Sikh who is migrated in Udhampur district from different area of Jammu And Kashmir State. 
vi)  Sub caste of Respondents: Udhampur is a district where mix caste of people is living.  People who are minority class is migrating more because of more opportunity and benefits available in the urban area. Table (4.1.5) revealed that 37.8% people are from General category, 26.4% are SC, and 7.1% are ST and 28.57% from other category.
vii) Mother Tongue of Respondents:  It is the way by which people used to interact with others. From table (5.1.6) it was concluded that maximum percentage of people who are shifted in urban area from different places used Dogri language as medium of exchange, it is about 81% of total Migrants, Kashmiri is the second largest and it is about 10%, 2% is Hindi and 8% comes under others option of mother tongue.
 (Viii) Type of Family:  The family system existing among the migrant household are given in the table 5.1.7 as per the data 90.7 per cent of the migrants are of joint families, in these families all family members  wife, husband, children’s and aged parents are leaving at destination area. The remaining 9.3 percent of the migrant households are of nuclear family. In these families sons are leaving alone and leave their parents at home lonely.
6. Patterns of migration:: In this topic an attempt is made to understand the emerging migration pattern in Udhampur district. It may be pointed out that migration in the Indian sub-continent has been historically low. But the rapid transformation of the Indian economy, improvements in the levels of education and that of transport and communication facilities, shifting of workforce from agriculture to industry and tertiary activities etc. have influenced mobility pattern of Indian people in recent times (Bhagat, 2009).  The area from which a migrant departs is termed as the area of origin and the area at which he arrives is termed as area of destination. Where a large number of migrants depart from a common area of origin and arrive at a common area of destination during a particular period of time. We included three different area at which a migrant may departs rural, town and semi-urban. Urban area is taken as the area of destination.
Semi-urban area is differentiated with urban area on the basis of road distance (1km) away from main city of Udhampur and urban area is the area which is within 1km around the main city. The depart area of towns and villages of migrants are included which are mentioned by the Government of Jammu and Kashmir. This section provides information on the patterns of migration. Analysis of the pattern of migration helps us to assess the role of various social and economic factors influencing migration. The features of patterns of migration can be studied in two ways: One by the distance covered in the migration and the other by the streams of migration.
Patterns of migration
On the basis of distance covered in the migration

On the basis of stream
1. Rural-Urban
2. Town-Urban
3. Semi urban-Urban
1. Inter-District
2. Intra-District
 

Inter-district: it is the pattern in which people crossed the administrative boundaries of the district. They permanently shift from one district to other district.
Intra-district: it is the pattern in which people don’t crossed the administrative boundaries of the district.  They only shift from one place to other place within the district. This is roughly indicative of the distance of migration
On the basis of last residence of migrants, three migration streams are identified: rural to urban, town to urban, and semi urban to urban. There are many more streams but our study is based on the people who are migrated within urban area of Udhampur district from different places. So, we identified and focused only on three streams of migration.
Rural-urban: it is the type of migration where people move from rural area to urban area for better opportunity of education and jobs.
Town-urban: it is the pattern of migration where people permanently shift from Town to urban area of district for enjoying improvement of education, employment and better standard of living.
Semi urban-urban: it is the type where people move from semi urban to urban area for fast consumption of social and economic facilities.
Analysis of Migration patterns:
MSU =    =   61/280, 219/280
MSU =    =   21.8, 78.2 = 100
MSU = βi =    [IRD= 21.8, IAD=78.2]
MSU = Represents migration stream of Udhampur District
βi = Denotes the which streams are highly force to migrants
TMS = Shows that total sample migrants in the selected District
IRD = Inter District migrants
IAM = Intra District migrants                                                        
Table 6.2.0 shows analysis of intra-district and inter-district migration would help in knowing the volume of migrants from within and outside the given district. Majority of the migrant respondents (78.2%) were from within the district of Udhampur. The migrants from the far off district of udhampur were (21.8%).
Pattern on the basis last residence:

MSU = Represents migration stream of Udhampur District
βi = Denotes the which streams are highly force to migrants
TMS = Shows that total sample migrants in the selected District
RUM = Rural to urban migrants
TUM = Town to Urban migrants
SUUM= Semi urban to Urban Migrants
MSU =    =   181/280, 57/280, 42/280
MSU =    =   64.6, 20.4, 15 = 100
MSU = βi =    [RUM= 64.6, TUM = 20.4, SUUM=15]
Table (6.2.1) is the representation of pattern on the basis of last residence and it could be asserted that a 64.6% migrant has come from different villages, 20.4% from different town and 15% from semi-urban areas (area 3km away from urban area). The percentage of migrants from rural area (villages) to urban area is more because in the source area there is increasing unemployment, poverty, less resource, environmental degradation, etc. limits the livelihood options and may force people to migrate. But at the same time in destination area, there is better employment and educational opportunities, improvement in educational level, changing occupational pattern, development of transport and communication pull people to migrate (Acharya, S 2003).
7. Economic consequences of migration:
Economic changes taking place in India in the epoch of globalization have strong spatial implications. Studies on internal migration have indicated a decline in population mobility up to 1990’s (Kundu, 1996, Singh, 1998, Srivastava, 1998, Bhagat, 2009). Conversely, the post reform period confirms an increase in internal population movement. The latest NSS figure (2007/08) shows internal migration in India has increased to 29 percent from 25percent in 1993. Migration is now recognized as an important factor in determining plans for social and economic development, espec1ally in developing countries. With a traditional Social structure a developing country which is going through a process of socio-economic transformation under conditions of political, democracy, free migration of population has wider economic, political, social and cultural aspects. The economist has been interested in the relation of Migration to regional economic growth and business cycle, the supply of skilled and unskilled labour, the growth of industry, the outflow and 1nflow of money income, wage differences between the place of origin end place of destination of migrants, etc. The legislator and political scientist are concerned with the formulation of policies and laws regarding 1mmgration and to a lesser extent, internal migration, and the enfranchisement and voting behavior of migrants. Similarly, the sociologist is interested in the social cultural and psychological effect of migration upon migrants as well as the general population in the place of destination or the process of assimilation and adjustment of migrant’s population.  Our basic purpose is to analyze the socio-economic consequences of migration in a particular region. Therefore, we should at least incorporate here those theoretical and empirical aspects of migration analysis which are essential to understand the problem thoroughly. This will help us not only to analyze critically the situation of the region under study but also enable us to suggest remedial measures. Interaction of various factors in the course of development can not only accentuate the pace of mobility but would lead to emergence of new migration patterns. There can be contrasting reasons for this current increase in the migration rate. On the one hand increasing unemployment, poverty, overcrowded, natural disaster, crop failure, lack of clean water, poor education, poor health provisions, lack of service and amenities, poor electricity and power connection, lack of services and amenities and environmental degradation etc. limits the livelihood options and may force people to migrate. But at the same time urbanization, high potential of employment and educational opportunities, good food suppliers, safe and good environment (No violence and less Disease better living conditions), improvement in educational level, changing occupational pattern, more comfortable (proper housing and quality housing), development of transport and communication, entrainments (Cinema hall and  Restaurants) are the new impetus facilitating spatial mobility. We start an analysis about economic consequences of migration in this unit; it is advisable to know the various causes that lead to migration. Otherwise it will be difficult to suggest remedial to overcome the adverse consequences of migration.
Table 7.1.0 depicted the average monthly income of household who are migrated within urban area of Udhampur district. There are 96 household among total of 280 having monthly income of 35001-50,000 , 27% household coming under slab of more than 50,000, 23.6% are in 20,001-35,000 and only 14.6% household earning below 20,000.
Table 7.1.1 representing the data of average monthly saving of household, where 52.5% household has monthly saving of more than 15,000 and 27.9% are coming under monthly saving of 10001-15000. There are15% migrant household who have saving in between 5001-10,000 and only 4.6% household are coming under monthly saving  below 5000.       
There are many household who are migrated from rural, town and others parts to urban area of Udhampur district. From table 7.1.1 it was depicted that many household have saving of more than 15000. Table 7.1.2 shows the impact of migration on saving and we found that 76.1% migrants agree with the statement of increase in saving after migration, 14.6% migrants has not seen any impact and they remain  same before and after migration. 9.3% household suffered after migration, because they felt that their saving decrease after migration.
Table 7.1.3 depicted the cross tabulation of duration of stay of migrants and average monthly income of household. In duration of stay 12.5 percent household migrated from last 5-10 years, 26.4 percent comes under the second class interval of 10-15 years and maximum of 61 percent household migrated in the urban area of Udhampur comes under the third class interval of above 15 years. In the average monthly income of household 34.6 percent families are in monthly income of 35001-50000. The second highest percentage of 27.5 comes under monthly income of above 50000, 23.5 percent are in 20001-35000 and only 14.6 percent are in the lowest slab of below 20000. In relation of duration of stay and average monthly income 6.42 percent of People who are migrated in duration of 5 to 10 years having monthly income of 35001-50000. Only 0.35 percent people in same interval having income of more than 50000. In second interval of duration of stay 11 percent family having income of 20001-35000 and the number of household in monthly income of above 50000 has increased with the increase in duration of stay in the destination area. 20 percent of household having average monthly income of more than 50000 who are staying in the destination area above 15 years.
Table 7.1.4 represented the cross tabulation of duration of stay and average monthly saving of household. In duration of stay 12.5 percent household migrated from last 5-10 years, 26.4 percent comes under the second class interval of 10-15 years and maximum of 61 percent household migrated in the urban area of Udhampur comes under the third class interval of above 15 years. In the average monthly saving of household 42.8 percent families are in monthly saving of 5001-10000. The second highest percentage of 37.1 comes under monthly saving of 10001-15000, 20 percent are in above 15000 and no one comes under the lowest slab of below 5000. In relation of duration of stay and average monthly saving 5.3 percent of household who are migrated in duration of 5 to 10 years having monthly saving of 5001-10000. Only 2.8 percent people in same interval having income of more than 50000. In second interval of duration of stay 11.2 percent family having monthly saving of more than 15000, the number of household in monthly saving of above 15000 has increased with the increase in duration of stay in the destination area. 38.5 percent of household having average monthly saving of more than 15000 who are staying in the destination area above 15 years.
Table 7.1.5 showed the correlation of duration of stay and average monthly income of household. The value of correlation is (.191) positive in between duration of stay and average monthly income. Value of p or level of significance is .001 and less than .05 at sample size of 280. So, the correlation is significant in between two variables. The average monthly income of household increased with the duration of stay.                        
  Table 7.1.6 represented the correlation of duration of stay in the destination and average monthly saving of household. Correlation value of .272 reflected the positive relation of both variables. The level of significance is also less than .05. So, there is increase in saving with the duration of stay in the destination area.
8. Conclusion
The present paper depicts the current trends, patterns and characteristics of migrants. A number of key issues emerged from the study. The latest information on migration reveals a gloomy picture of recent migrants, increasing intra-district mobility among migrants in urban area, it may be pointed out that migration in the Indian sub-continent has been historically low. But the rapid transformation of the Indian economy, improvements in the levels of education and that of transport and communication facilities, shifting of workforce from agriculture to industry and tertiary activities etc. have influenced mobility pattern of Indian people in recent times (Bhagat, 2009).  The percentage of migrants from rural area (villages) to urban area is more because in the source area there is increasing unemployment, poverty, less resource, environmental degradation, etc. limits the livelihood options and may force people to migrate. But at the same time in destination area, there is better employment and educational opportunities, improvement in educational level, changing occupational pattern, development of transport and communication pull people to migrate. Interaction of various factors in the course of development can not only accentuate the pace of mobility but would lead to emergence of new migration patterns.


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LIST OF TABLES AND PICTURES
S.no
Title
Table no./picture
1.
Age of respondents
5.1.0
2.
Gender wise respondents
5.1.1
3.
Age of respondents
5.1.2
4.
Gender wise detail of respondents
5.1.3
5.
Marital status
5.1.4
6.
Size of family
5.1.5
7.
Religion
5.1.6
8.
Sub caste
5.1.7
9.
Mother tongue
5.1.8
10.
Type of family
5.1.9
11.
Patterns of migration
6.1.0,6.1.1
12.
Average monthly income
7.1.0/figure 1
13.
Average monthly saving
7.1.1/figure 2
14.
Impact of migration on saving
7.1.2/figure 3
15.
Cross table of duration of stay and monthly income
7.1.3
16.
Cross table of duration of stay and monthly saving
7.1.4
17.
Correlation of duration of stay and income
7.1.5

Correlation of duration of stay and saving
7.1.6


Table 5.1.0 Age of Respondents
Age of Respondent
Frequency
Percent
Below 40
26
9.3
41-50
114
40.7
51-60
78
27.9
Above 60
62
22.1
Total
280
100.0
                                                                  Source: Primary Data
Table 5.1.1 Gender wise detail of Respondents
Gender
Frequency
Percent
male
247
88.2
female
33
11.8
Total
280
100.0
Source: Primary Data
Table 5.1.2 Marital Status of Respondents
Marital Status
Frequency
Percent
married
247
88.2
others
33
11.8
Total
280
100.0
                           Source: Primary Data
Table 5.1.3 Size of your family if Married
Size of your family
Frequency
Percent
1-2
14
5.0
3-4
125
44.6
more than 4
141
50.4
Total
280
100.0
Source: Primary Data
Table 5.1.4 religion
Religion
Frequency
Percent
Hindu
239
85.4
Muslim
35
12.5
Sikh
6
2.1
Total
280
100.0
Source: Primary Data



Table 5.1.5 Sub caste of Respondents
Sub caste
Frequency
Percent
General category
106
37.8
Schedule caste
74
26.4
Schedule Tribe
20
7.1
others
80
28.57
Total
280
100.0
Source: Primary Data
Table 5.1.6 Mother Tongue
Mother Tongue
Frequency
Percent
Dogri
226
80.7
Kashmiri
27
9.6
Hindi
6
2.1
others
21
7.5
Total
280
100.0
         Source: Primary Data



Table 5.1.7 Type of Your Family
Type of  Family
Frequency
Percent
Nuclear
26
9.3
Joint
254
90.7
Total
280
100.0
           Source: Primary Data
Table 6.2.0 Pattern of migration
S.No
Pattern on the basis of distance covered
Number of respondents
Percentage
1.
Inter-district
61
21.8
2.
Intra-district
219
78.2
Total
280
100
           Source: primary data
                                        Table 6.2.1 Pattern on the basis of last residence
S.No
Pattern on the basis of last residence
Number of respondents
Percentage
1.
Rural-urban
181
64.6
2.
Town-urban
57
20.4
3.
Semi urban-urban
42
15.0
Total
280
100
  Source: primary data
Table 7.1.0: Average monthly income of household
Monthly income
Frequency
Percent
Below 20000
41
14.6
20001-35000
66
23.6
35001-50000
96
34.3
Above 50000
77
27.5
Total
280
100.0
        Source: Primary Data

     

       Table 7.1.1 Average monthly saving of household
Monthly saving
Frequency
Percent
Below 5000
13
4.6
5001-10000
42
15.0
10001-15000
78
27.9
Above 15000
147
52.5
Total
280
100.0
          Source: Primary Data

Table 7.1.2 Impact of migration on saving
Saving
Frequency
Percent
Increase after migration
213
76.1
Decrease after migration
26
9.3
Remain same
41
14.6
Total
280
100.0


Table: 7.1.3
Duration of stay in the Destination * Average monthly income of your family Cross tabulation
Count








Average monthly income of your family
Total


below 20000
20001-35000
35001-50000
above 50000
Duration of stay in the Destination
5-10 years
9
7
18
1
35
10-15 years
8
31
15
20
74
above 15 years
24
28
63
56
171
Total
41
66
96
77
280
Source: Primary Data

Table: 7.1.4
Duration of stay in the Destination * Average monthly saving of household Cross tabulation
Count








Average monthly saving of household
Total


below 5000
50001-10000
10001-15000
above 15000
Duration of stay in the Destination
5-10 years
0
15
13
7
35
10-15 years
8
7
27
32
74
above 15 years
5
20
38
108
171
Total
13
42
78
147
280
Source: Primary Data


Table: 7.1.5
Correlations


Duration of stay in the Destination
Average monthly income of your family
Duration of stay in the Destination
Pearson Correlation
1
.191
Sig. (2-tailed)

.001
N
280
280
Average monthly income of your family
Pearson Correlation
.191**
1
Sig. (2-tailed)
.001

N
280
280
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

 Source: primary data

Table: 7.1.6
Correlations


Duration of stay in the Destination
Average monthly saving of household
Duration of stay in the Destination
Pearson Correlation
1
.272**
Sig. (2-tailed)

.000
N
280
280
Average monthly saving of household
Pearson Correlation
.272**
1
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000

N
280
280
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).








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