Integrating land use and transport explains the policy which has been developed to reduce car travel and provide more equitable access to jobs and services. Strategies to reduce car travel, make greater use of walking; cycling and public transport and provide more equitable access to jobs and services should be evolved. Government should strive to achieve a range of social, environmental and economic goals including equity, neighbourhood amenity and lower road congestion through coordination and guiding various planning and development agencies. Policies should aims to provide more equitable access to jobs and services, by planning to reduce the need for car trips and promote opportunities for walking, cycling and public transport. At all stages, planning and development decisions have a crucial role in providing a choice of transport modes and managing travel demand.
Land use planning practice should result in urban development and change that moderate car reliance so that other measures to reduce car use and the environmental impact of transport will be effective and affordable. Planning and development must consider all relevant transport modes. In particular, improving access by walking, cycling and public transport must receive equivalent attention, if not greater, consideration than private car access. Transport implications must be thoroughly assessed at all stages of the planning process, to ensure that development proposals will not increase car dependence. In the past, the traffic or transport studies supporting development proposals have focused on accommodating private cars and commercial traffic.
Now, when considering the location and suitability of development, satisfying the demand for car travel or parking must be balanced against reducing the amount of travel generated by development. Polices should aims to reduce car dependency, improve access and maximise the share of travel by public transport, pedestrians and cyclists. Businesses and services which generate transport demand should be in the 'right place' - that is, locations which offer a choice of transport and increase opportunities for multipurpose trips. Vibrant, accessible, mixed use centres closely aligned with the public transport system should be encouraged. Responsive planning, consistent decision-making and good design and management are needed to ensure that: there are development opportunities in centres for businesses and services.
Planning decision makers can limit the supply and increase the cost of parking to influence the choice of transport mode choice. People will be encouraged to use their cars excessively if there is abundant or cheap parking, even in areas with good access by public transport. Local parking policies and codes should reflect the accessibility of public transport, walking and cycling and favour their use. Limit the amount of long-stay parking in destinations which have good alternative access by public transport.
To promote more viable public transport and reduce car dependence, it is important that the location, density, design and development of new residential areas maximise access to public transport.
To ensure use of public transport is maximized, building forms and subdivision designs and layouts must encourage walking, cycling and the use of public transport, and bus services must be introduced early in the development process. There should be consultation with transport operators as early as possible and this should continue throughout the planning, development and implementation processes of the development. Improving transport choice provides guidelines for integrating land use and transport. Indian urban growth centres need immediate attention to avoid future urban problem and this can be achieved through the early implementation of working landuse plan and transportation plan for upcoming and growing urban centres.
Shashikant Nishant Sharma
Urban Planner and Consultant