Mr.R.Kishokumar &, Miss.K.Lakshika
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is defined as individual discretionary actions that are not expressly rewarded but in fact promote goal achievement (Organ, 1988). This discretionary behavior is not part of job specifications and thus is not evaluated in annual appraisal, yet this behavior is important to the success of organizations. Such behavior has been the focus of study is scholars such as Organ (1988), Bateman, Organ (1983) and Podsakoff (2009) from various perspectives. This study attempts to explore the subject from the perspective of personality types to examine whether there is a relationship between personality type and OCB.
As working under changing circumstances has become an essential feature of organizations, organizations will necessarily become more dependent on individuals who are willing to contribute to successful change, regardless of formal jobs requirements. Economy or production process largely depends upon how efficiently the financial sector in general and the banks in particular perform the basic functions of financial transformations. In a country like Sri Lanka, this factor assumes further significance. A Non-Banking financial institution plays an important role for the overall development of the country. The performance of the financial sector directly affects to the other industrial and service sectors of the economy traditionally, the employees’ job performance has primarily defined in terms of how well an employee completes his/her assigned duties. However, in recent past the researchers and practitioners found that the need of employees’ willingness to accomplish their duties beyond the assigned duties to achieve the goals and objectives of the organizations.
Since the OCB of the employees is one of the key factors in deciding the success or failure of any organization, many researchers and practitioners have focused their research to find out the antecedents of OCB. Among them personality characteristics (Moorman, 1995), leadership behavior (Farh, Podsakoff, & Organ, 1990), perceptions of organizational/supervisor support (Randall, Cropanzano, Borman, & Birjulin, 1999), conscientiousness (Organ & Ryan, 1995), affectivity (George, 1990), agreeableness job involvement (Shapiro et al. 2004), emotional intelligence (Jain, 2003) are the most investigated antecedents of OCB.
In Sri Lankan research literature, there were few researches on personality and OCB but nothing can be found on the Influence of five factor model of personality on OCB of non-managerial employees. Thus, it is important to study the Influence of five factor model of personality on OCB filling the existing research gap.
Study broader problem is “How significantly personality traits relates and influence on organizational citizenship behavior in financial institutions in Trincomalee district”? Researchers want to determine the different factors of inefficiency of employees due to individual personality traits while working in the organization. Further specific problem is to investigate the effect of personality factors on organizational citizenship behavior.
The Non-Banking financial institutions in Trincomalee has over the years faced a number of challenges including increasing competition, increased regulation by the government and high rate of technological growth especially the internet banking that now offer financial services. The rapid growth of financial institutions, increase in environmental variability and degree of competition, acute shortage of qualified labor and the corresponding increase in labor turnover and costs of employee replacement have forced Non-Banking financial institutions in Trincomalee to aggressively compete for the best employees. In reviewing the research literature, it can be found that lots of factors have influenced on OCB. Among them, dispositional factors especially personality have significantly influenced on OCB. Anyway, the importance of person’s personality on OCB has not been adequately tested.
Therefore, the problem addressed in this Study is to investigate “How does five factor model of personality influence on OCB of employees in the financial institutions in Trincomalee District. The research problem” The influence of personality factors in organizational citizenship behavior”.
- What is the level of Personality factor amongst the employees in financial institutions?
- What is the level of organizational citizenship behavior amongst the employees in financial institutions?
- What extent does personality factor influence on organizational citizenship behavior of employees in financial institutions?
- To identify the level of Personality factor amongst the employees in financial institutions.
- To identify the level of organizational citizenship behavior amongst the employees in financial institutions.
- To identify the Influence of personality’s factor on organizational citizenship behavior amongst the employees in financial institutions.
Significance of The Study
In the modern world, there are several competitions among the organizations. So, organizations have to keep and use its human resource effectively. The study enables the management to establish the influence of personality factor on organizational citizenship behavior, hence identify the areas where improvements can be done.
It will also help the management in planning for the development and of effective and efficient organizational development that will lead to improved performance of financial organizations. This will in turn help in ensuring economic growth and stability of the country. There is, therefore, a great need for additional evidence to support the organizational citizenship behavior relationship from different sectors and contexts.
This study was conducted in order to investigate the influence of personality factors on organizational citizenship behavior of employees in financial institutions in Trincomalee District and provide a better understanding of the relationship between the variables. This study will attempt to identify the relationship for organizational citizenship behavior and the personality factors. Finding of this study could enable organizations to make suitable alteration or take corrective action in their organizational development, which will assist them in reaching their objectives. Finding of this study could also help further research questions for further investigation in future on employee personality factors in the institutions. And also this study wills useful to future studies as a base in this same context of the relationship between the personality factors and organizational citizenship behavior and relating studies.
Scope of The Study
This study concentrates on the Influence of personality factors on organizational citizenship behavior of selected financial institutions in Trincomalee district. The Influence of personality factors on organizational citizenship behavior analyze in these financial institutions regarding conceptualization through using the five Factors of personality that are agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, Emotional stability, and extroversion for this research purpose 150 employees from selected financial institutions which are located in Trincomalee District is taken by researcher as sample. This study has used close-ended questionnaire for collecting primary data. Furthermore, the questionnaire consists of appropriately limited personal information and research information. Analyses and findings are presented with Univariate and Bivariate analyses. The study understands that these analyses are merely sufficient to explore the relationship of study variables and to meet the objectives.
Personality is defined as an inborn temperament and features arising in different situations and a combination of the characteristics of a person which separate him/her from other people (Phares, 1991).According to another definition, personality is the unique features of every human being; exhibition of characteristic adaptations; unique identifications towards life and a set of cultural differences (Hogan, Hogan & Roberts, 1996). As can be understood from the definitions, personality is discussed in terms of specific traits and factors. For the first time assumed that in general personality could be divided and examined into five distinct but distinguishable elements. He named them as Character, Intellect, Disposition, Temper and Temperament (Digman, 1990).
In recent times, organizational researchers in the area of personality unanimously concluded that the understanding of personality facets is entirely captured by the by the five super-ordinate factors the Big Five Model. The Big Five Model is usually characterized as:
Extraversion is indicated by positive feelings (emotions) and tendency to seek company of others. It represents the tendency to be sociable, assertive, active, upbeat, cheerful, optimistic, and talkative. Extroversion People with this trait are friendly, energetic, warm, assertive and social. Extrovert people are outspoken and talkative. So, extrovert people are outgoing, outspoken and social. They could enhance the performance of a team. They can easily convey their ideas to their team members and may have low team conflicts.
Agreeableness is the tendency to be trusting, com- pliant, caring, considerate, generous, and gentle. Such individuals have an optimistic view of human nature. They are sympathetic to others and have a desire to help others; in return they expect others to be helpful. In essence, agreeable individuals are pro-social and have communal orientation toward others (Costa and McCrae, 1992; John and Srivastava, 1999).
Conscientiousness individuals are purposeful and determined. They have the tendency to act dutifully, show self-discipline, and aim for achievement against a measure or outside expectation. Conscientiousness describes socially prescribed impulse control that facilitates task- and goal-directed behavior, such as thinking before acting, delaying gratification, following norms and rules, and planning, organizing, and prioritizing tasks (John and Srivastava, 1999: 121).
Emotional stability measures the continuum between emotional adjustment or stability and emotional maladjustment or Emotional stability (Costa and McCrae, 1992). People who have the tendency to experience fear, nervousness, sadness, tension, anger, and guilt are at high end of Emotional stability. Individuals scoring at the low end of Emotional stability are emotionally stable and even-tempered (Costa and McCrae, 1992; John and Srivastava, 1999).
Openness to experience
Openness to experience exemplified as the people who are imaginative, sensitive, intellectual, polished versus the people down to earth narrow, simple and insensitive (Reilly et.al 2002) Researchers conclude that team members who are high in openness to experience are broadminded, willing to try new things and creative (Molleman et.al 2004).
Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Organ (1988) defined OCBs as “an individual behavior that is discretionary not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization.” Bolino and Turnley (2003) identified it as an organization’s ability to elicit employee behavior that goes beyond the call of duty. They found that citizenship behaviors generally have two common features: they are not directly enforceable and they are representative of the special or extra efforts that Organizations need from their workforce in order to be successful.
Dimensions of Organizational Citizenship Behavior
This dimension was initially labeled “altruism”. It was given a new name, because “altruism” was criticized to imply selflessness as a motive behind the behavior and limited the dimension thereby to those gestures which were driven by selfless motivators. (Organ, Podsakoff, 2006, p. 18): this dimension includes personals’ helping behaviors to other personals and supports them in their job-related and other problems.
Although this dimension is according to the most recent conceptualization included in the dimension of “helping” (Organ, Podsakoff, 2006, p. 297), I will treat it within my thesis as a separate dimension. I will do so due to the fact that earlier dated studies will as well treat it separately from other dimensions as the linkage to certain factors of personality might differ from other dimensions of OCB.
Employees who engage in sportsmanship are described as “…people who not only do not complain when they are inconvenienced by others, but also maintain a positive attitude even when things do not go their way…” (Podsakoff et al. 2000, p. 517): includes tactful and courteous behaviors that lead to preventing problems in workplaces.
This dimension consisted, according to its initial definition, of “…items that did not have the immediate effect of helping a specific person but rather contributed in a more impersonal and generalized fashion to the group, department, or organization.
Podsakoff et al. (2000, p. 525) describe civic virtue as “…a person’s recognition of being part of a larger whole in the same way that citizens are members of a country and accept the responsibilities.” the behaviors that indicate to personals participation in activities and organizations-related affaires.
CONCEPTUALIZATION AND OPERATIONALIZATION
Researcher applied quantitative methodology for this study. Thus survey method has been adopted. Constructs such as personality factors and organizational citizenship behaviour are well defined and measurable.
Data Collection Method
This study was based on self-report questionnaires; all the data were gathered from the respondents’ self-reports. Structure questionnaire was used to collect data necessary to meet the purpose and objectives of the study.
Population and Sample Selection
The sample for the study comprises of all employees to represent the population of non-managerial level employees that total to 430 from selected six financial institutions in Trincomalee District. Simple random sampling which falls under random sampling was used as the sampling strategy. Following the survey method, self reported questionnaires were distributed as the instrument for data collection, out of 165 questionnaires distributed only 150 questionnaires were accepted as properly filled.
Survey Instruments Development
Questionnaire was developed with the support of previous studies carried out by experts in the relevant subject areas.
These questionnaires consist of 3 parts such as Personality Factors, Organizational citizenship behaviour and profile of employees. Likert scale of 1-5 which ranges from “Strongly Disagree” to “Strongly Agree” was applied in the part I and part II of the questionnaire to identify responses. Third part included profile of employees that covers information relating to age, gender, educational background, designation and job experience. Questionnaire was developed with the support of previous studies carried out by experts in the relevant subject areas Neo, Padsakoff et al (1991).
Method of Data Analysis
Data has been presented using tables. Meanwhile descriptive analysis was used for data analysis. Hence under the descriptive analysis, mean and standard deviation were derived. Statistical package of SPSS 19.0 has been used for this purpose. This was established to determine the degree of both Personality factors and Organizational citizenship behaviour.
- DATA PERESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
Objective 2: To Identify the Level of Organizational Citizenship Behavior Amongst the Employees in Financial Institutions.
Organizational citizenship behavior includes fifteen indicators; organizational citizenship behavior refers to characterizes people who are Helps other, punctuality, volunteers, takes initiative, willingly work in work place.
Objective 3: To Identify The Personality Factor Influence on Organizational Citizenship Behavior Amongst the Employees in Financial Institutions.
The multivariate analysis was used to investigate the relationship between more than two independent variables and dependent variable. Extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience and OCB were taken as research variables respectively. Multiple regression analysis as used to find out the results of part of main research of this study.
The "R Square" statistic indicates that the five independent variables in the regression model account for 29.4 percent of the total variation in an organizational citizenship behavior. In other words, 29.4% of the variation in the organizational citizenship behavior is explained by extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience. The "Adjusted R Square" 26.9% indicates that it is an adjustment of the R-squared that penalizes the addition of extraneous predictors to the model. The model is good fit for the data.
According to the p-values, agreeableness, conscientiousness, Emotional stability and openness to experience are significant at 0.001. This means there will be a strong relationship between agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience and organizational citizenship behavior in this sample (see in Table 5.20).
According to the regression analysis among five factors of personality, agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion and openness to experience significantly influence the organizational citizenship behavior of employees in financial institutions in Trincomalee District.
The significance is at 0.01 levels (2-tailed), and coefficient of correlation (r) is greater than 0.5. It is found as a Strong Positive Influence (.653) correlation between personality factors and organizational citizenship behavior.
This indicates that the correlation was significant and relationships are linearly correlated. According to the data, personality factors was the best predictor of OCB.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
In the Role of personality factors stated as mentioned in chapter five the mean value 3.95 with standard deviation 0.45. Therefore it is clearly concluded that overall high level influence of personality factors organizational citizenship behavior in the selected financial institutions of Trincomalee district. Therefore it is clearly concluded that overall high level influence of Conscientiousness personality factors on organizational citizenship behavior in the selected financial institutions of Trincomalee district.
In the Role of organizational citizenship behavior fully consider as a one dimension for findings, the organizational citizenship behavior stated as mentioned in chapter five the mean value 4.18 with standard deviation 0.66. Therefore it is clearly concluded that overall high level influence of organizational citizenship behavior in the selected financial institutions in Trincomalee district.
The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between five factors model of personality and OCB of employees in the financial institutions in Trincomalee district in Sri Lanka. The results of correlation coefficient and regression analysis indicated that personality types of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience of employees have significantly and positively correlated to their OCB whereas the personality type of emotional stability has significantly and negatively correlated with OCB.
According to the data, Openness to experience was the best predictor of OCB. Thus their OCB towards the job and organization is at higher level. In addition organizational citizenship behavior is critical to business success. In the current scenario the financial institutions in Trincomalee District have to comprehend that high levels of organizational citizenship behavior will lead to improve employee commitment and involvement towards job thus creating a motivated workforce that will work together to achieve the common goals of the organization.
Organizations want and need employees who will do those things that aren’t in any job description. And the evidence indicates that those organizations that have such employees outperform those that don’t. As a result, some human subject studies are concerned with organizational citizenship behavior as a dependent variable. When we perform above and beyond expectations by helping others at work, our efforts aggregate over time, which benefits our organization’s effectiveness and often helps us receive more favorable performance evaluations. Our attitudes, how we are lead, and to a much lesser degree our personality affect our willingness to be good citizens at work. With the exception of conscientiousness, our personality has little to do with being a good citizen at work. Even if it is not our natural inclination, all of us can learn to be more organized, thorough, and deliberate in the performance of our job.
Organizational citizenship behaviors have often been conceptualized as inherently a socially desirable class of behaviors. It has been the purpose of this paper to strip away any biases and attributions for social desirability and to examine the behaviors in their strictly observable form. In doing so, a variety of motives can be examined as potential reasons why employees might exhibit OCB. Achievement, affiliation, and power are not new ideas, but the application of these motives to the study of OCB does provide a new lens through which to view OCB. Much research is still needed to validate the ideas expressed in this paper
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