MUSA, Mudi Mohammed
FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY BAMENDA (IUB) CAMEROON – AFRICA
Workers are very important resource in an organization. Therefore, organizations are expected to thrive to harness the vast potentials of such valuable resources by creating the right atmosphere for them to work so as to achieve the organization objectives. The growing non-performance, brain-drain and poor student performance in Nigeria higher institution of learning demand for efficiency and effectiveness. The study examined the causes of poor performance of workers in College of Education Kangere, Bauchi State Nigeria. The objective of the study is to access whether motivation affect worker’s performance. Various theories and concepts of motivation were used. 281 teaching staff and 71 non-teaching staff of the population were sampled of which 100 of the questionnaire administered were all filled and returned. Statement of hypothesis was formulated and tested using chi-square to determine whether motivation have any effect on workers performance. The findings revealed that providing incentives of any kind motivate employees on greater performance and led to effective service delivery. It was recommended that the institution as a matter of priority should improve on its motivation expectancy theory and the adoption of non-financial incentives should be strengthen and sustained for effective service delivery among others.
Key words: motivation, poor performance, job satisfaction, productivity, human resource.
i. Background to the Study
People can perform or produce wonders if they are properly motivated, when the environment is right and their spirits are on high level, human beings can move mountains, organizations therefore, need to take care of people, they must attract, nurture and develop talent through innovative ways, they must know how to make use of people in the service of the organization and also know how to strike a happy balance between employee expectations and organizational demands. To inspire people to give their best, organizations have to burn up their candle of energies and bring all their experience and expertise to the table.
Management activities such as planning, organizing, directing, staffing, coordinating and budgeting which are the basics things to the survival and growth of any organization need the skilful application of motivation. Karen (2004) and S.S Khanka (2003) both observed that in any institutions, organizations, motivation is a very essentials tool in administration. A policy maker is accountable for making motivation process continuous and acts as nerve center where lines of motivation cross and connected and where information on productivity is received, processed, stored assembled analyzed and dispensed.
Obviously, motivation is a complex and is difficult to explain and predict the behaviour of employee. The introduction not an apparently favourable motivational device may not necessarily produce the desired ends, it brings opposing motives into play. Therefore, it is not easy to understand the complexities involve in motivating people. If an employee has an argument with his "Boss" and fails to report to work the next day it may appear that his behaviour is as a result of confrontation. However, his behaviour may actually be motivated by a combination of factors including over work, family illness or other problems, the primary function of manager is the management relations between employee and the employer on the overall goal of achieving optimal performance of the primary task of like institution Nwachukwu (1988).
ii. Statement of the Problem
The growing non-performance, work attitude by employees and the brain drain has led to workers/students low performance. This problem is a cause for concern which has necessitated this research work to be carried out in order to find solution to the problem.
iii. Objectives of the Study
The objective of the study is to find out the causes of poor performance by workers that had led to low performance and productivity in College of Education Kangere, Bauchi State Nigeria.
iv. Conceptual and Theoretical Framework
Performance in Organization
It is on record that educational sector in Nigeria had gone on strike severally over demand for monetary reward. There is a diverse opinion among scholars on what constitute measures of performance in an organization. Some scholars focus on financial outcomes such as sales, profits and growth while others consider organizational outcomes such as productivity, quality and efficiency (Paul & Anantharaman, 2003). There is another group that come up with HR-related outcomes such as attitudes, behaviours and intention of employees as performance (Paauwe & Boselie, 2005). Tek-Yew (2009) described attitude to work as an employee’s overall positive or negative evaluative judgment of a change initiative implemented by their organization. Still on the same subject matter, Qaisar, Rehman & Suffyan (2011) considered attitude as the internal state that influences individual’s choices of personal actions or a response tendency toward a change. The aggregate views of various scholars expressed above showed that the attitude of a person has the capacity to influence positively or negatively his action at work and by extension, it can affect organizational performance too (Den Hartog, Boselie & Paauwe, 2004).
Motivation originally came from the Latin word which means to "Move", it is derived from motive and motive may be defined as an inner state of our mind that activate and directs our behaviour (Milkovich, George and Glueck, William F. 1985 Pg. 136). Motivation is the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. It makes us to act, it is usually internal to us and is externalized via behaviour. According to Fred Luthans. Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or physiological deficiency or need that activate behaviour or derive that is aimed at a goal or incentive, Donadio, adds definition of motivation as the art of stimulating someone to action by creating a safe environment in which their motivation can be unleashed and through providing a reason or incentive for people to provide (1997, pg 40). Dangana (2016) defined motivation as the process of influencing the need of employee to achieve objectives, motivation is the work that manager perform to inspire, encourage and impel people to accomplish desired goals. Properly motivated employee can produce excellent by putting of facilities to good use. The aim of motivation is to maximise the occurrence of the first outcome and minimize the occurrence of the last one.
Importance of motivation
The success of an organization ultimately depends on how effectively managers are able to motivate their subordinate, poorly motivated employee can nullify the soundest organization. The following points bring about the importance of motivation in modern organization.
i. Productive use of resources
ii. Increased efficiency and output.
iii. Development of friendly relationship
iv. Achievement of goals.
v. Stability in workforce.
Source: Management text and cases, pp411 (VSP Rao)
Three types of forces generally influence human behaviour as follows;
i. Forces operating within the individual
Human needs are both numerous and complex, some of these needs cannot be described and identified. Because people hide their real needs under the cover of socially accepted behaviour.
ii. Forces Operating within the Organization
The climate in the organization must be conducive to human performance.
iii. Forces Operating within the Environment
A worker does not live in two separate worlds, one outside and one inside.
Among the behavioural concepts; motivation has received the most attention in the study of organizational behaviour, the following justify the need and significance of motivation in organizations;
1. Organization are run by people
Managers cannot afford to avoid a concern with human behaviour at work, this is because the motivated employees are more productive and quality conscious than apathetic one.
2. Motivation as a pervasive concept affects and is also affected by a host of factors in the organizational milieu, it enables managers to understand why people behave as they behave.
3. Organizational effectiveness becomes to some extent, the question of management's ability to motivate its employees.
4. Machine became necessary in case of complex technology.
Sometimes some people consider motivation and incentive mean the same. However, they mean two different things.
Motivation is individual oriented while incentive is something introduced in work environment to encourage employees to perform better. However, incentive is a "means" where as motivation is an "end" alternatively speaking, incentives create motivation
Numerous motivation theories have been developed resulted from the scholars and practitioners desire to understand, defined and explain the theories of motivation.
Theories of Motivation
From the beginning, when the human organizations were established, various thinkers have tended to find out the answer to what motivates people to work. Three kinds of theories have evolved over the years to capture these approaches namely content theories, process theories and reinforcement theories.
These theories offer insight into the needs of people in organizations and help managers understand how needs can be classified in the workplace, also these theories are people centered that explain "what" the main theories that fall under this category are as follows;
(A) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Maslow's theory propose that people are motivated by multiple needs and that these needs exist in a hierarchical order, the essential component of the theory may be stated thus;
i. Adult motives are complex, no single motive determines behaviour, rather a number of motives operate at the same time.
ii. Needs form a hierarchy lower level needs must at least partly be satisfied before higher level needs emerge then, a higher order need cannot became an active motivating force until the preceding lower order need is essentially satisfied.
iii. A satisfied need is not a motivator, a need that is unsatisfied activate seeking behaviour, if a lower level need is satisfied, a higher level need emerges.
iv. Higher level needs can be satisfied in many more ways than the lower level needs.
v. People seek growth. They want to move up the hierarchy needs. No persons is contented at the physiological level, usually people seek the satisfaction of higher order needs. Maslow identified five general types of motivating need in order of ascendance.
However, Maslow's theory has been criticized on the following grounds;
i. Theoretical difficulties:- Hierarchy theory almost on a testable theory.
ii. Research Methodology: - This is a clinically derived theory and its unit of analysis is the individual.
iii. Super flour classification scheme: - Needs classification artificial and arbitrary.
iv. Chain of causation in the hierarchy: - No definite evidence to show that once a need is gratified its strength it diminishes.
v. Need critical determinants of behaviour - The concept of needs is introspective in nature and so cannot be tested objectively.
vi. Individual differences: - Individuals differ in the relative intensify of their various need.
(B) Herzberg's two factor theory
Fredrick Herzberg of (case-western reserve university) after several years of wondering why policies and fringe benefits were not increasing employee motivation on the job, extended the work of Maslow's need hierarchy theory and developed a specific content theory of work motivation, Herzberg conducted a widely reported motivational study on 200 engineers and accountants in nine different companies in Pittsburgh Area, extensive interview, the research approach was simplistic and built around the question "Think of a time when you felt exceptionally good a exceptionally bad about your job, either on the present job or in the past. The result indicated that when people talked about good feeling or satisfied, they are generally associated with job satisfaction, the features intrinsic to the job, when talk of bad feeling with the job they are dissatisfied and is hygiene or maintenance factors and the features extrinsic to the job. Herzberg called these "Dual factor theory", motivation and maintenance factors or two factor theory of motivation respectively.
The implications of the two factor theory for manager are quite clear, providing hygiene factors will eliminate employee satisfaction but will not motivate employees to high achievement levels on the other hand. Traditionally, job satisfaction and dissatisfaction were viewed as opposite ends of a single continuum, good pay, opportunity for growth, and healthy working environment the employee will be satisfied. When they are absent, he is dissatisfied the absence of dissatisfaction is satisfaction.
Table 2.1: Herzberg's motivation maintenance factors
Comparison of Maslow and Herzberg models
Source: SS. Khan, Org. Behaviour test and case pp 371
While Maslow's is descriptive, Herzberg is prescriptive, Herzberg theory has been subjected to several troubling criticism like Herzberg's model has been as controversial as it has been influential.
Herzberg theory has been criticized on the following;
a) Research Methodology
Herzberg is shackled to his method, His model is method bound, the method is fraught with procedural deficiencies.
b) Empirical Validity
The theory is most applicable to knowledge worker-managers, accountants, engineers etc. studies of manual workers are less supportive of the theory.
(i) That two sets of factors operate primarily in one direction is also not accurate, critics questioned the mutual elusiveness of the dimension (ii) The theory focuses two much attention on satisfaction and dissatisfaction rather than performance level of the individual. Despite the criticism, Herzberg theory has made a significant contribution towards improving managers basic understanding of human behaviour.
(C) Alderfer's ERG Model
Clayton Alderfer's modified need Maslow's five hierarchical levels into three, existence, relatedness and growth (ERG).
v Existence Needs: Need required to preserve human life, they include all that Maslow termed as physiological needs relating to material safety.
v Relatedness Needs: They refer to all socially intended needs i.e. how people relate to their surrounding social environment these include the need for meaningful social and interpersonal relationships.
v Growth Needs: They reflect the individuals desire to be self confident, productive and creative; the desire to engage in tasks that require the full utilization of abilities and that develop additional capabilities/skills.
Maslow's model and ERG theory both has similarities and differences
Similarities and difference Maslow's & ERG theory
i. The overall structure of needs categories is same, Alderfer's theory is only a reconfigured need hierarchy model
ii. Both model deal with movement upward in the hierarchy
i.ERG theory provides a specific mechanism for downward movement in the hierarchy, which Maslow does not provide.
ii.ERG theory has a specified method for testing the theory, but Maslow did not provide for empirical substantiation.
Source: Management Text and Cases pp 549 (VSP RAO
(D) David C. McClelland's theory needs theory
Some people have an intense desire to accomplish and show excellence, where as others are not concerned about achieving things. McClelland developed his theory based on Henry Murray's developed long list of motives and manifest needs used in his early studies of personalities. McClelland need theory is closely associated with learning theory because of his believed that needs are learned or acquired the kinds of events. People experienced in their culture and environment. His theory focuses on Murray's needs; achievement, power and affiliation. These three needs are abbreviated as "n ach", "n pow" and "n Aff" respectively. They are defined as follows;
Achievement Need (n Ach)
This is the need for challenge, for personal accomplishment and success in competitive situations. A person with a high need for achievement has three distinct characteristics. Achievers prefer jobs to offer;
v Personal responsibility: Doing most thing himself rather than getting them done by others.
v Feedback: He wants to know how well he is doing, He would seek situation where concrete feedback is possible.
v Moderate risks: He tends to set moderately difficult goals for himself and takes calculated risks to achieve these goals.
1) Power Need (n Pow)
This is a need to dominate, influence and control people. Power speak about the ability to manipulate or control activities of others to suit one's own purpose. People with a high need for power look for positions of leadership.
2) Affiliation need (n Aff)
The need for affiliation is social need for companionship and support for developing meaningful relationships with people they are motivated by jobs that demand frequent interaction with coworkers. Such people are not likely to succeed well at tasks that force them to work in isolation.
(E) McGregor's Theory X and Y Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct assumptions about what motivates people based on participation of workers one basically negative labelled theory X and the other basically positive labelled theory Y.
Assumptions on theory X and theory Y.
Theory X assumptions
Theory Y assumption
· Employee inherently dislikes work and will try to avoid it.
· Since employee dislike work they must be coerced, control and threatened with punishment to achieve goals.
· Employee will short responsibilities and seek formal director whenever possible.
· Most employee want security above all in their needs and display little ambition
· Employee can view work as being as natural as restore play.
· People will exercise self direction and self control if they are committed to the objectives.
· Under poor conditions, employee does not avoid responsibility.
· People want security but also have other need such as self actualization and esteem needs.
Source: VSP (Rao) pp.610, Management Text and Cases
§ Production – centered
§ External control
§ Closer supervision
ü Initiating structure
ü Managements roles
§ Emphasis on control, coercion
§ People are lazy, lack ambition like to be led, and care motivated strictly by personal economic concepts.
§ Employee - centered
§ Internal control
§ General supervision
§Challenging jobs, growth opportunities and employment in decisions.
§ Emphasis on growth, autonomy and reward
§ People by nature enjoy work, want to do well and are motivated by self control and self development
Source: Org. Behaviour Text and Cases SS Khan pp 401
In the other hands there are other scholars who have contributed to the positive and negative feelings of employee namely among there are:
I. William Och's theory Z, it is an integrative model containing the best of both worlds has the following characteristics, trust organization employee relationship, employee participation structure less organization and holistic concern for employee.
II. Maturity: Immaturity theory which postulated a descriptive and multi-dimensional development process along which individuals in an organization grow.
In contrast to content theories, process focus on why people choose certain behavioural options to satisfy their needs and they evaluate their satisfaction after they have satisfied these goals. It also attempt to explain as well as describe how people start, direct sustain and stop particular behaviour and explain how these needs interact and influence another to produce certain kinds of behaviour. Three well known process theory developed to explain, predict and influence behaviour are the equity theory, the expectancy theory and goal setting theory.
A- Equity Theory
J. Stacy Adam's equity theory is one of the most popular social exchange theories and is perhaps the most rigorously development statement of how individuals evaluate social exchange relationships. Probably the clearest of the process theories, this theory is based on two assumptions about human behaviour namely;
1. Individuals make contribution (inputs) for which they expect certain outcomes (rewards). Inputs are past training and experience, special knowledge, personal characteristics etc and outcomes include pay, recognition, promotion, prestige fringe benefits etc.
2. Individuals decide whether or not a particular exchange is satisfactory, by comparing their inputs and outcomes to those of others in the form of a ratio
Equity = =
Source: SS Khan. Pp 413 Org. Behaviour Text and Cases
Limitations of this theory is that it is difficult to assess the perceptions (misperceptions) of employee and equity theory is not precise enough to predict which actions are most probable.
B- Expectancy Theory
Vroom's expectancy theory has presented the expectancy theory (1964) as an alternative to content theories and its represents a comprehensive, valid and useful approach to understanding motivation. Expectancy theory is one of most ambitious developed in the create of organizational behaviour. It is sufficiently general so as to be useful in a wide variety of situations and it's a predictive theory of motivation.
Expectancy theory is builds around three concepts;
People have preferences (Valences) for various outcomes or incentives that are potentially available to them. Valence refers to the personal value workers place on the reward they believe they will receive for performing. Valence is the strength of an individual desire for a particular outcome, it is subjective value attached to an incentive or reward.
People have expectancies about the likelihood that an action or effort on their part will lead to the intended performance. Expectancy refers to the perceived relationship between a given level of effort and a given level performance.
Expectancy = Effort
It refers to the relationship between performance and reward. It provide answer to such questions, "will I be rewarded if I perform the job well? Instrumentality refer to the degree to which a first level outcome will lead to a desired second level outcome.
Motivation = Valence x expectancy x instrumentality
The expectancy- the Porter and Lawler model (1968 and 1973) respectively promoted the thesis that performance causes satisfaction, performance according to Porter and Lawler in an organization appears to be a function of three important factors.
· An employee must want to perform.
· Motivation alone will not ensure task performance
· One must have fairly clear role perceptions, the variables in the models are;
4. Motivation, satisfaction and performance.
Reinforcement theory states that behaviour that results in rewarding consequences is likely to be repeated, where as behaviour that result in punishing consequences is likely not to be repeated.
- Positive Reinforcement
It is the administration of a pleasant and rewarding consequences following a desired behaviour, positive reinforcement (pay, bonuses, recognition, time off with pay, commendation, promise and praize) required to have a desired impact, feedback must be consistent and frequent.
- Negative Reinforcement
Sometimes called avoidance learning, negative reinforcement occurs when unpleasant or undesirable situation is removed or withdrawn following some behaviour.
Extinction is an effective method of controlling undesirable behaviour it refers to non-reinforcement. It is based on the principle that if a response is not reinforced, it will eventually disappear. Extinction is less painful than punishment because it does not direct application of an aversive consequence.
Punishment is a control device employed in organization to discourage and reduce annoying behaviour of others; it can do either the two forms;
(i) There can be withdrawal or termination of desirable or rewarding consequence or
(ii) There can be unpleasant consequence after behaviour is performed. Punishment reduces the response frequency, it weaken behaviour.
Organization behaviour modification (OB mod) is the name given to the set of technique by which reinforcement theory is used to modify human behaviour. The basic assumption underlying OB Mod is the law of effect which states that behaviour that is positively reinforced tend to be repeated, and behaviour that is not reinforced tend not be repeated. The following are suggested, if OB Mod is to be effectively implemented.
i. Define the Target Behaviour
The target behaviour refers to a specific behaviour that management modify. It can be attendance, cooperation or actual production.
ii. Assess Performance Goals
The target behaviour needs to be translated into specific performance goals, such as improving attendance, increasing sales or expanding market share.
iii. Assess Performance Progress
Performance should be assessed periodically to provide employee with feedback on their goals progress, if they know they are doing well, this knowledge reinforces their behaviour, if they are take corrective action.
iv. March Performance with rewards
Unless reward are tied to performance, they quickly loss motivated effect. Rewards can be tied to performance on an individual or a group basis. An individual based reward system is used to encourage competition, while, a group-based system is used to encourage cooperation.
How to Motivate Employee
The following suggestions offered by experts may help in solving the puzzle to some extent.
i. Recognize Individual Difference
Employee are not homogeneous, they have different needs. in terms of attitudes, personalities and important variables, so recognize the differences and handle the motivational issues carefully.
ii. Match People to Jobs
People with high growth needs perform better on challenging jobs. Achievers will do best when the jobs is to provide opportunities to set goals, autonomy and feedback.
iii. Use Goals
provide specific goals so that the employee knows what he is doing. If resistance to goals is expected, invite people to participate in the goals setting.
iv. Individualize Rewards
Use rewards selectively, keeping the individual requirement in mind what act as motivator for one may not be motivator for another.
v. Link Reward to Performance
Make reward contingent on performance, to reward factors other than performance (favouritism, nepotism, regionalism, apple-polishing, yes-sir culture etc) will only act to reinforce (strength) those other factors.
vi. Check the System for Equity
The input for each job in the form of experience, effort, special skills, must be weighed carefully before arriving at the compensation package for employee. Employee must see equity between rewards obtained from the organization and the efforts put in by them.
vii. Don't Ignore Money
Money is the major reason why most people work. Money is not only a means of satisfying the economic needs but also a measure for one's power, prestige, independence, happiness and so on.
Management needs to provide non-financial incentives such as enlargement, participative management, recognition, praise also motivate employees at their work. Some of the negative sign of financial incentives.
a. Also people working for stretch pull and challenge, money has no meaning at all.
b. Sometime, money can spoil the show, if x get more than y.
c. While granting rewards, the principle of equity should not be ignored. Equal pay for equal work, any mismatch between the two would disappoint people and demotivate them completely.
Man is a wanting animal. Once money satisfy one's needs (physiological and security needs) it ceases to be a motivating force. Then, higher order needs for status and recognition and ego in the society emerge. The following non-financial incentives help management satisfy its employees:
i. Appreciation of work done
iii. Workers participial in management
iv. Opportunity for growth
v. Group incentives
vi. Knowledge of results
vii. Suggestion systems
viii. Job enrichment
v. Research Methodology
The researcher adopted a survey research in which 281 teaching staff and 71 non-teaching staff of the population were sampled systematically from College of Education Kangere, Bauchi State Nigeria. 100 questionnaire administered were all filled and returned. This helped the researcher to get the primary data. Secondary data were obtained from published books, newspapers, magazines and the internet.
vi. Research Hypothesis
Ho: Motivation does not have effect on workers performance in organization.
Hi: Motivation have effect on workers performance in organization.
Hi: Motivation have effect on workers performance in organization.
vii. Data Analysis
Data collected were scrutinized, simple percentage was used in interpreting and analyzing the responses. Chi-square was used in testing the statement of hypothesis.
Respondent’s responses as to whether motivation has effect on workers performance.
It makes me work more
It makes me work less
It does not affect how much i work
Source: Field Survey 2016
Using chi-square formula x2=(Fo-Fe)
33.33 33.33 33.33
= 21.34 + 10.08 +2.082 =33.50
At 5% level of significance, (2) degree of freedom, tabulated x2 = 5.991
If calculated chi-square > tabulated, rejected null hypothesis (Ho) and accept alternative hypothesis (Hi), calculated x2 = 33.50 > 5.991.
Since the calculated chi-square is greater than the tabulated, chi-square, we reject the Null Hypothesis (Ho) and accept the alternative Hypothesis (Hi). Therefore, we can conclude that motivation has effect on workers performance.
Having collected and analysed the data on the questionnaire from the field, the following findings as follows;
i. That the leader’s attitudes toward motivating the employee do affects their performance.
ii. The nature and the processes of motivation involved in the organization do enhance optimum performance.
iii. The influences of motivation on cognitive process (motivational selectivity) on employee encouraged and sustain productivity.
iv. The appropriate implementation of theories of motivations creates healthy competition within the employees.
v. That providing incentives of any kind motivate employee on greater performance and lead to effective service delivery.
viii. Conclusion and Recommendation
In view of the research findings, the organization should understand and appreciates the impact of motivation in enhancing performance and managerial effectiveness and efficiency. Leaders/managers should note that no single motivational style in application in all situation, it all depends on the circumstances ones find himself.
Based on the outcome of the research findings, the researcher makes the following recommendations.
i. The institution as a matter of priority should improve on their motivation expectancy theory.
ii. That so far, the nature and process of motivating employee for optimum performance is defective, hence the need for re-structuring.
iii. That the cognitive process that prompts workers to action should be revisit and modified for effective service delivery.
iv. That no single theories should be adopted as there are individual needs and behaviour of the workers that should be addressed.
v. The adoption of non-financial incentives should be strengthen and sustain for effective service delivery.
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