Educational Management & Principles of Management Meanings of Management

The term ‘management’ encompasses an array of different functions undertaken to accomplish a task successfully. In the simplest of terms, management is all about ‘getting things done’. However, it is the way and the process of how one achieves ones target or goals and it is in this respect that management is considered an art and a science as well.

The term management may be recently defined, but it existed at a time when men started learning the art of organizing, strategizing (during wars) and/or simply planning. At the core of it, management was quintessentially considered as an art of ‘managing men’ and hence the term “manage-men-T.”
when a group of functional  people organize and control a business or organization with identified objectives. A process or activity to achieve a predetermine objective.
Class Room Management by a teacher.
School Management by Headmaster.
“Getting things done through other people in organized and managed way”
Management also means Control or business
Management in all business and organizational activities are the acts of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planningorganizingstaffingleading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resourcesfinancial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.
Rousseau (1972) pointed out “A real knowledge of things may be a good thing in itself, but the knowledge of men and their opinions is better, for in human society.”
Management today combines creative, business, organizational, analytical and other skills to produce effective goal-oriented results! Some of the key functions in management includes learning to delegate, planning and organizing, communicating clearly, controlling situations, motivating employees, adapting to change, constantly innovating and thinking of new ideas, building a good team and delivering results which are not just figure -bound but results that also focus on overall growth and development.
Management focuses on the entire organization from both a short and a long-term perspective. Management is the managerial process of forming a strategic vision, setting objectives, crafting a strategy and then implementing and executing the strategy.

Educational Management
The management is the process of planning, organizing and controlling the educational activities for the attainment of objectives and goals. Educational management mean governing body, policy making body. They are responsible for;
1.            Policy  formulation
Prepare long and short term goals and polices in light of future and society needs.
2.         Supervision of education system
3.         Planning:
Planning and practical implementation of these plans
4.         Training of staff
5.         Resources Management:
 Providing, arranging funds and resources for teaching learning process
 Importance of educational Management
                        Forecast the future needs of the organization.
              Decision making
Flexible and realistic plan keeping in view the unavailability of the resources
                        Bring organization in people, students, teachers and staff
                        Motivate people by sharing responsibility
Continuous evaluation helps in the improvement of school and teaching learning process
·         Recording and reporting:
                        Keep the record of students and teachers

Types of management
1.            Autocratic Management
2.         Democratic management
                         share responsibility, create leader, team  builder
3.  Laissez faire management

Four Functions of Management   
The four functions of management comprise of the primary functions of managers, which must be performed efficiently for the success of an organization. These functions are common across all fields of management, be it at a factory, a super market, a restaurant or even at home. For the smooth functioning of any organization, the functions are planning, organizing, leading and controlling. These functions are referred to as the management process.
Planning is the first and base component of management. It involves recognizing the organization’s goals and developing strategies to achieve these goals. This is called strategy planning. These strategies may have to be altered or completely changed constantly based on the macro and micro factors affecting an organization. Thus planning is a constant process. Even though all planning involves the same kind of thought process, different types of plans are made for different functions of an organization. Examples of planning are strategic planning, marketing planning, business planning, succession planning, project planning, sales planning, etc.
Organizing is an important responsibility of a manager. Unless a manager manages in an organized manner, no work will get done. A manager’s organizational responsibilities include organizing the resources of an organization, identifying different roles, choosing the right people for these roles, delegating tasks to people, etc. He also has to ensure that the employees have the required resources to perform their tasks better. Inefficient organization can lead to chaos in the company.
Even though many use the term managing and leading synonymously, nothing could be farther from the truth.  Simply managing tasks means making people do their jobs. But leading means influencing and inspiring people in such a way that they feel motivated to do their jobs. People find it easier to follow a leader. Following the orders of a manager is something that is done as a part of one’s job, but following a leader is something that is done more willingly by people. Thus, every manager must aim at becoming a good leader. A leader focuses on interpersonal relations with each employee and constantly motivates them to perform better. By creating a positive working environment a leader can effectively help improve the employees’ job performance and hence their morale.
Controlling as the name suggests means controlling the various functions in the organization to ensure they are on track with the goals that were set at the beginning of the planning process. Controlling also involves setting certain performance standards for the employees and constantly evaluating their job performance. Sometimes the strategies and plans that were developed and implemented may not work out as initially planned due to certain external factors. Controlling and evaluating helps a manager recognize these failures and quickly implement corrective measures to bring the task back on track.
 It involves evaluating the expected and actual job performance. This helps a manager recognize potential problems and take preventive measures against the consequences.
 These four functions of management are very important for an organization and if done well can be the reason behind the success of the business.
Principles of Management
What is principle? It is a generation that is widely accepted as true system. Principles always are to be considered helpful for several reasons.
First: They help to make more accurate decision, applying in any situation and eliminating guesswork.
Second: it saves time. Principles provide guidelines for actions.
Third: principles enable the people to pass information from one generation to another.
There are few Principles which are to be adapted in management.
1. Planning Principles
a)      Principle of the Primary Objectives
b)      Principle of adequate alternative
c)      Principle of contingencies
2. Organizing Principles
a)      Unity of Command principle
b)      Adequacy of authority principle
c)      Scalar (chain-of-command) principle
3. Staffing Principles
a)      Principle of developing a successor
b)      Principle of manager evaluation
c)      Principle of management development
4. Directing Principles
a)      Principle of harmony of objective
b)      Principle of manager’s example
c)      Principle of motivation
5. Controlling Principles
a)      Principle of standards
b)      Principle of measurement of performance against standards
c)      Principle of corrective action

Principles of School Management
1.      The policies of the school have been developed according to educational principles, government policies and the goals of elementary school education.
2.      Reinforce administrative organization, maintain job responsibilities and boost work efficiency.
3.      Follow a democratic approach, make personnel, funds, opinions, rewards and punishment public in an attempt to lead the school toward united and harmonious direction.
4.      Strengthen personnel management, increase employees’ motivation. Look, listen and understand more. Promote a focus on mobile management.
5.      Emphasize delicate campus planning, improve working environment, and inspire employees’ professional spirit.
6.      Encourage in-service teacher education to improve teaching methods and counseling skills in order to more effectively implement educational functions.
7.      To respect and serve rather than manage
8.      Focus on teachers’ sense of honor and responsibility
9.      Focus on research, experimentation, innovation and the teaching profession. Invigorate teachers’ spirit and stimulate educational renovation.
10.  Enhance teaching equipment and make good use of social resources in order to create modern well-developed citizens.
11.  Incorporate the five main themes of education, and teach students in accordance with their aptitudes to maximize their talents.
12.  Focus on the planning and delivery of special education services.
13.  Strengthen life education, moral education, and traffic safety education in order to develop a harmonious atmosphere.
14.  Develop good relationships with communities, make use of social resources, and continue school development in order to make the school a center of community development.