• Contents
  • Introduction
  • Kinds of Emotions
  • Characteristics of Emotions
  • Effects of Emotions
  • Factors influencing Emotional Development
  • Educational Implication
  • Suggestions
  • Stages of Emotional Development
  • Conclusion
Emotional development is considered as a uniquely integrative and psychologically constructive feature of psychological growth in infancy and childhood. The role of emotions in child behavior and development is very important. The nature of emotion discussed in structuralist and functionalist approaches in the process of emotional development in children. The focus is on the term ‘what is emotional development'. The development of emotions, the contributions of psychobiological growth, emotional understanding and the growth of self-awareness.
The word emotion is derived from the Latin word Emovere which means to stir up, to agitate or to excite.
R.S. Woodworth (1945) by “Emotion is a moved or stirred up state of an organism. It is a stirred up state of feeling that is the way it appears to the individual himself. It is a disturbed muscular and glandular activity that is the way it appears to external observers”.
According to Crow and Crow (1973), an emotion is an effective experience that accompanies generalized inner adjustment and mental and psychological stirred up states in the individual and that shows itself in his own behavior.
Example:  A child sees a bull dog coming towards him. He experiences an instinctive fear and undergoes the above three processes. Firstly, he perceives the bull dog. Secondly he experiences an emotion of fear and thirdly he tries to run away. It is, therefore, concluded that an emotion is an effective experience that one undergoes during an instinctive excitement.

Kinds of Emotion
Ø   Positive
                                    Emotions like affection, Love, happiness, curiosity, and joy which are helpful for normal behavior are called as positive emotions.
Ø  Negative
                                    Unpleasant emotions like anger, jealousy and fear which are harmful to the individual’s mental development are called negative emotions.
Characteristics of Emotions
  • All emotions are temporary
  • Every person have different emotions, it means the state of emotions are differ from person to person
  • Emotions are present in every living organism.
  • Emotions are frequently occurring many times at short time of interval.
  • Some emotions aroused by different stimuli or situations
  • One emotion may trigger a  number of similarly emotions
  • Emotions are present at all age and stages of the development
  • Emotions in general, are the product of perception.
  • Small children can’t hide their emotions and express them by other means like thumb-sucking, nail-biting, crying and speech difficulties
Effects of Emotions on the Developing Individual
  • Emotions provide energy to a person to face a particular situations
  • Emotions motivate the behavior
  • Emotions influence individual adjustment in the society
  • Sometime Highly emotional conditions disturb the mental equilibrium of an individual
  • Highly emotional conditions could also disturb the reasoning & thinking skills of an individual
Factors Influencing Emotional Development
  • Health and physical development of an individual
  •  Intelligence level of an individual
  • Family environment of an individual
  • School environment of an individual
  • Peer groups environment
  • Community and society’s environment
Heath & Physical Development of an Individual
  • Any deficiency in physical health development internal or external leads to emotional disturbance in an individual
  • Physically weak children or suffer occasional illness children are more emotionally upset and unstable than children whose healthy
Intelligence & Emotional Development
  • E.B. Hurlock has observed, “There is less emotional control, on the average, among those of the lower intellectual level than among children of the same group who are bright.
  • An intelligent individual is in a better position to exercise control over his emotions
Family Environment & Emotional Development
  • A good family environment and healthy relationships between the parents is very conducive for the emotional development of the child
  • The treatment of the child by the parents and other members of the family also influence the emotional development of the child
  • The gender of the child or order of birth child, size of the family, socio-economic conditions of the family, the parents attitude towards the child “overprotected or neglected)”  all are the important factors in the emotional development of the child

School Environment
            The attitude of the teachers, class fellows, school discipline, physical facilities, methods of teaching and co-curricular activities influence emotional development of children
Community & Society’s Environment and Emotional Development
·         Humans live in the form of society and the child picks up many traits of his emotional behavior from his surroundings
Developmental Characteristics of Infancy (Birth to 2 Years)
  • The development of basic trust and positive attachment occur between the infant and the primary caretaker in the first year.  This is a foundation stone of emotional development.
Developmental Characteristics of Early Childhood (2-6 Years)
  • The preschool child has been described as “on the make." Erikson refers to the child's primary mode of operation during this stage as initiative. 
  • The child is intrusive and like to takes charge, he is very curious and continually tries new things, manipulates the environment, and is busy self-chosen activities  
  • The child's ability to understand "right" and "wrong" leads to self-assessments and affects the development of self-esteem
Developmental Characteristics of Late Childhood (6-12 Years)
  • The child is full of energy, purposeful, and goal directed in his/her activities
  • The child is confident and self-directed. The child is developing a better sense of his/her self as an individual; the child at this stage is capable of introspection.
  • The child evaluates his/her worth by performance. Self-esteem is largely derived from one's perceived abilities
Developmental Characteristics of Adolescence (12-18 Years)
  • The early adolescent stage is strongly identified with the peer group. Youth depend upon their peers for emotional stability and support and Self-esteem is greatly affected by acceptance of peers
  • During middle and late adolescence, identity is more individualized, and a sense of self develops. Self-esteem is influenced by  the  youth's  ability  to  live  up  to  internalized  standards  for behavior.
Educational Implications of Emotional Development
  • There are several situations and things in the home and the school which make a child unhappy rather than happy.
  • It is common to note that children experience too many unpleasant emotions like anger, fear and jealousy than positive emotions of affection, joy and pleasure.
  • The positive emotions experience helps the child to develop a positive outlook on life.
  • In the childhood stage the child gradually expose the peer groups, school environment and society, Where sometime the find it difficult to adjustment. Teachers and parents are needed to take immediate and appropriate action to save the child from emotional complicacies.
  • Teachers should make students familiar with the teaching and non-teaching staff. Game, sports, picnic, and study tour arrange to develop healthy habits and pacify emotional problems.
  • Jealousy, Anger and Fear can be overcome through the organization and participation in curricular and co-curricular activities.
  • Methods and techniques of teaching like storytelling, discussion etc. should be used to make teaching-learning situation joyful and democratic
F.B. Hurlock states five causes which disturb emotional stability:
  • Children should be helped to express their emotions in a natural way
  • Children should be helped to develop a realistic understanding of  the situations that arouse unpleasant emotions
  • Children should be helped to control their feelings which may offend others
Thwarted Desires
  • Children should be gradually directed to exercise more of internal self-control
  • Counseling may be useful in cases of highly disturbed emotional states of minds
  • Emotions plays a very vital role in all fields of life
  • The emotions of fear, anger and love are also present in infancy stage
  • Parent’s behavior, environmental conditions plays a crucial role in the emotional development in children life.
  • Instead of endangering self-esteem of the children give them adequate opportunities of self-expression.