Lecture teaching method

Lecture method is the oldest method of teaching; historically the lecture method can be traced back to the 5th century BC. It was adopted by Muslim and Christian in the early medieval times in the Universities. The word lecture was derived from the Latin word lectare, means to read aloud, which identifies it as telling’ method. A lecture is a proper organized verbal presentation of subject matter. Bligh (1972), defines lecture method as is a period of more or less uninterrupted talk from a teacher Percival and Ellington (1988) stated that “a lecture is 'a didactic instructional method, involving one-way communication from the active presenter to the more or less passive audience”
Lecture method is based on the philosophy of idealism, it is consists of one-way communication from the teacher to student, in this method teacher some time can ask questions from the students to establish a communication link. But skilled lecturers make their lectures more thought-provoking and interactive for their students, to enhance their deeper understanding and learning about a topic.
The teacher also clarifies the topic to the students by using different gestures and simple devices like changing voice, change in position in the classroom and his facial expressions. In this method the teachers is more active than students. Students are passive in lecture method but the teacher try to get their attention by asking questions to keep the students active in the classroom.
Lecture method is the most economical of teaching and it can be used to teach a large number of students. It saves time and also covers the subject matter on time. It is very easy and simplest method for teachers and does not need any arrangements or preparation.
This method has shortcomings but it is still the most widely used method in today world. The lecture method can be made more effective by using audio visual aids, flash cards and charts etc. The teacher should encourage the students to ask questions in classroom and discussion the part of the lecture where the concept is difficult to understand. The content of the lecture should be logically arranged and to levels of the students.
Preparation of Lectures
The effectiveness of a lecture is defended on the Preparation of Lecture, presentation is more important but there are other key points that affect the quality of a presentation. preparing a lecture the teacher should consider three factors: first the purpose of the lecture, what teacher want to impart to his students, second the content and the structure of the lecture, and third include some key features to lecture plan.
Purpose
Lectures are given for several reasons:
·         note-taking lectures
·         problem-solving lectures
·         overview lectures
·         motivational lectures
For all the above we need different kinds of lectures, for every purposes it is important to state purpose of the lecture clearly and what type approach will be needed to achieve that purpose. Some the teacher two types of purpose in one lecture but it is sometimes fully successful in any single lecture.
Content and Structure Lecture method

The selection of subject matter and structuring of its content is very important in lecture method to ensure its optimum benefits for the learner in understanding. The teacher mostly select too much content for teaching because he has command over it, he ignore the level of the students in the process So, the teacher need to select only relevant information which is needed by students and easy to understand and learn it.
After selecting the content, the teacher should properly plan and structured the content. The approach must be from known to unknown and from easy to difficult so the students understand it. There are three common steps of structuring lectures; the classical, the problem centered and the sequential organization of content.
Key Features Lecture method
Some key features must be included in the lectures for better effectiveness and understanding of students. The following are the important key features.
·         The introduction of the lecture is very important. For good and Effective openings of the presentation the teacher need to gain the students' attention, motivate the students and structure content an7d indicate the objective of the lecture.
·         Use the appropriate audio-visual aids and charts for better understanding and clarity. All these aids, charts, flash cards, whilst slides, videos, films and recordings must be well prepared so the students in back of the class easily see them. All the illustrations and diagrams are simple, brief and readable, handouts are concise and well-structured and relevant to the topic.

·         The time allotted for a lecture is one hour, the need to spear fifteen for the student’s involvement. The inclusion of student activities, question answer session and provide opportunities for student reflection or problem-solving. Teacher do not care for students activities, but the research shows that active learning is essential for understanding rather than passive learning.

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Lecture Method
Advantages of lecture method:
  • Lectures do not require preparation.
  • Lectures cover allot amount of content in a limited time.
  • A large number of students can attend the Lecture at the same time.
  • A Great speaker inspires their audience.
  • In the Lecturer method a teacher can predict exactly what will happen during their speech.
  • The teacher has full control in Lecturer method
  • Learners do not feel any tension or threatened by the teacher while listening passively.
  • Motivated Learners know how to listen and take notes during lecture.
  • Learners do not like to share their notes with each other due examination point of view.
Disadvantages or limitations of lecture method.
·         lecture method is against the principle of learning by doing
·         lecture method makes the students passive listeners in teaching learning process
·         lecture method does not take into consideration the individual differences
·         In lecture method there is very little scope for pupil activity
·         Lecture method encourages 'surface' learning, which is unsuitable for 'deep' learning, understanding and problem solving skills. it only facilitates rote memorization
·         Lecture method does not develop power of critical thanking of the students
·         Lecture method is less effective for higher cognitive development

Comparison of lecture with other methods:
·         the lecture method is widely  used method in universities
·         lecture method is as effective as other methods of teaching and for comprehension level but it is less effective for higher cognitive levels
·         Lecture method  is less effective for teaching practical skills than demonstrations and laboratory work;
·         Discussions method is more effective than lecture method for changing attitudes

Effective Lecturer Activity Lecturing Behaviors
Explains


·         Uses logical, organized approach
·         States relationships


·         Defines key terms


Introduces topics
·         Clearly states objectives
·         Overviews topic
·         Links with past/future


Uses teaching aids
·         Uses appropriate medium/equipment
·         Ensures audibility/clearly visible
·         Structures content clearly


Questions
·         Asks questions clearly
·         Uses problem solving questions
·         Uses questions to explore, clarify