Project method

The project method is an educational teaching method which is expensive and time consuming method. In this             method children solve a practical problem over a period of several days or weeks. It involves projects like publishing school newspaper or journal, experiments on rocket, software problems or any other science or social projects which may be suggested by the teacher or by students. All these projects are planned and executed by the students themselves, individually or in groups. The focus of Project method is on applying, not imparting knowledge or skills. Project method helps in improving student involvement in practical and motivation to encourage independent thinking, social responsibility and self-confidence.
Project method has two basic approaches for implementing the project method in educational institutions. In older approach, two steps are used carryout projected: in step one, they are taught a certain course, skills and facts in a systematic way, and then they are asked to apply these skills and knowledge, creatively. In the second approach, the teacher gives them all necessary information. In other words the students choose the project, and then they discuss it with teacher what to do and how to do, in process they learn the required techniques and concepts. After that the students execute the chosen project by themselves. In both methods, time for reflection should be provided during all phases of project. It will give students the opportunity to evaluate their progress.
The classical approach has six features;
1.    Impact
In project method approach, in a short period of time, idea of project pass through all stages from an idea to implementation and analysis of the results.

2. Activity
The student has the right to make assumptions, make mistakes in the process, to gain practical knowledge and apply it in different situations, the final result and the success of the project give them pride and happiness.

3. Independence

In project method the role of the teacher is like an adviser and guide for their pupils. The teacher is no more a bearer in the acquisition of knowledge, but he is becoming a coordinators and consultants who guide children in the right direction and provide them all the help they need in the field of study.

4. Practicality
In project method it provides children practical experiences, for which they do not have real opportunity in a regular school environment. It gives them self-motivation and understanding of why they gain knowledge and how this knowledge can be applied in the real life situations.

5. Critical Thinking

The world is constantly changing, the career roadmap set years ahead, is now obsolete. Entirely new professions are emerging very fast. In this moving world search for new information is very easy with the development of the Internet, now the subject knowledge from a teacher has no more necessary, but rather to develop the skill of critical thinking and the ability to look for non-standard solutions.

6. Competence

A student doesn’t obtain his skill passively, but he performs specific tasks under the guidance of a professional teacher. A saying that “education is life itself and not a mere preparation for later living,” now students update their mathematical knowledge to have the skill of critical thinking, which is the important and wise Competence of all.
Merits of Project Method
Every method has advantages and disadvantages, following are the advantages of project method.
·         The freedom to execute a project by themselves using their skills and abilities, it fulfill their psychological needs.
·         Project method is not only subject centered, but it also gives importance to students’ activities Students are given freedom to choose their projects, as a result they use their abilities to maximum possible extent.
·         Project method provide students various opportunities through which they can satisfy their desires and fun.
·         Project method develops critical thinking in students. But with use of this scientific method the students also solve various problems by this method.
·         With project method, students get the chances to develop coordination among their body and mind. Which lead to a well-balanced personality and mental health
·         Project method is very good for teaching of science; the selected project method correlates with the real life problems, which students confront in everyday life.
·         Project method helps students in social interaction and co-operation in society, as they will have used to group activities and interact with other students and persons for gathering information. That leads to social cooperation.
·         Through project method students get knowledge directly through their own efforts, as a result the information they acquire in the process are permanent, which they can retain for a long period of time.
·         Project method reduce student homework because mostly of these projects are classroom assignments.
Demerits of Project Method
Following are the disadvantages of project method:
·         Project method is a time consuming method, on the other hand time available with the teacher is limited in the schools, and therefore it is difficult to use of this method in class.
·          This method is not practical in nature. It is not possible complete all projects for different topics in limited time with too many subjects in a year. 
·         Project method need highly knowledgeable teacher alert and gifted. The responsibility of teacher teaching using Project method is mufti-folded. He provides the students all the necessary and guidance through they can execute the project successfully.
·         One can’t give comprehensive and adequate learning by this method, as it is a method of incidental learning. To complete the subject curricula on time in systematic way, this method an additional method to do the job.
·         The utility of this method remain limited, because generally it is found that teachers do not possess the skills and information regarding this method therefore they hesitate to use this method.
Project method has some serious limitations; therefore it is not possible to use this method alone in science teaching. The best way is to use mix method approach, Teacher needs to use other methods of teaching as well with project method.  Project method can be used as a supplement teaching method along other methods