QURANIC PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

         Islam has laid great stress upon education. “In order to ascertain the extent to which Islam has encouraged education and learning it is enough that the Holy Quran as revealed to our Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) begins with the word “Read” in the name of the lord”. The foremost thing that was thus enjoined was “Reading”. The first revelation to the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) was first five Ayats of “Surah” Al-Alaq”. “Read” in the name of thy lord who create the man from a clot.
“Read”. And thy lord is the most bounteous who teaches by the pen. Teaches man that which he knew not”.
            In order to keep up difference between the learned and the ignorant, it is said in Surah, “Az-Zumar”.

ABOUT IGNORATN & LITERATE
            “Are those who know equal with those who know not”            “In another place in Surah Taha Allah addressing the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) enjoins him to pray for increases in knowledge.            

THE BEST PRAY AMONG PRAYERS
            And say: My lord! Increase me in knowledge. At another place the Holy Quran says, Certainly, Allah Showed clemency to the faithful. When he sent to them a prophet from among their own, who recites to them His commandments, purifies them and teaches them the Book and wisdom, while, before that they had been in manifest error.
  1. That the prophet is the teacher who teaches the book and wisdom and,
2.    That purifies the soul. This means that the aim of education is not only the reading of books, but also to make man  civilized and cultured. Besides this in the Quran, at several places, learning and the learned have been praised.

APPRECIATION FOR LEARNING AND THE LEARNED
            In the Holy Quran there is a story about Bani-Israil. Exasperated with the tyranny of king Jaloot (Golianth). Who expelled them from their country and arrested their wives and children. They approached their prophet Samuel and requested him to appoint a king over them to fight Goliath (Jaloot). The prophet Samuel informed them that Allah had appointed Taloot as their king. They objected His appointment saying, “we  are fitter than him for kingdom and he has not been given enough wealth and as such how can he deserve to be made king over us”? The prophet Samuel reply to them is thus described in the Quran. Allah has chosen Talut above you, and hath gifted him abundantly with knowledge and bodily prowess: God granteth him authority to whom he pleasant. God caret for all, and he knew the all things. This shows that Islam gives importance to the training of body as well as to the knowledge.
 
TRUE AND FULL UNDERSTANDING OF ISLAM
            Islam depends essentially on knowledge without God’s commands can never be understood in their true sense. Surah Ankabut verse 43. “and such are the parables we set forth for mankind.” As for those similitudes we coin them for mankind but non will grasp their meaning save the wise” In this Surah it is said, but only those understand
them who have knowledge. Surah Ankabut Verse 49. But it is clear revelation in the heart of those who have been given knowledge and none deny our revelation save wrongdoers.      various dimensions of Education according to Quran.     Seest thou not that God sends down rain from the sky? What is we then bring out produce of various
colours. And in the mountains are tracts white and red of various shades of colour and black intense in hue. And so amongst men and crawling creatures and cattle are they are of various colours. Those truly exalted in Might, of forgiving.   
From reference to the context of these verses, it is clear that learned men (Ullama) means those who are bestowed with the secret knowledge of the creation and signs of Allah.The topic of these verses is physical science. So the physical science deal with universe and it’s  characteristics i.e. search of those things which are being kept secret.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE & QURAN
            In Surah Fatir we are told about various dimensions of knowledge i.e. we know about rains from physical sciences and characteristics and composition of matter from Chemistry similarly plants and fruits are discussed in Botany, Archeology thrash out the details of earth and mountains. Zoology plays an active role in determining various kinds of people and animals.
At the end of the verse it is declared that “A virtuous scholar is gifted with fear of Allah”.
Hazrat Allama Sanaullah Panipathi has also explained this Ayat and tells, scholars are those who think over the creation of God And also prove the qualities and functions of God.
VARIOUS BRANCHES OF LEARNING
            “Behold! In the creation of the heavens and the alternation of the night and the day. In the sailing of the ships through the ocean for the profit of the mankind. In the rain which God sends down from the skies, and the life which He gives there with to an
earth that is dead, in the beasts of all kinds that He scatters through the earth, in the change of the winds and the clouds which they trail like their slaves between the sky and the earth,  (Here) indeed are signs for the people that are wise.” In these verses there are hints in respect of the various branches of learning For example, the creation
of heaven hints at the study of astronomy and investigations into space. The birth of the earth draws attention to Geology, the change of day and night to physical geography, the voyage by ships and the gains derived there from provides and incentive for maritime knowledge for ship engineering and commerce, the rains and through them the rejuvenation of the barren land gives inducement to agriculture, the mention of
beasts, spread over the earth, imply the study of  Zoology in short the Quran is never tired of advising man to use brain and exercise the faculty of their mind.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF BODY
                        Physical education is also necessary for the development of body. The prophet himself and his great companions have exhorted Muslims to learn along with the knowledge of Quran and Sunnah, wrestling, target shooting, horse-riding, swimming etc. the prophet (peace be upon him) encouraged wrestling. He himself wrestled with a great Arab wrestler Rukana and overthrew him in all the three rounds.
                        In the battle of Uhad a few underage boys were enlisted on the ground that they were good wrestler.
THE TRADITION OF THE H.P    
            It was under the influence of the precepts of Islam and the traditions of the holy prophet that the Muslims combined spiritual and temporal education so as to make them the teachers of the world. They carried the torch of learning and arts to distant
countries and helped to revive the old classical learning, which had fallen in obscurity. The modern is indebted to the Muslims for their great contribution to present day civilization, because the improvement in art, science and industry is based upon the discoveries made by the Arabs and the others Muslims.           
They made vast and critical study of ancient  knowledge, wrote exhaustive and copious notes on them, and made them available to the succeeding generation of European Nation. The Muslims never disregarded the spirit and demand of the changing times, on the other hand, while they produced original works of high quality and permanent value, they were not hesitated to irrigate and left flow the fountains of intellect which had been lying parched dried since long.
 
sources
The Holy Quran
Foundation of education.by  Dr Nouman.
Islamic system of education ( master of education).