Stages of Language Development

The language emerges remarkably in children. In a very short period of time a child can go from saying just a few words to suddenly producing full sentences. Research found that language development begins before a child is even born; in mother fetus the child is able to identify the speech and sound patterns of the mother and father voice
Researchers also found that infants are able to distinguish between speech sounds from all languages, not just the mother language. However, this ability disappears at the age of 10 months after that they recognize their native language.

Developmental Stages of Language Learning
Categorized in two categories
1. Physical Development
2. Psychological Development
Physical Development
These stages are divided into two categories:
1.    pre-linguistic
2.     linguistic
One month stage:
      Learn language by moving of body parts
      Recognizing sounds
      The natural sounds that babies make, e.g. crying, and swallowing.
      Show response to the sounds
Cooing and laughter (2-5 monthstage ):
These vocalizations usually occur when the baby is comfortable and happy.
Vocal play (4- month stage ):
      Roll & raise head and legs
      Produce sounds
      Baby is Passive listener
Babbling:6-13 months stage
The first stage of language development is known as the pre-linguistic, babbling or cooing stage
The child is practicing individual sounds, and sound sequences, and gaining the motor skills
Linguistic Development
Early One Word Stage (12-19 months)
At this stage child try to properly talk about his needs & wants.
Around the age of 10 to 13 months, children will begin to produce their first real word
A child will typically understand much more than he or she can actually express
Later One Word Stage (14-24 months)
      Child use actual words
      child begins to name and label the objects and people around him
 For Examples common nouns  & proper nouns such as Cup, dog, hat
Dad, Mom and verbs such as go, sit, eat
The child may also use a few social words such as No, bye, please
The child use words combine with facial expression and actions to communicate  his massage clearly.
Two Word Stage (20-30 months)
At this stage the child begins to produce two-word combinations similar to the following.
Daddy car, Where daddy, Mom water
      The Maximum use of nouns at this stage.
      This is not surprising, as the child has spent a lot of time learning the names of objects and people
By the age of three year a child will have a vocabulary of approximately 3,000 words.
Three Word Stage (28-42 months)
At this stage of development children extend their two-word utterances by  incorporating at least another word…….
In reality children may add up to two more words, thereby creating utterances as long as four words.
He hit ball
You hit ball
It is at this stage that the child also begins to use the articles thea and an
You hit a ball
 I want a candy
Four Word Stage (34-48 months)
From about 34 months the child begins to combine between four to six words in any one utterance.
Complex Utterance Stage (48-60 months)
The child regularly producing utterances of over six words in a sentence.
The concept of past and future time develops
We went to see him yesterday [past time]
Iqbal is going to school tomorrow  [future time]
At this stage at the age of five years the child:
      Discuss his liking and disliking
      Ego-centered
      Explore his/her self through language
      Ask confusing questions
How Parents Facilitate Language Development
Researchers have found that in all languages, parents utilize a style of speech with infants known as infant-directed speech. If you've ever heard someone speak to a baby, you'll probably immediately recognize this style of speech. It is characterized by a higher-pitched intonation, shortened or simplified vocabulary, shortened sentences and exaggerated vocalizations or expressions. Instead of saying "Let's go home," a parent might instead say "Go bye-bye."
Characteristics of human language
Social tool
      Language is not essential for communication 
      Communication is the purpose of language
      Language enables us to communicate with other people andexchange ideas and desires with each other.
      Language enables us to communicate With the people in our own culture and  With people from other cultures
      Language is a communication tool With ancient cultures
Language is learned
      Babies must hear and speak a language in order to learn it
      Human language is arbitrary
      There is no connection between the sound and the message
Human language is arbitrary
      There is no connection between sound  & the message
      Animal language is not arbitrary
      An animal’s message and the sound cannot be separated
Sounds & meaning
      Human sounds have basic sounds
      English: A, B, C, D, etc.
      English basic sounds can be combined to create new sounds. Cat,mat, pat, etc.
Language rules
      All human languages have rules that guide how the parts of languages can be combined
      With different rules different meaning
Language rules and meaning
      Dog bites man.
      Man bites dog.
      Creativity
      Humans can talk about any topic etc
      PAST, Future
      Creating new sentences
      Things can be called by more than one name
Grammar rules
Word order
For example Take the words: ate, I, lunch
The proper order  “I ate lunch’”
Language is Symbolic
      Set of verbal symbols stand for real objects, actions, concepts
      Human language is a social Activity
       Gives expression to thoughts
Principle of Mother tongue learning
Principle of Practice
      Give opportunities for practice in class
Principle of Imitation
      Child Imitates parents, teacher is model for students
Principle of Natural order
      Practice the sound
      Teach Words
      Sentences
Principle of Exposure
      Learn in home, community
Principle of Understanding
      Child Listen for Months than speak
Principle of Proper order
      Listening
      Speaking
      Reading
      Writing
Principle of practicality
      Practicality in Learning
      Associate words to Picture, objects
Principle of Correlation
      Relate subject matter to life, traditions. Meaningful  teaching
Principle of Translation