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The Problem solving Method of teaching

Problem-solving method is a scientific method for teaching especially for science subjects. In this method students take on responsibility for their own learning. Science subject is one of the most important subjects in education system. Traditional teaching methods are lack of developing critical thinking and inability to foster holistic learning environment for school children. The purpose of the science subject is to develop skills of critical thinking, measure, observe, analyze data, classify, synthesize, and formulate conclusions, process information and solving difficult problems, etc. in Problem-solving method creativity in an essential element of science subject.
Problem-solving method need motivation and action to solve the problems on the part of students, resolve conflicts, discuss alternatives solutions, and focus on developing critical thinking is a vital element of the curriculum. Problem-solving method provides students opportunities to implement their acquired knowledge and skills in a meaningful real-life.

Meaning and Definition of Problem solving method

In a problem solving method, children learn by working on problems. This enables the students to learn new knowledge by facing the problems to be solved. The students are expected to observe, understand, analyze, interpret find solutions, and perform applications that lead to a holistic understanding of the concept. This method develops scientific process skills. This method helps in developing brainstorming approach to learning concepts (Dr. Maheshwari).
In Problem-solving method the students select the problem from the real-life situation and then try to understand the science behind it, Problem-solving method is based on common sense. It does not begin with text books knowledge. But it proceeds from personal experience about a problem and then gradually forming concepts through reading relevant books about it. Problem-solving method is a process from practical to theory not from theory to practical. In Problem-solving method Knowledge is not a goal but an outcome of working on tasks. In Problem-solving method students deal with real life world problems and they like to deal with them. Students like concrete things where they can touch, manipulate things to solving a problem, for that this method is very useful.
The purpose Problem solving is to find a problem; determining the cause of the problem, identifying alternatives solution and implementing the solution.
The aim and objective of Problem-solving method is to learn knowledge by solving a problem. It begins with a problem and need step by step well planned meaningful, well-integrated activity. The purpose of problem is to test the student in a natural.

Objectives of Problem-Solving method are;
  • The Will to solve a problem
  • Improve the skills of pupils’ and abilities to solve the problems
  • Improve awareness in students about problem-solving strategies
  • Teach the pupils to solve a problems in a systematic way
  • one problem can be solved by multiple ways
  • Improve student’s skills and abilities to select a better solution techniques to solve the problem
  • Improve students’ abilities to get correct answers to a problems by analyzing the problem
  • Teach them Logical interpretation of the data by adequate and valid experiences of others and his

Tips for effective use of Problem solving method

  • Ask questions about the problem and make suggestions to solve the problem. Ask students to formulate a hypothesis and predict the answer. It will help them to develop critical and analytical thinking and inductive and deductive thinking skills
  • Encourage group work in Students, it will help them, and they will think more critically and deeply about the steps needed to solve the problem
  • If students are unable to find the solution to a problem, try to find where they are having trouble. Identify the area of the problem, disuse the possible solution to that problem and move them in process
  • Aware the students that the process is more important than the solution
  • Provide minimal assistance to students to solve the problem only when they needed the most to overcome any obstacles which harder for them
  • Teacher work as a facilitator. Teacher must motivate the students because it is a child-directed learning method. Teacher must provide opportunities to all students to contribute in process and towards the success of the activity
Procedural steps of Problem solving method
The procedural steps can be divided in phases
v  Pre-active /Planning phase
v  Active / Execution phase
v  Post-active/Evaluation phase
v  The Pre-active / planning phase includes:

Limitations of the problem-solving method

·         Difficult to teach theoretically topics of curriculum with this method
·         lack of suitable books and references about this method
·         This is method not suitable for all students
·         This Method does not suit lower classes students
·         This is a mental activity dominates method. Hence it neglects physical and practical experiences.
·         This method generates behavior which is destructive and drains the creative energy of the students. Sometime jealous students try to sabotage the ideas of others with whom they disagreed.
·         Lack  of talented teachers to guide this method
·         Time consuming method and resource constraints. It is expensive  and time consuming method

Advantages and Disadvantages of Problem-Based

Below are the advantages and disadvantages of problem-based learning:

Advantages of Problem-Based Learning

 Development of Long-Term Knowledge Retention
·         It helps students to retain and recall information. This method reinforces learning and understanding of subject matter, making it easier to remember later.
 Use of Diverse Instruction Types
·         This method can be used to meet the diverse learning needs and styles of different students and effectively engage a diverse classroom in the process. 

Grouping activities in problem-based learning will allow them to:

  • This method  deals with real-life issues that require real-life solutions and help weak students who struggle with abstract concepts
  • It help the  students who don’t excel during solo work, they learn will in small-group and large-group learning activities
Continuous Engagement
·         Problem-based learning motivate and engage in the process of activity
·         In this method engagement, students collaborate with each other to solve real-life problem that inject excitement into students  

Development of Transferable Skills
·         Problem-based learning imparts knowledge and develops skills which they can use in real-world scenarios

Improvement of Teamwork and Interpersonal Skills
·         Problem-based learning helps students to interact and communicate with each other’s, with this method students build transferable skills based on teamwork and collaboration.

Disadvantages of Problem-Based Learning
 Potentially Poorer Performance on Tests
Problem-based learning Effect students standardized tests, because of limited time to read book and knowledge needed to achieve high scores

Student Unpreparedness
Not all the students can get benefits from Problem-based learning, but they feel disengaged as a result they can’t handle this type of exercise

Teacher Unpreparedness
Teacher is not competent for problem-based teaching activity or he is new to this method and lack of experience 

Time-Consuming Assessment
Problem based learning and monitoring required plenty of time which makes it time-consuming

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