Theories of learning

WHAT IS LEARNING:
The changes in behavior brought about by experience (direct and indirect) are known as learning.
TYPES OF THOERIES
Broadly we may categories all these theories in to two major headings.
A stimulus response association’s type of theories:
These theories interpret learning in terms of change in behavior of the learner brought about the association of the response to a series of stimuli. The chief exponents are Edward L. Thorndike, John B.Watson,pavlov,Frederic skinner.
THORNDIKE’S CONNECTIONISM OR TRIAL AND ERROR LEARNING:
Edward Lee Thorndike (1874—1949) was the first American psychologist who introduced the concept of reward. According to him all learning is the formation of connections or bond between stimulus responses.
·         EXPERIMENT: A hungry cat in a puzzle box ---- a fish------outside the box -----cats attempt to reach to the fish-----random movements -opened correctly by manipulating a latch after few times by chance------ got fish.---learned the way of opening door.  
Thorndike propounded the following laws of learning on the basis of his theory.
·         The law of readiness
·         The law of effect
·         The law of exercise
·         .The law of effect
SUBORDINATE LAWS OF LEARNING:
·         Law of multiple responses
·         Law of attitude
·         Law of partial activity
·         Law of analogy
·         Law of associative shifting

EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS
         Interest in the work
         Interest in improvement
         Significance
         attitude
         attentiveness
PALVLOV’S CLASSICAL OR RESPONDENT CONDITIONING THEORY
Russian Physiologist (1904).It is defined as a process in which a neutral stimulus by pairing with a natural stimulus acquires all the characteristics of neutral stimulus. It is called substitution learning.
         EXPERIMENT: Hungry dog----in a room with certain mechanically controlled device. Arrangement was made to give food to the dog through an automatic mechanism. Every time before giving food a bell was rung. Secretion of saliva ----after some time----no food was given just ringing the bell and dog start produce saliva
The laws driven;
         UCS------------UCR        ( unconditional stimulus ----- unconditional response )
FOOD--------SALIVA
         CS+UCS                       (conditional stimulus ----- unconditional saliva)
BELL+FOOD
         CS-------------  UCR   (conditional stimulus ----- unconditional response )
   BELL--------- SALIVA

PRINCIPLES OF CONDITIONING
         REINFORCEMENT
         EXTINCTION
         GENERALISATION
         DISRIMINATION.
         EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATION:
         To develop favorable and unfavorable attitude
Learning what is desirable and eliminating what is undesirable like unhealthy attitudes, phobias through deconditioning.
B Gestalt field or field cognition type of theories:
The second type of theories looks at learning as the change in the field of contacting of the learners and his environment and the learner perception of the field. These theories emphasize the role of purpose, insight and understanding in the process of learning. The chief exponents are Lewin,kohler and Max Wertheimer. 

Cognitive\field\gestalt theories of learning
According to them in a learning process , the learner does not merely receive or make responses to the stimuli, but  interacts with and does something about what he receives and his responses determined by the processing
LEARNING BY INSIGHT:
         Wolfgang kohler, a German psychologist, put forth this theory of learning. This theory is based on the basic concept of Gestalt school of psychology that “WHOLE IS MORE MEANINGFUL THAN THE SUM OF PARTS”
Gestalt theory
         The word “gestalt” in German language means “whole” total pattern or configuration It means that learning take place as a whole.
         Experiments on chimpanzees---------bunch of bananas hanging from the roof------ two sticks in the room---- chimpanzees used two sticks by attaching them to reach bananas.
CHARACTERISTICS OF INSIGHT LEARNING:
         Insight is sudden and it changes perception
         Old objects appear in new patterns and organization is by virtue of insight
         In case if initial responses proved inadequate alternative responses may be tried
         Repetition and generalization of responses is found out
.
PIAGETS THEORY OF LEARNING
         Founder of this theory is PIAGETS, Swiss psychologist. He asserts that learning is a function of development. He uses the word cognitive development, intellectual development and development of intelligence .Behavior is an individual adaptation to the environment. Adaptation takes place through the interaction of assimilation and accommodation
Skinner operant or instrumental conditioning theory:
         Operant or instrumental conditioning refers to a kind of learning process whereby a response is made more frequent by reinforcement. it helps in the learning of operant behavior the behavior that is not associated with a known stimulus