3 Ways of Gaining Knowledge : Philosophy of Logic and Reasoning

In our daily lives, we strive day in and out to acquire knowledge. There are large sources through which we acquire knowledge. Social media, teachers, school and colleges, and lectures are the various ways through which we gain knowledge on daily basis.  According to philosophy, there are three ways of gaining knowledge- Pratyaksha Pramana, Anumana Pramana, and Sabda Pramana. 

Here, knowing the meaning of Perception is important. Perception is the Knowledge that arises from the contact of sense and sense object that is determinate, Unnamable, and consistent.

Two classes of Perception:

1. Ordinary (Laukika): 5 senses and sense objects

2. Extraordinary (Alaukika): (Samanya, Jnana, and Yogaja) i.e. Classes, Association, and Intuitive.

1. Pratyaksha Pramana:

Pratayksha Pramana relates to the knowledge acquired by the person by himself. It is the knowledge gained by the five senses of the human body.

Advantage- Human beings can directly understand these five through their five organs as follows skin, tongue, nose, eyes, and ear. Firm knowledge is established when the respective sense organ interacts with the object. For example, water touch with warm hand feels cold and when touched with cold hand appears warm.

Limitation- We may perceive our senses wrongly. Some things tend to appear different from what they actually are. Some things tend to appear different from what they actually are. Although illusions distort our perception of reality, they generally are shared by most people.

2. Anumana Pramana:

Anumana Pramana is the knowledge of a thing that comes from the similarity with another thing that is well known.

Advantage- Logical thinking capacity increases and we are able to relate to events to gain knowledge. Knowledge also improves the reasoning and critical thinking that students must do in different classes such as history, literature, and other humanities classes.

Limitation- Observations can be wrongly recorded. The truth of the conclusion may be probable. The hypothesis considered might be wrong. Sometimes people tend to make conclusions on the basis of what they see or hear on the basis of prior or half-knowledge. For example, when we are in a desert we assume that there must be a water body nearby when we feel thirsty because of the mirage effect but this is not true.

3. Sabda Pramana:

Sabda Pramana is the knowledge gained through an instructive assertion of a reliable person that is, one who is possessed of true knowledge and is truthful.


Advantage- We get knowledge through other people’s knowledge. We get to learn about new things and experiences. With knowledge, you can enhance your abilities to think diversely, even the problems you face in class, and you may face in real life.

Limitation- Knowledge acquired through other people need not be true every time. Always believing these opinions may not work. We should verify it before blindly believing it.