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Influence of Conflict Management Strategies on Conscientiousness of Oil and Gas Firms in South-South Nigeria

Dr. Enyia, Charles Daniel1, Prof. Omoankhanlen, Joseph Akhigbe  & Dr. Igudia , Patrick Ohunmah 

1,2 Department of Management, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

3Department of Business Adminstration, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria





This study investigates the impact of conflict management strategies on conscientiousness in the oil and gas industry in South-South Nigeria. The research involves a population of 320 employees holding supervisory positions and above from five prominent companies. A sample size of 175 respondents was randomly selected for data collection using structured questionnaire. The study employed a cross-sectional research design, and data were analyzed using correlation analysis. The findings reveal a significant positive correlation (r = 0.649, p < 0.01) between conflict management strategies and conscientiousness. The study emphasizes the importance of appropriate conflict management approaches and highlights the positive relationship between effective conflict resolution and employee conscientious behaviour. The results provide valuable insights for organizations seeking to enhance employee morale, productivity, and overall performance through proactive conflict management strategies. 


Keywords: Conscientious behaviour, negligent behaviour, positive work environment, positive work culture







In the ever-evolving landscape of the oil and gas industry, navigating complex challenges and maintaining a harmonious work environment are paramount to the success and sustainability of companies in the South-South region of Nigeria. Among the myriad challenges faced by these firms, effective conflict management emerges as a crucial factor that directly influences the conscientiousness and overall performance of the organization (Robbins, Judge,  Millett  & Boyle, 2019). Conflict, while inevitable in any dynamic workplace, can either be a catalyst for growth or a destructive force if left unaddressed. Hence, the way conflicts are handled and managed can significantly impact employee morale, productivity, and the overall culture of the company (Jehn  & Bendersky,  2020).


The oil and gas industry, known for its high-pressure operations, demands a cohesive and dedicated workforce. However, the presence of unresolved or mishandled conflicts can create a ripple effect, causing negative emotions, resentment, and reduced job satisfaction among employees (Smith  & Peterson,  2022). Conversely, organizations that adopt thoughtful and proactive conflict management strategies foster an environment that promotes collaboration, mutual understanding, and shared goals. Employees who feel that their concerns are valued and addressed are more likely to exhibit higher levels of conscientiousness, resulting in increased commitment and productivity within the organization (Stevens & Kristof-Brown, 2023).


In this article, we delve into the impact of conflict management strategies on the conscientiousness of oil and gas firms in the South-South region of Nigeria. Knowing that effective conflict management can influence decision-making processes, resource allocation, employee turnover, and overall performance (Omoankhanlen, Ajienka & Oloda, 2014). By understanding the significance of conflict management in this industry's context, this study shed light on how companies can proactively build a resilient and conscientious workforce, ultimately fostering long-term success amid the dynamic challenges faced in this competitive sector.


Statement of the Problem

Conflict, in itself, is not always negative. In fact, it can lead to constructive outcomes when managed effectively. Conflict management involves employing strategies to identify, address, and resolve conflicts in a manner that promotes cooperation and mutual understanding (Thomas  & Kilmann,  1974). Various conflict management techniques, such as collaboration, compromise, accommodation, avoidance, and competition, can be applied depending on the nature of the conflict and the parties involved (Thomas & Kilmann, 2021).

Conflict within oil and gas firms can arise from various sources and lead to a range of challenges. Some of the key problems related to conflict in oil and gas firms include: Safety Concerns, Operational Disruption, Decreased Productivity, High Turnover, Resource Allocation Issues, Reputation Damage, Legal and Regulatory Consequences, Cultural Differences, Contractual Disputes and Lack of Innovation (Smith & Peterson, 2022).


Addressing the following problems related to conflict requires proactive conflict management strategies, open communication, effective leadership, and a strong organizational culture that promotes teamwork and collaboration. Oil and gas firms must recognize the importance of managing conflicts to maintain operational efficiency, ensure safety, and foster a positive work environment.


Research Hypothesis


H0: Conflict management strategies does not relate with conscientiousness of oil and gas firms in south-south Nigeria

Literature Review:



Theoretical Framework

This research work is anchored on contingency theory

Contingency theory

Contingency theory, when applied to conflict management strategies, emphasizes the importance of tailoring approaches to address specific conflict situations (Donaldson,  2001). Conflicts within organizations are diverse and can arise due to various contingencies such as differences in values, work styles, or goals. Instead of adopting a one-size-fits-all conflict management strategy, contingency theory encourages managers to assess the unique context of each conflict and choose the most appropriate approach accordingly.


For example, in conflicts stemming from miscommunication or misunderstandings between team members, a collaborative conflict management strategy might be effective. By encouraging open dialogue and active listening, team members can work together to identify the root cause of the conflict and jointly develop solutions that satisfy all parties involved. In this situation, a participative leadership style might be necessary to facilitate open communication and foster a collaborative atmosphere.


On the other hand, in a high-pressure and time-sensitive project where quick decisions are essential, conflicts may need swift resolution. In such cases, an autocratic or authoritative conflict management strategy might be appropriate, with a manager making decisive decisions to resolve the conflict promptly. However, it is essential for managers to consider the impact of such a decision on team morale and long-term working relationships.


Additionally, when dealing with conflicts related to organizational structure or resource allocation, a more analytical and data-driven conflict management approach might be required. Using rational decision-making models and considering the specific contingencies surrounding the conflict can lead to a fair and equitable resolution.


Contingency theory provides valuable insights into the selection and implementation of conflict management strategies (Burns  & Stalker,  1961). Managers must recognize that different conflicts require different approaches, and there is no universal solution to conflict resolution. By aligning conflict management strategies with the contingencies of each conflict, organizations can foster a more harmonious and productive work environment, leading to improved employee morale, collaboration, and overall organizational performance.


Conflict Management Strategies

Effective conflict management strategies play a crucial role in the dynamic and competitive landscape of the oil and gas industry in South-South Nigeria (Enyia & Nwuche, 2016). By encouraging open communication and providing conflict resolution training, organizations empower their employees to address conflicts proactively and constructively (Luthans, 2011). Open channels of communication allow individuals to express their concerns, ideas, and feedback, fostering a sense of trust and transparency. Conflict resolution training equips employees and managers with the necessary skills to navigate disputes effectively, promoting mutual understanding and cooperation.


In addition to open communication and conflict resolution training, utilizing neutral third-party mediators or facilitators can be instrumental in resolving complex conflicts (Omoankhanlen  & Gail,  2017). These impartial mediators guide the parties involved through a structured process, helping them identify underlying issues and find mutually agreeable solutions (Judge  & Bono,  2001). This approach promotes a sense of fairness and impartiality, encouraging all parties to work collaboratively towards resolution. Mediation can prevent conflicts from escalating and preserve positive working relationships.


Emphasizing collaboration and compromise within the organization leads to win-win outcomes in conflict resolution. Encouraging a collaborative approach fosters teamwork and unity among team members. When parties involved in a conflict work together to find solutions that satisfy their respective interests, it not only resolves the immediate issue but also strengthens relationships and encourages a sense of collective responsibility (Jehn, 1995). Compromising on certain aspects of the conflict allows all parties to make concessions, reaching a balanced resolution that takes everyone's interests into account.

To ensure consistency and fairness in conflict resolution, organizations need clear policies and procedures in place. Establishing comprehensive conflict resolution policies provides a structured framework for addressing conflicts promptly and effectively. Employees should be aware of the steps involved in reporting and resolving conflicts, ensuring a consistent approach across the organization. By having well-defined roles and responsibilities, organizations can minimize misunderstandings and conflicts arising from overlapping or unclear job responsibilities. Clearly outlining job roles fosters a sense of accountability and prevents potential areas of friction (Podsakoff, et al, 2003).


Furthermore, organizations can encourage a culture of learning from conflicts. After a conflict is resolved, feedback and reflection on the process can provide valuable insights (Jehn  & Mannix, 2001). Learning from past conflicts allows organizations to identify patterns and develop preventive strategies, reducing the likelihood of similar issues arising in the future (O'Reilly & Chatman, 1986). Creating a culture that embraces learning and continuous improvement contributes to a more conscientious and adaptive workforce.


Lastly, embracing diversity and promoting respect in the workplace is vital for reducing conflicts related to cultural or personal differences (Omoankhanlen, Ajienka & Oloda, 2014). Acknowledging and valuing diversity within the organization fosters an environment where differing viewpoints are embraced and celebrated (Podsakoff, et al 2012). By promoting inclusivity and respect, organizations can mitigate conflicts stemming from bias or misunderstanding, ensuring a harmonious and productive work environment (Judge  & Bono, 2001).


Implementing effective conflict management strategies is essential for the success and sustainability of oil and gas firms in South-South Nigeria. By promoting open communication, utilizing mediation, emphasizing collaboration and compromise, and establishing clear policies, organizations can foster a positive work environment that enhances employee conscientiousness and overall performance (Rahim, 2002). Encouraging learning from conflicts and embracing diversity further contributes to a cohesive and resilient workforce, equipped to navigate the challenges of the industry successfully.


Supportive Views:


The work of  Thomas  & Kilmann, (1974) reveals the foundation in understanding different conflict management styles. It offers five distinct modes that provides individuals and organizations with a framework to assess their preferred approach to conflict resolution. The modes include competing, collaborating, compromising, avoiding, and accommodating. Rahim (1983) focused on  measure of styles of handling interpersonal conflict. Rahim expanded the conflict management styles introduced by Thomas and Kilmann. He introduced two additional styles: integrating and dominating. This comprehensive model allows for a more nuanced understanding of how individuals approach and manage conflicts.


Furthermore, Jehn  & Mannix, (2001) researched on the dynamic nature of conflict: A longitudinal study of intragroup conflict and group performance. This study challenges the notion that all conflicts are detrimental. It highlights that task-related conflicts, when managed effectively, can stimulate creativity and improve group performance. It underscores the importance of understanding the context and intensity of conflicts.


De Dreu  & Weingart (2003) investigated task versus relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: A meta-analysis. This meta-analysis delves into the distinctions between task and relationship conflicts. It reveals that moderate levels of task conflict can be beneficial for team performance, as they encourage diverse perspectives. However, high levels of relationship conflict can hinder performance and satisfaction.


Opposing Views:


Putnam & Poole  (1987) examined Conflict and negotiation. Their work challenges the perception of conflict as solely negative. It emphasizes that conflicts can also lead to positive outcomes, such as increased understanding, improved decision-making, and organizational change. It advocates for an integrative approach that harnesses the potential benefits of conflict. Pruitt  & Rubin  (1986). Social conflict: Escalation, stalemate, and settlement  focuses on the escalation of conflicts and the importance of preventing damaging consequences. They emphasize that while some conflicts might lead to beneficial change, unchecked escalation can lead to negative outcomes. Strategies for de-escalation and constructive resolution are discussed.


Guetzkow  & Gyr  (1954) carried out an experimental study of the effects of different types of conflict within small groups. This early study explores how task conflict within small groups can impact group dynamics and performance. It suggests that high levels of task conflict can lead to reduced cohesion and productivity, presenting challenges in managing conflicts effectively.


Deutsch (1973) focused on the resolution of conflict: Constructive and destructive processes. Deutsch's work acknowledges that conflicts can be both constructive and destructive. While constructive conflicts can lead to growth and innovation, destructive conflicts can harm relationships and impede progress. The distinction between these types of conflicts is crucial for effective conflict management.


These studies provide a variety of perspectives on conflict management, ranging from the benefits of understanding and utilizing different conflict styles to the potential dangers of unmanaged conflicts. When evaluating and conducting your own research on this topic, it's essential to consider the context, nature of the conflicts, and the dynamics of the organization in question.




Conscientiousness is a fundamental personality trait that reflects an individual's tendency to be responsible, organized, and diligent in fulfilling their obligations and duties. It is one of the five major personality traits commonly known as the "Big Five" personality traits, which also include openness to experience, extraversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability (neuroticism). Conscientious individuals are characterized by their self-discipline, attention to detail, and commitment to achieving their goals (Organ  & Ryan,  1995).


In the context of oil and gas firms in South-South Nigeria, conscientiousness is a highly desirable trait among employees and leaders alike (Enyia, 2015). Conscientious employees demonstrate a strong work ethic and are dependable in completing their tasks with accuracy and efficiency. They take their roles seriously and are proactive in ensuring that projects are executed effectively (Thomas, 1976). These individuals are often seen as reliable team members, as they can be trusted to meet deadlines and deliver quality work.


Leaders who exhibit conscientiousness are essential for fostering a positive and productive work environment. Their strong sense of responsibility and organization sets a positive example for their team members (Podsakoff, et al 1997). They are committed to the company's goals and lead by example, encouraging their team to uphold the same level of dedication and accountability. Conscientious leaders are also more likely to implement effective conflict management strategies, as they prioritize open communication, fairness, and collaboration in resolving disputes.


Barrick and Mount (1991) meta-analysis found a strong positive correlation between conscientiousness and job performance. They argued that individuals who are conscientious tend to be organized, responsible, dependable, and detail-oriented. These traits contribute to better task execution and job performance. Judge and Bono (2001) research supported the idea that individuals high in conscientiousness are more likely to set and pursue challenging goals, exhibit strong work ethics, and perform consistently in their roles. They highlighted the importance of conscientiousness in predicting job satisfaction and job performance. Salgado (1997) research provided evidence for the positive relationship between conscientiousness and job performance, particularly in European work settings. He argued that conscientious individuals are more likely to adhere to organizational norms, meet deadlines, and maintain higher levels of work engagement.


In contrast to these authors, Ones and Dilchert (2009) challenged the idea that the Big Five personality traits, including conscientiousness, are universally valid predictors of job performance across all types of jobs and situations. They suggested that the importance of conscientiousness could vary depending on the context and job demands. They emphasized the need to consider other factors such as motivation and task-specific skills. Kanfer and Heggestad (1997) emphasized the importance of motivational traits and skills alongside personality traits like conscientiousness. They argued that while conscientiousness may contribute to task performance, motivation to perform tasks and acquire new skills is equally important. Their perspective highlights the interplay between personality traits and individual motivation. Digman (1990) work contributed to the development of the Big Five personality model, which includes conscientiousness. While he acknowledged the significance of conscientiousness, his focus was on presenting a comprehensive personality framework that also considered other traits. His research encouraged a broader understanding of personality beyond a single trait.


In the oil and gas industry, where safety and precision are critical, conscientiousness is particularly valuable. Conscientious employees pay close attention to details, reducing the likelihood of errors that could lead to accidents or environmental hazards. They adhere to safety protocols and ensure that tasks are carried out according to established standards.


Moreover, conscientiousness is associated with long-term success and career advancement. Employees who consistently demonstrate conscientious behaviour are often recognized and rewarded for their dedication and reliability. They are more likely to be entrusted with additional responsibilities and opportunities for growth within the organization (De Dreu, & Gelfand, 2008).


When employees fail to demonstrate conscientious behaviour in the workplace, a series of negative outcomes can unfold, affecting both the individuals and the organization as a whole. One of the most prominent consequences is a reduction in job performance. Conscientiousness often entails qualities like meticulousness, responsibility, and organizational skills. Employees lacking conscientiousness may struggle with meeting deadlines, producing work of subpar quality, and facing challenges in completing tasks efficiently. As a result, their overall job performance may diminish, potentially impacting their productivity and the organization's operational efficiency.


Moreover, a dearth of conscientious behaviour can lead to a decline in reliability. Conscientious employees are typically regarded as dependable and trustworthy, capable of delivering on their commitments consistently. Conversely, employees who fail to exhibit conscientiousness may find their reliability questioned. This can disrupt workflows, hinder opportunities, and burden other team members who may need to compensate for the deficiencies of their less dependable colleagues.


Another adverse consequence is the potential for lower job satisfaction. Conscientious individuals often derive satisfaction from accomplishing tasks successfully and meeting their responsibilities. When employees lack conscientious behaviour, they may experience reduced job satisfaction due to underperformance and the negative feedback that ensues.


Additionally, interpersonal relationships within the workplace can be strained by a lack of conscientiousness. Conscientious behaviour entails being considerate of colleagues, fulfilling obligations, and collaborating effectively. When employees fall short in these aspects, it can foster strained relationships with peers and supervisors. Colleagues may perceive them as uncooperative or unreliable, which can lead to strained interactions, conflict, and an overall deterioration of the work environment.


The consequences of failing to exhibit conscientious behaviour can extend to missed opportunities for personal growth and career advancement. Conscientious employees tend to actively seek out opportunities to learn and develop new skills. By neglecting conscientiousness, employees may forego chances for skill enhancement, career progression, and recognition for their contributions to the organization.


Furthermore, a lack of conscientiousness can negatively impact team dynamics. In collaborative work settings, consistent failure to fulfill commitments can disrupt team cohesion. Team members may become frustrated with colleagues who consistently fall short, leading to diminished morale, impaired collaboration, and hampered project outcomes.


In the larger context of organizational culture, conscientious behaviour plays a pivotal role in fostering a positive work environment characterized by accountability, responsibility, and professionalism. Employees failing to display conscientiousness can undermine the desired organizational culture and contribute to a less harmonious and productive workplace.


The failure to demonstrate conscientious behaviour can invite disciplinary actions. Continual neglect of responsibilities might prompt supervisors or management to take corrective measures, ranging from verbal warnings to more severe consequences like performance improvement plans or even termination.


Conscientious behaviour is pivotal for a thriving and cohesive work environment. Employees who exhibit conscientiousness bring reliability, commitment, and accountability to their roles, enriching both their personal job satisfaction and the overall success of the organization. Failing to uphold these traits can lead to a cascade of negative outcomes, impacting job performance, relationships, career prospects, and the overall workplace atmosphere.


However, it is essential to strike a balance, as excessive conscientiousness can sometimes lead to perfectionism or overwork. Burnout can become a risk if individuals consistently place unrealistic demands on themselves. Organizations should be mindful of fostering a supportive work culture that encourages a healthy work-life balance and provides resources for managing stress and workload.


Conscientiousness is a valuable trait within oil and gas firms in South-South Nigeria. It is characterized by responsible and diligent behaviour, which contributes to a positive work environment, improved conflict management, and overall success in this demanding industry. By recognizing and nurturing conscientiousness in employees and leaders, organizations can cultivate a motivated and committed workforce, driving excellence and resilience in the face of challenges.


Based on the foregoing literature reviw on conflict management strategies and conscientiousness, it was hypothesized (H0) that; conflict management strategies does not relate with conscientiousness of oil and gas firms in south-south Nigeria. 



Research Design:

This study utilized a cross-sectional research design to collect data from the population of 320 staff within the cadre of supervisor and above from Agip Oil (NAOC), Chevron Nigeria, Elf Petroleum Nigeria, Sahara Energy Fields, and Schlumberger Oilfield Services. Cross-sectional research allows data to be collected from all participants at a single point in time, providing a snapshot of the current state of the variables of interest.


Population and Sampling:

The target population for this study is 320 staff members working as supervisors and above in the specified oil and gas companies. From this population, a sample size of 175 was achieved using Taro Yamene formula. Respondents were selected using a random sampling technique. Random sampling ensures that each staff member in the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample, increasing the representativeness of the sample.


Data Collection:

Data were collected through structured questionnaire designed to capture information about conflict management strategies and their impact on conscientiousness. The questionnaire consist of both closed-ended and Likert-scale type questions. 


Variables and Measures:

The main variables of interest in this study are conflict management strategies and conscientiousness. Conflict management strategies were measured using questions that assess the frequency and effectiveness of various conflict resolution approaches utilized by the staff. Conscientiousness were measured using items that evaluate the level of responsibility, diligence, and commitment demonstrated by the staff in their work.


Data Analysis:

Data collected from the use of questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. This was achived through the use of  SPSS, version 21. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the demographic characteristics of the sample and the distribution of responses on conflict management strategies and conscientiousness. Inferential statistics, Pearson moment correlation analysis was conducted to explore the relationship between conflict management strategies and conscientiousness.


Data Analyses 


This section provides a comprehensive overview of the data analyses processes



Table 1: Descriptive statistics of  Respondents

Name of Company

Staff strength  


Sample Size

Approximate Number

Nigerian Agip Oil (NAOC) 





Chevron Nigeria





Elf Petroleum Nigeria 





Sahara Energy Fields





Schlumberger Oilfield Services











Table 1  percentages are calculated based on the proportion of staff strength of each company to the total population of 320. The sample size for each company is approximately determined based on the percentage allocation to the total sample size of 175. To maintain the integrity of the study, the sample sizes were rounded to the nearest whole number.



Hypothesis testing using Inferential statistics 

H01: Conflict management strategies does not relate with conscientiousness of oil and gas firms in south-south Nigeria







Pearson Correlation



Sig. (2-tailed)







Pearson Correlation



Sig. (2-tailed)






**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).



CMS= Conflict management strategies

Cons= Conscientiousness


Discussion of Findings


The correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between Conflict Management Strategies (CMS) and Conscientiousness (Cons) among the respondents. The results indicate a significant positive correlation between CMS and Cons, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.649** at the 0.01 level of significance (2-tailed).


The correlation coefficient of 0.649** suggests a strong positive association between CMS and Cons. This means that as conflict management strategies are effectively employed, there is a higher likelihood of observing conscientious behaviour among the respondents. In other words, employees who demonstrate a greater use of conflict management strategies tend to exhibit higher levels of conscientiousness in their work, showing responsibility, diligence, and commitment to their duties.


The findings from this correlation analysis highlight the importance of implementing effective conflict management strategies within the organizations represented by the respondents. When conflicts are handled in a constructive and proactive manner, employees are more likely to feel valued and supported, which in turn fosters conscientiousness and dedication to their work responsibilities. This is n line with the works of Barrick and Mount (1991), Judge and Bono (2001) and Salgado (1997) who were of the opinion that through effective conflict  management strategy, conscientious individuals are more likely to adhere to organizational norms, meet deadlines, and maintain higher levels of work engagement


It is crucial to acknowledge that correlation does not imply causation. While the correlation between CMS and Cons is significant, other factors may also contribute to the observed relationship. Future research and additional statistical analyses could explore causal relationships and identify potential mediators or moderators that may influence the connection between conflict management strategies and conscientious behaviour.



Summary of Findings


The study aimed to investigate the impact of conflict management strategies on conscientiousness among staff members working as supervisors and above in oil and gas companies.


The findings revealed a significant positive correlation between Conflict Management Strategies (CMS) and Conscientiousness (Cons) among the respondents. The Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.649** indicated a strong positive association between the two variables. This implies that as conflict management strategies are effectively employed, there is a higher likelihood of observing conscientious behaviour among employees. Employees who demonstrate a greater use of conflict management strategies tend to exhibit higher levels of responsibility, diligence, and commitment to their work duties.


The results suggest that organizations that prioritize conflict management and utilize effective strategies create a positive work environment, leading to improved employee conscientiousness and overall performance. Encouraging open communication, collaboration, and compromise in resolving conflicts can foster a sense of trust and support among employees, enhancing job satisfaction and dedication to organizational goals.


However, it is essential to note that correlation does not imply causation. While the correlation between CMS and Cons is significant, there may be other factors influencing conscientious behaviour that were not explored in this study. Further research could investigate causal relationships and potential mediators or moderators to gain a deeper understanding of the impact of conflict management strategies on conscientiousness in the specific context of the oil and gas industry.


The study's findings highlight the importance of implementing effective conflict management strategies within oil and gas companies to foster a conscientious and committed workforce. Organizations that proactively address conflicts and create a positive work culture are likely to experience increased employee morale, productivity, and overall organizational success.




In conclusion, this study has explored the impact of conflict management strategies on conscientiousness among staff members in the oil and gas industry in South-South Nigeria. The findings revealed a significant positive correlation between conflict management strategies and conscientiousness, indicating that organizations that effectively handle conflicts are more likely to have a conscientious and dedicated workforce.


The study emphasizes the importance of adopting tailored conflict management approaches based on the unique contingencies faced by each organization. Open communication, collaboration, compromise, and effective conflict resolution training are key elements that contribute to a positive work environment and enhanced employee conscientiousness.




Recommendations based on the study's findings are as follows;


       i.         Organizations should invest in conflict resolution training for employees and managers. Equipping them with communication and negotiation skills especially as it relates with being conscientious. This will empower them to handle conflicts constructively and proactively.


     ii.         Organizations should encourage a culture of collaboration, respect, and open communication. A supportive work environment enables employees to voice their concerns and work together to find mutually beneficial solutions.


    iii.         In complex conflicts, organizations should consider using neutral third-party mediators or facilitators to guide the resolution process. Mediators can bring objectivity and impartiality, leading to fair and satisfactory outcomes.


    iv.         Managers should adapt their leadership styles based on the nature of conflicts and the needs of their teams. Being flexible and responsive to different situations fosters a positive work environment and encourages employee conscientiousness.


     v.         Organizations should ensure that decision-making processes are transparent, inclusive, and based on data-driven insights. This fosters a sense of fairness and trust among employees.



By implementing these recommendations, oil and gas firms can foster a positive and productive work environment, leading to increased employee conscientiousness, improved job satisfaction, and overall organizational success in the competitive and challenging oil and gas industry.









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