Paramjeet Kaur, Inderpreet Singh
ABSTRACT: Groundwater is one of the most important natural resources. It is a major source of fresh drinking water in both the rural and urban regions. The groundwater quality, however in recent time has got deteriorated due to the percolation of polluted water in to the soils from the wastewater drains, polluted rivers and ponds. As a result its quality has not remained potable in many parts of the country and in many regions of the world. In this review the interaction of drains/surface water with ground water is studied for heavy metal and physico-chemical contaminations.
KEYWORDS: Groundwater, Heavy Metals, Pollution, Drains, Streams, Water, Physico-chemical, Contamination, Surface water.
Groundwater can be contaminated through varieties of mechanisms by numerous contaminants from a point and non point sources. Groundwater can be contaminated by localize release from sources such as hazardous waste disposal sites, municipal landfills, surface impoundments, underground storage tanks, gas and pipelines, and back siphoning of agricultural chemicals into wells. Groundwater may also be contaminated by substances released at or near the soil surface in more dispersed manner, including pesticides, fertilizers, septic tank leachate and contamination from other non-point sources (Gautam R. et al, 2013). Typical methods of wastewater disposal include infiltration ponds, spreading or spraying onto the ground surface and discharge to streams or dry stream beds which may provide a rapid pollution pathway to underlying, shallow aquifers
(Chilton J., 1996). Surface water commonly is hydraulically connected to groundwater, but the interactions are difficult to observe and measure and commonly have been ignored in water-management considerations and policies. Many natural processes and human activities affect the interactions of groundwater and surface water (Winter T.C., 1998).
- Sources of groundwater pollution
Some substances found naturally in rocks or soils, such as iron, manganese, arsenic, chlorides, fluorides, sulfates or radio nuclides, can become dissolved in groundwater. The ground water can be contaminated due to the decaying organic matter that can move in groundwater as particles. and also because of Improper disposal of hazardous metals, Releases and Spills from Stored Chemicals and Petroleum Products, landfills, surface impoundments, sewers and other pipelines, pesticide and fertilizer use, drainage wells, injection wells/ floor drains, mining activities ( GWC1).Major activities that cause ground water pollution are listed in table 1.
- Quality of drains/streams and its interaction with groundwater
A number of studies were conducted to understand the interaction between the drains or streams and the groundwater. Najafgarh is a biggest drain in Delhi and it mainly contributes to the total wastewater that gets discharged to Yamuna River. This wastewater is mainly contributed by numerous drains of NCT Delhi that have considerable impact on surface water and groundwater systems of the territory. The Najafgarh drain water was reported to contain considerable concentration of heavy metal contaminants such as iron, lead, manganese, copper and .The impact of this wastewater on the groundwater system is even more profound. There is considerable contamination of groundwater by industrial and domestic effluents mostly carried through this drain. (Shekhar S. and sarkar A.,2013). Buddha Nala, a narrow unlined canal, is the Ludhiana city’s sole surface water resource. It is an important drainage line of Ludhiana district which passes through Ludhiana and carries the sewage and industrial sludge of the city. The Buddha Nala is polluted to the extent that self-purification mechanism does not take place even at the most downstream point where it merges in the River Sutlej. Groundwater in most of the industrial estate and in few residential areas is unfit for drinking. (Verma V.K. et al, 2013). Coovum River in Chennai is presently a river spoiled by filth and pollution and the water quality is considered to be highly toxic and completely non-potable. The water has almost no dissolved oxygen, and instead there are traces of heavy metals like copper, besides sewage and sludge. The quality of water in river Coovum is most affected by the discharge of sewage and other commercial activities and is affecting the nearby subsurface sources. (Subramanian R. et al., 2013). The Vrishabhavathi River has been the victim of pollutants discharged by industrial, agricultural and domestic effluents. It carries sewage and industrial effluents from various industries across western part of Bangalore. It receives treated and untreated effluents from treatment plants of Bangalore water supply and sewerage board, containing various organic contaminants, toxic heavy metals etc. Groundwater pollution across Vrishabhavathi River has emerged as a severe environmental issue, constraining its use drastically. (Jain C.K. et al, 2013)
- Heavy metal pollution
Heavy metals is a loose term usually used to indicate environmentally ‘‘bad’’ metals. It is poorly defined with a multitude of often contradictory definitions based on density, atomic weight, atomic number or other properties of the elements or their compounds. (Hodson, 2004).Any toxic metal may be called heavy metal, irrespective of their atomic mass or density Heavy metals are a member of an ill-defined subset of elements that exhibit metallic properties. These include the transition metals, some metalloids, lanthanides, and actinides (Singh R. et al, 2011). Despite the fact that the heavy metals has no sound terminological or scientific basis, it has been used in much of the scientific literature, mainly refer to metals, semi-metals and radio nuclides like Ag, Al, Am, As, Au, Bi, Cd, Co,Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, Hg, La, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Pd, Pt, Ra, Rh, Ru, Sb, Sc, Se, Sn, Tc, Te, Th, Tl, U, W, Y, Zn and even a miscellaneous toxic material- asbestos for convenience sake.
3.1 Sources of heavy metals
Heavy metals in groundwater can be from natural or anthropogenic sources. Currently, anthropogenic inputs of metals exceed natural inputs. Human activity has inevitably increased the levels of metal ions in natural water systems. The main sources of heavy metals in the aquatic system are weathering of soils and rocks and from anthropogenic activities, whereby industrial and urban wastes are discharged into water bodies. (Subramanian R et al, 2013)
Sources of some of the heavy metals along with their industries are shown in table 2.2.
3.2Heavy metal analysis in groundwater
The groundwater quality in respect of heavy metals in the shallow aquifers of area in the vicinity of najafgarh drain in Delhi was analyzed. The heavy metals were analyzed by AAS. As an outcome, the groundwater is found to be contaminated along the drain and the cause for this contamination came out to be a result of anthropogenic activities due to which the drain got polluted and recharge through drain led to influx of heavy metals in groundwater (Shekhar S. and sarkar A., 2013). A Short term investigation report on “Groundwater pollution by chromium and fluoride in some parts of unnao district, UP” near the mirza tannery drain was prepared by Central Groundwater Board (Northern Region), Lucknow based on the investigations carried out during March 2012. A total of 69 water and waste water samples were collected and analyzed for chromium and fluoride concentrations. The concentration of chromium and fluoride content in some samples of ground/surface water were higher than the permissible limit prescribed by BIS (IS:10500:1991) (Jain C.K. et al, 2013). Heavy metals were analyzed in the groundwater samples to determine the effect of surface water pollution on the groundwater in the Tiaz city basin. The population growth, municipal and industrial activities in the city have resulted in increasing deterioration of water quality especially in the shallow groundwater aquifer which represents the principal groundwater resource in the area. The groundwater samples from Hawgala, Hawban and Hidran areas exceed by many times the WHO standards limits for drinking and irrigation uses (Farrag A.A et al). The study is conducted in the scenario of the tannery waste hazards in Kasur district of Pakistan where the tannery industry is considered as major cause of groundwater quality deterioration. Area focused in this research constitutes the surroundings of the effluent carrying drains near tannery units. Chromium concentration in the groundwater and the surface water carrying industrial wastes was analyzed. Wastewater analysis of all the drains in the research area has evidenced potential risk of contaminant seepage into soil and groundwater as level of chromium in wastewater samples has reported to be immensely high. However the concentration of chromium in the groundwater samples was well within the limits set by USEPA. The research concludes as possibility of direct interference of the tannery wastewater with groundwater through damaged structures and sewers (Rashid H. et al, 2012). Efforts were made to know the concentration of heavy metals in groundwater and surface water in different locations of Tirupati, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh. For this study both groundwater samples and surface water samples were collected and were subjected to analysis for eight elements like As, Ni, Cr, Pb, Co, Se, Hg and Cd by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and were compared with drinking water quality limits given by the World Health Organization (WHO), 4th edition in 2011. Sixty percent of the samples were found to heavy fair quality (Reddy V.H. et al. 2012).
The concentration of heavy metal ions on the bank of Cooum River at Chennai city was analyzed. The samples were subjected to concentration of metal ions using standard procedure using AAS. Result of the work proved that most of the heavy metal ions (Cu, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Pb and Ni) are more than the permissible limit of WHO standards. It illustrated that most of the groundwater samples are polluted by the intrusion of Cooum river water, dumping of waste and percolation of domestic sewage by inhabitants (Hussain A Z. et al, 2013). The study examined heavy metal status of boreholes in Calabar South, Cross River of Nigeria. Four functional boreholes in the area were sampled and the heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cr, Pb) were analyzed by AAS. Result showed that the concentrations of trace metals were within WHO maximum permissible limit. Cu, Cr, Pb were found to be zero indicating the absence of these metals in the boreholes. The absolutely low levels of heavy metal contents across the sampled boreholes showed they were not polluted and as such suitable for human consumption. The low content also revealed that boreholes in the area were located far away from dumpsites; soak away pits, automobile shops and other forms of heavy metal contaminants (Njar G. N. et al, 2012). A study was conducted to assess the heavy metal content in vrishabhavathi river, Bangalore and its surrounding groundwater. Water samples of both Vrishabhavathi River and its surrounding groundwater collected at selected sites are subjected to some toxic heavy metal analysis using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Heavy metals Pb, Cr, Ni, Mn and Fe concentration is above permissible limit in the groundwater ( Jayadev and Puttaih E.T ,2013).
Korangi industrial area has various types of industries but textile and leather industries dominate this area. Study was conducted to assess the impact of indiscriminate disposal of industrial effluents on groundwater. Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd and Co was analyzed in the groundwater by AAS. The concentration of all the parameters was higher than the WHO limits that clearly indicated that the contamination in groundwater was primarily due to the percolation of the industrial waste water into the aquifer (Mahmood S.N.et al, 1998). Groundwater of North West Bank in Palestine was assessed for pollution with trace metals by ICP/MS. Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Pb, Cd, and Al are the metals that were analyzed in the groundwater samples. The metals were detected in the samples but all were under the limits of WHO limits of drinking water (Malassa H. et al, 2014). The characterization of topsoil and well water at Challawa Leather Industrial Estate, Kano City, Northern Nigeria was done. The chromium concentration was analyzed in the groundwater and soil samples of the areas near the industrial area. AAS was used to determine total chromium concentration. The concentration in the soil and the groundwater were within the limits. Results also show significantly, low and high concentration of the total chromium in well water samples during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. This suggests that there sufficiently subsurface dilution effect during the wet season (Egwuonwu G.N. et al, 2011).
- Physiochemical pollution
Groundwater quality of adjoining areas of Yamuna River was studied to see the suitability of groundwater for irrigation and domestic applications. Samples from deep and shallow wells were collected and assessed for different physico chemical parameters; study clearly indicates higher concentration of TDS, electrical conductivity, nitrate, sulphate and sodium with reference to BIS and WHO standards. However due to lack of hydro chemical, geological and water level data no specific inferences could be drawn for the probable impact of Yamuna river on the groundwater. (Jain C.K. and Sharma M.K., 2001)
The groundwater quality scenario in Jalandhar district has been studied. Data of chemical quality of water from shallow and deep aquifers indicates that all the chemical parameters i.e. major cations (Ca, Mg, Na & K) and major anions (CO3, HCO3, Cl & SO4) are well within the permissible limits set by the BIS, 1991 except fluoride and nitrate concentrations which has been found in shallow groundwater at some places to be higher than permissible limits. By and large, the quality of groundwater is suitable for domestic irrigation purposes. (Singh S. et al, 2007)
Groundwater quality on the Basin of Amaravthi River at Karur was studied. The samples were subjected to Physico chemical analysis (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, magnesium, nitrate, sulphate and phosphate, BOD, COD, and DO) using the procedure as per standard method of APHA. The results showed that most of the physico-chemical parameters were in higher than the permissible limit. The results confirm that the groundwater quality is affected by Amaravathi river water.( Hussain A. Z. and Rajadurai D, 2013)
The groundwater quality in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu along Noyyal River was studied. Samples were analyzed to determine the concentration of sodium, calcium, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, sulphate, chloride, magnesium, total hardness and electrical conductivity. As a result the value of electrical conductivity, calcium and magnesium had high concentrations. The possibility of pollution is due to industrial activities such as coffee vegetable oils, leather tanning, textiles and foundries found in and around Coimbatore city (Sundar M.L. and Saseetharan M.K., 2008). Attempt was made to assess the groundwater quality by analyzing 84 groundwater samples collected along the recharge to discharge zone of Pravara river basin. All the samples were analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3-, SO42-, NO3-, PO43-, SiO2. The study revealed that excess irrigation, over use of chemical fertilizers coupled with monoculture type of cropping pattern deteriorated soil and groundwater resources from the study area (Deshmukh K.K., 2012). An attempt had been made to assess the groundwater quality in the industrial zone of Visakhapatnam, a port city. Groundwater samples were analysed for various physico-chemical characteristics Viz., pH, Conductivity, Turbidity, Alkalinity, Hardness, Chlorides, Fluorides, TDS, Dissolved Oxygen, Iron, Sulphates, Calcium and Nitrogen as per the standard procedures. From the analysis, it is observed that the port area is found to have high concentrations of hardness, sulphates and calcium. The groundwater in Duvvada, a region surrounded by special economic zone and steel plant is found have more fluoride concentration (Abbulu Y. and Rao G.V.R.S., 2013).
From the above study we can conclude that though the interaction of surface drains/streams and groundwater is difficult to ascertain and cannot be generalized but in many studies it is found that the heavy metal somehow due to leakages in sewers or due to direct interaction with groundwater pollutes the ground water.
In case of physico-chemical parameters in many studies it is generally observed that due to the drains or polluted streams the groundwater gets contaminated too, the drains contaminates the soil which in turn results in the contamination of groundwater.
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