1Benedicta Ukamaka Aliogo ; 2Emeke Odogwu Aghanenu
This study examine the Effect of Cooperative Learning on Students Academic Achievement In Ika North East Local Government Area of Delta State. The study employed the quasi-experimental research design. The sample for the study comprise of 240 JSS 1 Student randomly selected from 6 public schools in Ika North East Local Government Area of Delta State. The instrument used is mathematics achievement test (MAT) designed by the research. The mean and standard deviation were used as the descriptive statistics while the one way analysis of variance was used to analyze the data collected. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The result revealed that: there is a significant difference between the academic achievement of student taught using cooperative learning and those taught using lecture method, there is a significant difference between the academic achievement of male student taught using cooperative learning and those taught using lecture method, there is a significant difference between the academic achievement of female student taught using cooperative learning and those taught using lecture method. Considering the importance of cooperative learning, it was recommended among others: Mathematics Teachers should be able to apply learning in teaching mathematics since the method enhance achievement, stimulate and develop critical thinking in the students. Curriculum planners should be able to plan the curriculum so as to accommodate the use of cooperative learning in the teaching and learning of mathematics.
Keyword: Effect, Cooperative learning, Mathematics achievement, Science, Junior Secondary.
Background to the Study
Mathematics is the science of number which deals with rules, principles and processes involving numbers and quantitative procedures. It is a way of thinking and reasoning which enhances the education of thinking. The importance of mathematics to modem culture of science and technology has been well recognized and accepted World Wide (Ezeilo 1975). Since Nigeria got her independence in 1960 mathematics education has received and continues to receive special emphasis and attention. According to Ukeje (1997), the increasing importance and attention given to mathematics stem from the fact that without mathematics there is no science and without science there is no modern technology and society. According to Bajah (2000), no nation can make any meaningful progress in this information technology age, particularly in economic development without technology whose foundation are science and mathematics.
Despite the importance of mathematics stated earlier, many problems seems to beset mathematics education in Nigeria which have resulted in the consistent poor performance in junior secondaiy school in the subject (NERDC 1992: Salau 1994). This catalogue of problems do not create conducive environment for mathematics education in the country. (AAAS 1990) noted that the collaborative nature of scientific and technological work should be strongly reinforced by frequent group activity in the classroom. Vygostsky (1978) cited in reveles cordova theory posits the interwoven nature of learning and development within and among student as they engage in concerted activities in a classroom community.
Learning often takes place best when students takes action and interact with others to construct the contextual knowledge of the classroom. Mathematics being faced with many problems and difficulty needs to be understood better by student through co-operative learning. Johnson and Johnson (1993), sees co-operative learning as the constructing of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other learning. Co-operative learning is important in helping learners acquire from the curriculum the basic co-operative attitude and values they need to think independently inside and outside the classroom. Academic achievement of students have been found to be enhanced by the use of co-operative learning (Lampe Tallent-Runnels, Rooze (1998), Bramlett (1994), Megnin (1995) and Webb, Trooper and fall (1995) in their contribution noted that co-operative learning activity engages the student in the learning process and seeks to improve the critical thinking, reasoning and problem solving skills of the learners.
Therefore from the researchers’ studies earlier it has been seen that co-operative learning procedures gain across all content areas, all grade levels and among all types of students including special needs, higher achieving, gifted, urban-rural and all ethnic and racial groups. In terms of consistency of positive outcomes cooperative learning remains the strongest reserved educational innovation ever with regards to producing achievement gains (Kagan 1999). Thus this study seeks to investigate the effect of cooperative learning of Students academic performance in Ika North East Local Government Area of Delta State.
Statement of the Problem
Mathematics is widely recognize as vital subject, yet it as a subject that most students dread so much that they could never offer it if they had their way. Complaints have been by parent on the performance of students in junior secondary school. Much emphasis is always on mathematics hence the problem which this study seeks to unveil is to see how the use or adoption of co-operative learning among student can improve their academic achievement in mathematics. Therefore the problem of this study is to ascertain the level of students’ achievement in mathematics when thought using lecture method and those taught using co-operative learning, the students’ achievement between the male and the female students when taught with lecture method and those taught with co-operative learning respectively.
The research questions for this study are as outlined
RQ1: Is there any difference between the achievement of students group taught using cooperative learning and those taught using lecture method?
RQ2: Is there any difference between the achievement of male students taught using cooperative learning and those taught using lecture method?
RQ3: Is there any difference between the achievement of female students taught using cooperative learning and those taught using lecture method?
The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance to guide the study.
Ho1: There is no significant difference between the achievement of student groups taught using co-operative learning and those taught using lecture method.
H02: There is no significant difference between the achievement of male students taught using co-operative learning and those taught using lecture method.
H03: There is no significant difference between the achievement of female students taught using co-operative learning and those taught using lecture method.
The research design is a quasi-experimental. The primary aim for which this design was selected is for obtaining of relevant facts which presents a general picture about the subject of investigation. The major advantage of this quasi-experimental technique is that it has proven to be a fundamental basis for a proper analysis and evaluation of representative information about the research.
Population of the Study
The study population was the junior secondary school (JSS l) in Ika North East Local Government Area of Delta State. The population is 2278 in number while the total number of students sampled from the six (6) Selected schools is 240.
Sample and Sampling Techniques
The actual sample of this study consist of 240 Jss1 students in Ika North East Local Government Area of Delta State. The sample size consists of six randomly selected classes of 40 students respectively from each of the schools visited.
The instrument used in this study is a mathematical achievement test. This was used to collect information from student it contains 10 items, 4 options, multiple choice objective test developed by the researcher. Students were made to select the correct answer from the four options.
Validity of the Instrument
The instrument for the study was designed and given to two experts in Curriculum and Integrated Science, Delta State University, Abraka to ensure its face validity and also to another lecturer in mathematics to ensure it content validity. After necessary corrections the researcher took note of their suggestion in producing the final instrument. Therefore the instrument was found valid both in face and in content.
Method of Data Collection
The experiment was conducted during the normal school period, the researcher in this study employed a research assistant who is the subject teacher in each of the schools to help teach the selected topic for the research after which the researcher personally went to the schools for the experiment. The Mathematical Achievement Test (MAT) was administered, marked and recorded by the researcher. The experiment lasted for two weeks (2 weeks) with the help of the classroom teacher.
Method of Data Analysis
Data collected which is the raw score of students achievement were analyzed using the mean achievement scores, standard deviation, and the one way analysis of variance which was done using SPSS version 17.0
Presentation of result
Research Question 1: Is there any difference between the achievement of student group taught using co-operative learning and those taught lecture method.
Table 6 reveals that the f-calculated value is 576.9912 with degree of freedom 1 and 118 at 0.05 level of significance. Since the value of the f-calculated value (576.9912) is greater than the F-critical value (4.0012) at 0.05 level of significance, the null hypothesis is rejected implying that there is a significant difference between achievement of female students taught using co-operative learning and those taught using lecture method.
Summary of research findings
Based on the analysis of the data collected the following are the research findings.
- There is a significant difference between the academic achievement of students taught using co-operative learning and those taught using lecture method.
- There is significant difference between the academic achievement of male students taught using co-operative learning and those taught using lecture method.
- There is significant difference between the academic achievement of female students taught using co-operative learning and those taught using lecture method.
From the findings of the study, the following conclusion were made
- The use of co-operative learning is significantly better than the use of lecture method
- The use of co-operative learning produces favourable result than the use of lecture method.
Based on the findings of this study the following recommendation were made:
- Mathematics teachers should endeavour to apply co-operative learning in the teaching of mathematics since the method enhance achievement, stimulate and develops critical thinking, in the students.
- The teacher should in the process of applying co-operative learning in teaching discourage unhealthy rivalry among student.
- School authorities with the help of ministries of education and teaching service board should on regular basis organize workshops so as to sensitize the teachers on the importance of co-operative learning in the teaching and learning process.
- Curriculum planners should be able to plan the curriculum so as to accommodate the use of co-operative learning in the teaching and learning of mathematics.
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