Arslan Rasul1* & M. Iqbal Zafar2
1Department of Rural Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan.
2Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan.
Food insecurity especially in low income is high and as well malnourished food made diet useless for heath. . The time in which children need balanced diet including micronutrients ( vitamin, minerals) and macronutrients (protein, fiber, fates, carbohydrate) for proper growth, the parents enable to satisfy children nutrition need due to low income. The purpose of the study is to assess the nutritional status and usual diet intake of pre-school children between the ages of (3-5) years and its health effect on low income families in district Faisalabad also observed. The adverse effects of nutrition status are also observed in term of growth, development, health, malnutrition and obesity. Multistage sampling technique used for collecting data from City Faisalabad. First of all two towns selected from 8 towns of district Faisalabad through randomly sampling technique. Then two Union Councils selected from each Town through randomization process. Four parishes (Ghazi-pura, Ashraf-Abad, Matoo-pura, and new green town) were selected purposively. A sample size of 140 respondents used to collect data from mother to access the nutrition status of preschool children 3-5 from low income families through purposive random sampling technique. The data were obtained from the questionnaires analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The result showed that stunned children, wasted children, and under-weight children was measured. The negative effect of poor nutrition leads to children death and poor maternal health. Mostly parents were illiterate and also they did not have any nutritional knowledge and information. Large family size increase family expenditures that are hurdle in fulfilling food storage and deficiency. There is need to educate parents through lady worker visit, seminar and media campaign to know about healthy food pattern.
Keywords: Food Security, Nutritional Food, Preschool Children`s Health Status and Malnourishment.
The recent decades showed a rapid change in dietary pattern. The modification in dietary pattern and change in food system are due to population growth, urbanization, and globalization and batter living standard. The stage of nutrition mentioned a decreasing trend shift from traditional food vegetables, fruits to meat, milk and processed food that have high sugar, facts and oil (Ambler Edwards et al, 2009).
Different countries in the world are going through different stages of nutrition transition. Mostly countries face problems of food insecurity and undernutition as well as overnutition and chronic diseases problems. There is a need of investment in applied research to find out effective and efficient ways for improving healthy lifestyles (Kennedy, 2005).
Mother s education is an important aspect for children s health. If mother have high maternal education then there will be lowest children malnutrition. She will share awareness for health precaution and implementing family resource for the betterment of children. Father s education is also key indicator for child health. Mostly father earn for his family and decide what to do in what time. That is why the betterment of nutrition is associated with father s education (Rahman, 2009).
Parent’s stance on preferred foods can affect the kinds of foods offered to children and their availability. For example, Parents fondness for vegetables can be a barrier for children with health, whose parents dislike healthy food and prefer junk food. Another influential factor is the kind of food accessible in children s home (O'Dea, 2003).
Numerous studies have time to name as a perceived barrier to healthy foods, while increasing the consumption of fast food and the downward trend of home cooked food (Hearst et al., 2012). Parents accepted that the preparation of meal looks difficult after school and work activities. Those parents who are more educated did overcome this constrains by planning and managing their daily routine. The planning management and skill is to make food in quick time leads to the selection of healthy foods (Morin et al., 2013).
Nutritional education programs should be produced highlighting the parents of the entire barrier. These programs should give the concept of good parenting with quick work. To tackle social and environmental pressure, parents must need to build skill which accerlate the plan of healthy diet in limited time and at low cost. During preschool time, the rate of physical growth is very slow than the rate of physical growth of new born baby. Good physical growth leads to steady increase in height and weight. The secret of good physical growth is the fulfilling nutrients need of body (Ahmed Nazrin, 2012).
Breast feeding has benefits for both mother and child. It provides good nutritional foundation for babies and strengthens the interaction between mother and child. During the first six months breastfeeding baby gets enough nutrients for growth and development unlike vitamin D is necessary to prevent dyes-function mineral intake (Käypähoito 2013).
The major nutrients essential for proper growth are often of major concern in developing countries are carbohydrates, proteins iron, zinc, iodine, calcium, vitamin B12 and vitamin A, which are acquired from a number of foods that make up the diet. These nutrients are also of low bioavailability and poor quality especially in cereal based diets. Increasing the consumption of animal products improves the amount and bioavailability of micronutrients (Bentley et al., 2000).
Diet is related to external factors like culture, financial security, and physical location. Some cultures have very specific dietary habits that may include a wide range of foods while some people may be reliant on seasonal food items due to where they live. Diets in these areas can become monotonous and pose difficulty when assessing serum levels of micronutrients. This is because of the amount of micronutrients being present in those food items or the bioavailability of micronutrients being concentrated within certain foods (Winichagoon, 2008).
Zinc is a trace mineral that a function in gene expression and essential cell processes, i.e. development and replication. While the specific indicators of zinc deficiency are still being debated in the medical world, it has been described by stature, hypo-gonadism, impaired immune-function, skin-disorders, cognitive-dysfunction and anorexia (Caulfield and Black, 2011).
The main objectives of this research are;
- To investigate the usual preschooler children dietary intake
- To measure the body mass index for nutritional status and
- To identifying the effect of malnutrition and mothers unbalanced diet on children s health status.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study site selected for this research is urban area of district Faisalabad purposively. Two towns were selected from 8 towns of district Faisalabad randomly. Then two City Councils were selected randomly from two towns. Then four paishes (Ghazi-pura, Ashraf-Abad, Matoo-pura, and new green town) were selected randomly from each city council.
The target population was children aged 3-5 preschool children from low income families.
Sample can be defined as accurate envoy of the population, which has all the characteristics of preferred population. 140 respondents (35 from each parish) were selected randomly from the study area.
Construction of data collection tool
Social science deals with human nature, Feelings, emotions and minds of human being. To study all these factors it was compulsory that data collection tool was very accurate and reliable. Interview schedule was prepared with open and close ended questions to collect the data from respondents. It was structured to get all the required information from the respondents.
Interviewing the respondents:
Interview was conducted from respondents to collect facts. The investigator himself interviewed each respondent to make sure unbiased response and then rechecked each questionnaire for accuracy and uniformity because it was very difficult to approach the same respondent at any subsequent stage.
Analyzing of data:
Collected data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Descriptive statistics, including frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations, were used to summarize different variables. Data was interpreted with the help of a computer software i.e. statistical package for social sciences.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Chi-Square Value = 0.05 df 3 P value = +1.00
Table 10 shows that there is a relationship between parents income and nutrition status. The value of chi-square are found to be significant at 0.05 level of significant and Gamma value also found to be significant at +1.00 which implies that there is a strong positive association between two attributes.
The nutrition status is independent variable according to mothers education as a dependent variable.
Association between mother’s education and nutrition status
The table 11 shows that there is a relationship between mother educational level of the nutrition status. The value of chi-square are found to be significant at 0.05 level of significant and Gamma value also found to be significant at +1.00 which implies that there is a strong positive association between two attributes.
Chi-Square Value = 0.05 df 3 P value = +1.00
It was showed that many children were underweight, stunned children and wasted children. The poor nutrition has a deep impact on the mother and child health. Children went towards death because of malnutrition and poor nutrition. Majority of the parent were illiterate and also were blank from nutritional knowledge and information. They did not know about what are calories, vitamin and minerals and what are daily requirements of calories of the children? High family size lead to high family expenditures as well as majority of families did not able to save money. Low Income is main barrier in purchasing food. The children`s diet were relayed on the staple food mainly because parents afford it only. Majority of the household used water of piped into dwelling also did not treat water for drinking. In this way many of common disease attack. Children need balanced diet including micronutrients (vitamin, minerals) and macronutrients (protein, fiber, fates, carbohydrate) for proper growth and development but the food deficiency have been seen. Mothers did conscious about their eating pattern timing like breakfast, lunch, dinner but they did not eat variety of food. Only staple food is not enough in diet. Mother needs more vitamin, minerals and fiber. Some parents have nutritional knowledge but they did able to put nutritional knowledge into action because of cost, media, parents attitude towards preferred food and children attitude towards specific food. There is need to educate parents through lady worker visit, seminar, media campaign to know about healthy food pattern. If there will be no tax on food items then common man from low income can purchase maximum food in less budget that may fulfill the food deficiency of the children.
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