Performance of Government Expenditure on Primary Education in State of Karnataka

         Reshma S. Gajakosh1, Dr. R.V.Gangshetty2
[1]  Doctoral Research Scholar, Dept. of Economics, Akkamahadevi Women’s University, Vijayapura (India).
[1]  Assistant Professor, Dept. of Economics, Akkamahadevi Women’s University, Vijayapura (India

1. Introduction:

Education is the systematic process of leadings, training and guiding students to acquire knowledge, skill and understanding through practical. The positive externalities of education make it a public good, and therefore it needs to be supplied by the State as markets cannot provide it to the socially optimal levels. The human development paradigm recognizes the role of education in the expansion of choices for wellbeing, security and comfort. Therefore, the right to education is recognized as one of the fundamental human rights and, the drive towards universal elementary education aims at ensuring its delivery. Karnataka State is a fast growing economy and this growth is largely based on the knowledge base of the society. The State has embarked on significant reforms in the education sector with increased public investment to ensure access, equity and quality in education, with community involvement.
Primary education or elementary education often in primary schools. Primary education is the first step or stage of compulsory education, coming between early childhood education and secondary education. Govt. of Karnataka spending more expenditure on primary education. Expenditure budget shows the revenue and capital disbursements of various ministries/department and presents the estimates in respect of each under plan and non-plan. Total expenditure on primary education 507030.96 lakh in 2010-11 and 984342.00 lakh in the year 2016-17.

2. Objectives of the Study:
The present paper is designed with the following important objectives.
1.      To study the brief educational profile of Karnataka State
2.      To analyze the Karnataka State Government expenditure on primary education.
3.      To explain the present status of government expenditure on primary education.
4.      To suggest the policy implication for the development of primary education.
3. Research Methodology:
The present paper primarily based on secondary data sources. Secondary data have been collected from various sources like DIET–Reports, Censes Reports, Analytical Reports of the Government of Karnataka, Research journal, Text books, Websites ect.
4. Brief Educational Profile of Karnataka State:
The State of Karnataka, the growth of literacy during 2001–2011 decade shows that Karnataka has achieved significant progress. The literacy rate in the State during 2001 was 66.64 per cent, which increased to 75.60 per cent in 2011. The present literacy rate of Karnataka is 75.60 percentages with 82.47 percent of males and 68.13 percent of females are being literate. In Karnataka education is considerable progress in literacy rate from 66.64 percent in 2001 to almost 75.60 percent in 2011.  
5. Analyze the Government Expenditure on Primary Education in Karnataka:
            The conditions of primary schools have improved during the recent years. However, some of the government or semi-government controlled primary schools are locate in the far interior corners of the districts. Government of Karnataka allocates more funds towards the primary education.
5.1. Primary Schools in Karnataka:
Article 21 A of the Constitution of India and the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Elementary Education (RTE) Act 2009 became operative in April 2010. The State Rules under the RTE Act were notified in 2011. These developments have thrown open fresh opportunities for quality schooling for children.

Table No.1: No. of Primary Schools in Karnataka

Type of Schools
Lower Primary Schools
Higher Primary Schools
Source: DISE 2014-15.
            Table No.1 makes it clear that during 2014-15, there were 60882 elementary schools in the State, of which 26292 were LPS and 34590 were HPS. In 2012-13, the State had 25950 lower primary, and 34086 higher primary schools. The number of HPS increased between 2012-13 and 2014-15.

5.2. Plan and Non-Plan Budget Expenditure on Primary Education in Karnataka:
There are two components of expenditure i.e., Plan and Non-Plan expenditure. Plan expenditure means estimated after discussion between each of the ministries concerned and the planning commission. Non-Plan revenue expenditure is accounted for by interest payments, subsidies, wage and salary payments to Government employees, grants to States and UTs, pensions, police, economic services in various sectors, other general service such as tax collection, social services and grants to foreign Governments

Table No. 2: Plan and Non-Plan Budgeted Expenditure on Primary Education
      (Rs. in Lakhs)

Sl. No.

Source: DISE Report 2010-11 to 2016-17.

Table No.2 shows that Plan and Non-Plan expenditure on primary education increased; amounted to Rs. 507030.96 lakh, comprising Rs.90041.24 lakh for Plan and       Rs. 416986.72 lakh for Non-Plan in 2010-11; total expenditure on primary education Rs.9417493.39 lakh, comprising Rs. 336262.15 lakh for Plan and Rs.  605531.84 lakh for Non-Plan in 2013-14 and total expenditure on primary education Rs.984342.00 lakh, comprising Rs.412212.00 lakh for Plan and Rs. 572130.00 lakh for Non-Plan in 2016-17.

5.3. Budgeted Expenditure on Primary Education (Revenue and Capital Account):
The budget expenditure has been broadly divided into two type’s viz. 1) Revenue Expenditure 2) Capital Expenditure. Revenue expenditure is an expense made for operating day to day activities between of the business. Capital expenditure is an expense made to acquire an asset or improve the capacity of the asset.      

Figure No. 1: Budgeted Expenditure on Primary Education
     (Rs. in Crores)
          The Figure No.1 reveals that revenue expenditure is more than capital expenditure and also revenue and capital expenditure increased during the period 2013-14 to 2015-16.                                                                                                                                                                                                     

5.4. Allocation for the Budgeted on Education:
Budget allocation is an important part of all business and not-for-profit financial plans. Budget allocation is integral components to an annual financial plan or budget of all organizations. A budget is a financial plan used to estimate revenues and expenditure for a specific period of time. It is a management and planning tool not just an accounting document. It assists in the allocation of resources. A budget allocation is the amount of funding designated to each expenditure line.

 Figure No.2:  Allocation for the Budgeted on Education
                                                                                                                             (Rs. in Lakhs)
                From the above Figure No.2 it is clears that the budget allocation on education in various years is not satisfactory. The chart showing that in three years i.e. 2013, 2014, 2015, non plan allocation is higher than the plan allocation for the development of education in India.

Table No.3: Physical and Financial Progress Achieved under various Important
Programmes for Primary Education (Rs. in lakhs)

Supply of Free Uniforms
( 1 to 10th std)

54.54 lakh children
53.88 lakh children
51.9588 lakh children
Distribution of School Bags
( 1 to 5) and Note Books  (1 to 10th) to SC/ST children


18.03 lakh children

350.00 (Only Note Books)

3.82 lakh children


11.36 lakh children
Centrally assisted Midday
Meal Programme
(Hot cooked Meal- 1to 10th std)


64.20 lakh children


61.40 lakh children


61.41 lakh children
Reimbursement of Non- Govt. Fees for SC/ST Boys and all Girls (6th to 7th Std.)


334537 children


3.20 lakh children


3.68 lakh children
Free Text Books to
Primary School Children (1 to 10th Std.)


77.76 lakh children


66.36 lakh children


71.99 lakh children
Primary School Building
Construction & Repairs


34 Districts 204 Blocks


34 Districts 204ks Bloc


34 Districts
Pancha Soulabhya construction of toilets Along with water supply. Maintenance of toilets and drinking water from 2011-12 onwards.


34 Districts 49555 Schools


34 Districts


34 District
Source: Director of Primary Education, Deputy Director (Planning) – 2012-13 to 2014-15.

6. Government Expenditure on Primary Education Programmes during 2015-16:

.1. Inspection Primary:
As a part of strengthening of school inspection system, jeeps were being provided to Block Educational Officers in a phased manner. 204 Jeeps and Drivers were provided to Block Educational Officers. Since 2006-07, The salaries of 3 jeep drivers continued under state plan in Block Educational Offices and salaries of 7 created posts of BEO's and Office Managers is transferred to Zilla Panchayat Sector. Under the State Sector Rs.90.00 lakhs budget provided for this purpose. Out of this Budget Rs.67.66 lakhs budget provided for the purpose of purchasing computer stationery Hardware & Furniture to the DDPI's and B.E.O's Office and Rs 22.34 Lakhs to provide printing of Primary school educational margadarshi.
6.2. Construction and Repairs of Class Rooms to Govt. Primary Schools:
During 2015-16 under the state Sector (Non-Plan) Rs.2382.00 lakhs of Budget is provided for Primary/Secondary Schools Maintenance and repairs. Out of this budget allocation 50% of the budget i.e., Rs.1191.00 lakhs will be released for Primary Schools and other 50% of the budget Rs.1191.00 lakhs will be released for Secondary Schools maintenance and repairs and also for construction of additional classrooms.

6.3. Distribution of Free Uniforms and Shoes:
During 2015-16, one set of Uniform and shoes will be provided to all children from 1st standard to 10th standard studying in Government Primary / High Schools. For the implementation of this scheme Rs.8900.00+12200.00=21100.00 Lakhs of Budget is allocated.
6.4. Distribution of School Bags and Note Books:
In order to reduce the dropout rate of SC/ST Boys & Girls in Government Primary Schools, good quality school bags given to those who are studying in 1,3,5,7th std in Government Primary Schools. Note books will be supplied to each SC/ST Children those who are studying in 1, 2, 4 and 6 Std. During 2015-16 Rs.1521.00 lakhs of Budget is provided for this purpose under State sector scheme. The price of one school bag is Rs.200.00 and the price of one note book is Rs.18.00.
6.5. Universalization of Primary Education:
 To achieve the Universalization of Elementary Education goals, the following programmes are being implemented during 2015-16. Rs.992.00 lakhs of Budget is provided for this purpose under the state plan. This Budget is distributed for the implementation of the following Programmes as follows:
Ø    Rs. 4.00 lakhs have been provided for the Office Maintenance for the central office of Mid-day meals.
Ø    Provision of Rs 24.00 lakhs have been made for improvement of educational activities of Urdu & other linguistic Minorities Directorate and for Office Automation,
Ø    Rs.477.00lakhs has been provided for conducting Pratibha Karanji Programme.
Ø    Rs.100.00 lakhs have been provided to conduct Taluk, District & State Level Games and to purchase Sports materials and to provide play ground facility, To conduct Tours for sportsman, To construct Physical Education Hostel Building and to Educate regarding Yoga.
Ø    Rs.13.00 lakhs have been provided for J.D.MMS Office Manager Salary, Medical expenses. Rs.100.00 lakhs have been provided for E-Governance to purchase of required Computer Hardware, Software and to purchase Computer and accessories for the office of CPI and DDPI's offices and also for maintenance of computer supplied to DDPI and BEO offices.
Ø    Rs.175.00 lakhs have been allocated to give advertisement regarding Educational Activities through Medias like T.V., Radio, Newspaper and printing of Shikshana varte and Wall posters. Rs.89.00 lakhs have been allocated to give computers for 3 children of each districts of the State who scores highest marks in March-2015 S.S.L.C Public Examination. Rs.10.00 Lakhs have been allocated for 10 outstanding performers of the state level in the field of Science, Sports and Craft.
6.6. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan:
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is a joint effort by Central Government / State Government and local bodies to achieve the Universalization of Elementary education. During 2015-16 Rs. 2512.00 lakhs have been provided being the State share for implementing the scheme. Out of this budget Rs.2237.00 lakhs for SSA and Rs.275.00 for EQMC programme.
6.7. Pancha Soulabhya:
During the year 2015-16 Rs.400.00 Lakhs of Budget have been allocated to this Programme. This grant is used for maintained of Toilets and Drinking water of Primary and High schools of the state through SDMC.
6.8. Cluster Complex in 39 Backward Taluks:
Under this programme Rs.800.00 lakhs of Budget have been provided for the year 2015-16 State Sector & to meet previous year’s deficit.
7. Suggestion:
Primary Education is a very important to everyone and without education nothing is there in the life. From the above analysis it is clear that in the year 2013-14 to 2015-16 budgets, primary education got a fair deal as far the allocation of funds is concerned. Government should increasing the number of  primary schools and Govt. should try to spend more budget expenditure on primary education in Karnataka State than bringing quality of education.
8. Conclusion:
Primary education is most important sector in other sectors government should concentrate more on primary educational expenditure. The allocated funds should be utilized with better planning and effective strategies aimed at achieving Universalization of primary education.
Ø    Naresh K. V (2016). Government Expenditure Regarding Education, Excel Publication, Delhi.
Ø   Reddy G. S (2007). Current Issues in Education, Neelkamal Publication, Hyderabad.
Ø    Sreeramulu Gooru (2004). Planning and Expenditure on Education, Kalpaz Publication, Delhi.
Ø    DISE Report 2010-11 to 2016-17.

Ø    Director of Primary Education, Deputy Director (Planning) – 2012-13 to 2014-15.