Major Issues and Problems of Teacher Education

Poor Quality of Teaching; Absence of Supervision, Monitoring and Performance evaluation of Trainers; Linkages between Institutions, Accreditation in teacher education; Privatization, Globalization and Autonomy Teacher Education;

Ø  Short Duration of Courses
The duration of teacher preparation courses is short in comparison to other countries in the world. “There has been a constant observation that the duration of primary school teaching certificate is far below the norm of other developing countries in the world.
Ø  Generally, Minimum Teaching Certificate range from 12 to 16 years of both general education and teacher training programs. The norm is, therefore, around 14 years minimum education in most of the countries in the world”. (National Education Policy 1998- 2010).
The short duration of training and lengthy syllabus, with unnecessary content, was a common complaint of teacher educators at all levels.   Excluding summer and winter vacations and other national and local holidays the one year courses are actually of 9 months duration which includes 4 weeks of teaching practice. The remaining 32 weeks or just 8 months, which is insufficient time to study the eleven subjects in PTC and CT courses.
The situation with B.Ed. courses is not much different. There is little scope for improvement unless more time is allocated for learning teaching skills, teaching practice, and course durations are extended.
The trainees are not involved in any of the activities or practical work suggested in the syllabus. The trainee teachers teach the way they were taught in the class through dictation.
Poor Quality of Teaching

The teaching in the PTC, CT and B.Ed. classrooms is lecturing and dictation. Teaching techniques like group work, problem solving, and activity approach are lectured about, not practiced by the trainers.
The curricula in science and methods of teaching science at PTC and CT level recommend practical work and experiments. The majority schools have science laboratories, but the almirahs were locked, and the apparatus and the work tables covered in dust.
The students do not maintain journals of practical work and lesson planning.
All the colleges had libraries but library study was rarely integrated into the learning program and students show no interest in library books.
The majority of institutions have “attached practicing schools” which are often insufficient due to the large number of trainees particularly in the B.Ed. colleges.
Government schools are often used as practicing schools. The supervision of teaching practice and guidance to the trainee teacher is often brief and mostly just an initial in the lesson notebook by the supervisor.
Peer observation=     observation of a trainee’s lesson by fellow trainees, recording comments on the lesson in a lesson observation notebook and later discussion of the comments with the trainee, is an effective technique used in training teachers which is not practiced in most  teacher training institutes.

Absence of Supervision, Monitoring and Performance evaluation of Trainers

There is no guidance and evaluation of a freshly appointed teacher trainer. The fresh appointee is often a secondary teacher with a B.Ed. or M.Ed. with no practical teaching experience or knowledge of dealing with adult classrooms. The trainers of primary teachers (PTC courses) have never experienced teaching primary school children.
There is no system of Performance Appraisal of the teacher educators relevant to their jobs. There is no job description. Promotions to higher grades or higher post are on the basis of seniority rather than on the basis of performance.
Physical Facilities and Equipment
  •  The classroom furniture in all training institutions and practice schools is of traditional design. Light movable furniture is required for practicing activity approach and group-work.
  • Science labs need curriculum relevant equipment and workshop tools for creating low-cost teaching materials.
l  Lack of audio visual Aids in teaching training institutes. Teaching material of daily classroom use such as charts, maps, globes, models are in short supply in most institutions.
  • Lack of school building
  • Lack of  trained teachers
  • Student teacher ratio in teacher training colleges and class
  • Admission criteria
  • guidance and counseling
  • Evaluation system
  • Lack of funds

No Feedback Mechanism,
the concept of “quality control” is totally absent from the system. The short duration courses, the lecture style delivery, the short and unsupervised teaching practice, the absence of supervision, and the monitoring and performance appraisal of trainers, are a combination of tragic factors that plan to produce low quality of professional teachers

Linkages between Institutions,
The meetings of heads of institutions with the directors of umbrella organization are held usually once or twice a year for the purpose of discussing schedules — admissions, semesters, examinations, fees and settling other administrative matters. Academic issues are never on the agenda.
There are no meetings of Heads of Institutions solely for the purpose of discussing academics. There are no academic linkages between the 20 Provincial Bureaus or the Provincial PITES. At the national level there is a Technical Panel of Teacher Education that provides a very weak and ineffective linkage.

Standards in Teacher Education
l  Accreditation in teacher education is a system for ensuring the Standard and quality of academic programs offered and graduates produced by teacher education institutions. To set the academic quality and profile of the teacher to be produced by the institutions. NACTE has adapted International practices in accreditation of teacher education programs and indigenized it for evaluating the standard of teacher education in Pakistan.
The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NACTE) has developed a set of eight standards relevant to the various areas and activities of a teacher education program named as the National Standards for Accreditation of Teacher Education Programs (NSATEP). These standards serve as the foundation for internal academic evaluation (Self-evaluation) by the program and external academic audit by NACTE. These standards relate to:
  1. Conceptual Framework,
  2.  Mission, Vision, program goals and objectives Curriculum and Instruction.
  3. Assessment and Evaluation System.
  4. Physical Infrastructure, Academic Facilities and Learning Resources.
  5. Human Resource.
  6. Finance and Management.
  7. Research and Scholarship.
  8. Community Links and Outreach.
 To operationalize the standards into observables, each standard were divided into elements with further splitting into operational indicators. The total number of such indicators is 152 STANDARD. These indicators were later processed to set-up tools to measure the level of attainment of a program.
Admission Policies and Procedures in Teacher Education

Privatization, Globalization and Autonomy Teacher Education

l  At the time of independence Pakistan declared itself as a democratic state. Initially  public sector initiated and developed  the education system in Pakistan, But the eighties witnessed the inefficient working of the state owned enterprises and as a reaction the wave of privatization has spread in Pakistan,
Concept of Privatization
Privatization implies induction of private ownership, management and control of organizations. Privatization means the deregulation of government control and it refers to expansion of private sector and reduction of public sector. It also means that areas
Reserved for the public sector will be opened to the private sector. The shift towards privatization reduces the role of the government and increases the role of the private, cooperative and local government. The areas of shift are mainly decision making and responsibility of money and administration.
Applied to the education sector, privatization can be seen as part of the wider reform of the public sector. Education is both a private and social investment. It is therefore the responsibility of both the individual including the student, his family and the society which includes the community and the state.
Privatization is management by private sector with total absence of government intervention. Such institutions generate their own funds through higher fees, user charges and full use of resources. They survive on the philosophy that they do not have to pay for those who can pay.
l  Privatization of higher education has emerged in several forms and types in the recent decade in Pakistan
Ø  Privatization within government higher education institutions takes place in the form of introducing self-financing courses within government institutions.
Ø  Converting government aided private institution in to private self-financing institution.
Ø  Allowing expandingself-financing private institution with recognition and also without recognition, which may be termed as commercial private higher education institutions?

Factors Responsible for Privatization of HigherEducation (Need for Privatization)
v  Need for competitive efficiency
v  Growth in population
v  Financial burden on government:
v  Education is an Economic good
v  Rapid growth of school education:
v  Fulfilling the need for skilled manpower
v  curbing of corruption In Public sector
v  Technological developments
   Advantages of Privatization: Privatization will enhance:
• Decentralization of educational institutions.
 • Innovativeness in teaching and evaluation.
• Competition in institutions for quality.
• Quality teacher education and training.
• Shaping of the teacher education curriculum according to global, national and local needs.
• Utility of human and physical resources in proper way.
Disadvantages and fears in Privatization of Education:
Ø   Privatization will badly affect the poor
Ø   Privatization will badly affect the quality of teacher education in Pakistan

The closing decade of 20th century saw major social, political and economic transformations on a global level. The developments, combined with increasingly rapid advances in the nature of and impact of information and communication technologies have had a powerful influence on all nations, societies and cultures worldwide.
 Concept of Globalization:
Globalization is a much talked about term today and has become a phenomena, which is greatly affecting the society in general and different nations in particular. Globalization is the integration of economic, political and cultural systems and trends
Across the world for economic growth, prosperity and democratic freedom.
Globalization means the world beyond borders where the activity of an individual can affect the whole world with the help of technology, that could not be restrict by such criteria as geography, religion, gender, age. Anything or anybody can have a worldwide impact. Globalization seeks to deal with relations that go beyond the confines of the nation state or country boundaries.
There are many challenges before the teaching profession. Firstly, teachers need to radically adapt to the new skills, techniques, methods and demands and secondly a change in the mind set to take up new responsibilities. It is only then that the teacher can be
Professionalized. In order to prepare the new age teachers the system of teacher education has to adapt new challenges faced by the system. Systemic changes have to be made to prepare the global teacher. These could be in the form of infrastructure, facilities,selection, recruitment and retention of competent human resources, adopting and training in new technologies, and upgrading the curriculum.
• Good salaries for teachers to attract brilliant minds
• Good working conditions
• Flexible hours
• Constant training in use of new methods of teaching, counseling, meeting curricular demands, computers, finding and interpreting information
• Autonomy to teachers in classroom management, teaching strategies, arrangement of furniture and work spaces.
• Standardize the skills and their certification, to be acquired by a teacher enabling it to be used world over.

Concept of Autonomy:
Autonomy is an attitude of the mind which can be equated with critical intelligence, independent mindedness, a determination and think things out for one self. Autonomy consists of one’s own
independent judgments freely choosing among alternatives and governing one’s own action and attitudes in the light of one’s own thinking.
Etymologically, there are two features of autonomy viz. the nature of self i.e. ‘autos’ and the kind of norm and rule –‘nomos’. Put together autonomy would thus mean adopting for oneself “self norms” “self governance” and “responsibility”. Autonomy thus
introduces the idea of ‘self direction’ as well as recognition of norms or principles with which the autonomous person governs himself.
Autonomy therefore, essentially means the relative independence of an individual in guiding and regulating his or her own conduct without any external control.

Autonomy in Education:
The concept of autonomy in education is a structural solution intended to provide an enabling environment to improve and strengthen the teaching learning process. Autonomy is the unrestrained freedom of action within the established norms of the institution. In the field of education the feeling of freedom infiltrate to the each and every academic unit, creating in teachers and students a sense of involvement in the pursuit of learning. Teachers in colleges and departments are then to actively be associated with four fundamental questions of what to teach, how to teach, whom to teach and how to evaluate?
In education autonomy can relate to budgets, appointments, students intake, curriculum, degrees awarded, quality of teaching and research. Autonomy provides an enabling environment, to improve and strengthen teaching-learning process. A decentralizedmanagement culture can encourage autonomy within the environment. However, no institution can have effective institutional or academic autonomy without financial autonomy.