The structure of teacher education

The structure of teacher education in Pakistan

Keywords; The Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.); Elementary and Secondary Education; Curriculum Wing; of Education (M.Ed.); M.A. Education; Teacher Education PGCTE; B.Ed. (hons) 4 year; ADE: Associate degree in Education.

In September 1996 the Ministry of Education Curriculum Wing under the Teacher Training Project (TTP) designed a detailed scheme of curricula and courses for the whole range of teacher education. This proposed network of teacher education program comprised:
The Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) covering both Elementary and Secondary either (12+3) or (14+1);The Master of Education (M.Ed.) (15+1);The Master of Arts in Education  M.A. (Ed.) – (14+2).
Postgraduate Certificates, such as the Post Graduate Certificate in Teacher Education PGCTE; the Post Graduate Certificate in Educational TechnologyPGCET; the Post Graduate Certificate in Educational Management PGCEM; and postgraduate diplomas;Higher degrees in education, such as M.Phil. and Ph.D.
A number of University and Colleges of Education in KPK offer the B.Ed. (hons) 4 year programme which will replace B.Ed. one Year program after 2016 as per HEC order.
ADE: Associate degree in Education, 2 years program after F.A and FSC.
The courses currently offered by various Institutions are shown in the table below:
Implication/ suggestion for the structure of teacher education
Strengthen linkages between teacher education institutions
There is a need to establish linkages between the provincial teacher education institutions
particularly between RITE, PITEs and Universities. By establishing interface between these institutes, especially at the provincial level, the overlapping of functions and duplication of work and effort can be avoided. There is also the need for closer academic collaboration between these institutions to improve both pre-service and in-service teacher education. Strengthen and support PITEs as apex institutions for innovation and research in teacher education.
·         Set up a separate cadre of teacher education
·         The diversity in structure of teacher education faculty also needs to be made uniform and
separate cadre of teacher educators needs to be maintained and protected. Ensure teacher
educators are retained by avoiding unnecessary transfers.
Duration of courses
The duration of teacher education courses is short. The duration of certificate and degreecourses need to be increased so that curricula are implemented in true spirit and curricularobjectives are fully met.
Improve the physical and resource environment of the classrooms that encourage group work and activity based learning.
Introduction of institutional performance evaluation and staff appraisal
Institutional Performance Evaluation and Staff Appraisal system needs to be introduced atthe institutional level to ensure regular monitoring of the activities during the academic year and the assessment of the institution’s performance against institutional objectives and budgetary allocations. Moreover, a comprehensive staff appraisal system needs to be introduced which ensures the participation of all the relevant staff.
Provision of quality text books and resource material
There is an acute shortage of textbooks and reading and teaching learning references and supplementary material. National level educationists need to be involved in producing course relevant quality textbooks and reference material. There are no regular budgetary allocations for physical facilities such as labs, libraries, teaching-learning material and IT facilities. Such facilities need regular budgetary allocations. Labs and Libraries need to be modernized. More time should be devoted to Practicum and learning assignments in all subjects, so that labs and library study become a necessary part of the training.
Improvement of educational institutions infrastructure
Most of the training colleges are in miserable condition. A concerted effort on the part of the government is required to improve the physical environment of the training colleges. There should be budgetary allocations for physical facilities such as lab, libraries, teaching and learning material andIT facilities.
Revision of admission policy
Enrolment exceeds the capacity to accommodatestudents in the training colleges. This results in a decline of the quality of training.Admission policy needs to be revised to ensure that over enrolment does not ruin the quality of training.
Incorporate state of the art content knowledge and pedagogy skills in teacher education courses relevant to the needs of the curriculum and based on groundrealities.
Considering existing condition of college buildings there is a need to repair/renovate all the college buildings that require immediate facelift.
Introduce a regular appraisal system to assess the performance of teacher educators and introduce a system of Institutional Performance Evaluation.
Improve the physical and resource environment of the classrooms that encourage group work and activity based learning.
Linkages between the provincial teacher education institutions particularly between the Rites, PITEs and universities needed to be established. Strengthen and support PITEs as apex institutions for innovation and research in teacher education.
Preparation for changing situation and Recent Innovations in Teacher Training
Rather than bringing the teacher to the training center, taking the training to the school is a
daring new strategy in in-service teacher training. The Teachers Resource Centers (TRCs)
and the Teaching Outposts (TOs) were visualized to perform this role.

Internship or a Teaching House - Job
The University of Education Lahore requires the B.Ed. examinees to do teaching in government schools for six months. The trainee is eligible for the award of a degree only after successful completion of the internship, certified by the school head. It is an attempt at creating a licensing procedure for adoption of the teaching profession. Properlyorganized, it can be utilized as a feedback mechanism for evaluating the quality of thetrainee and the training.
Institutional Performance Evaluation
The IER Departments of Universities send the team of expert teacher educators and teacher education managers who evaluate the institutional performance in their province through;
Assessment of Pupil Achievement
A new initiative in evaluation of student achievement is the establishment of the National
Educational Assessment System valuation.

Training of Teaching Faculty
Modern curricula and methods in teacher education, particularly the activity and constructivist approach in teacher training. The teacher-educators shouldlearn to use these approaches in their own classrooms for teaching their own subjects.e.g.
·         Educational psychology: recent research findings on how children learn.
·         Measurement and evaluation of student achievement.
·         Curriculum Development and Evaluation.
·         Use of technology in education: Computers, Internet, Multimedia, etc.
·         Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI).
·         Assessment in Teacher Education.
·         Action Research ?the teacher as a researcher.
·         Modern technology of Teaching English as a second language.
·         Use of technology in language learning: Cassette recorders-players,
·         Television, Video Cassettes, Computers.
·         CAI in teaching ESL
·         Assessment in ESL
·         Implementing the Activity/Discovery Approach in the Teacher Training Classrooms.
·         Organizing practical work.
·         Using environment as resource in teaching science.
·         Teaching the Processes.
·         Testing for understanding, application and problem solving.
·         Use of CAI in teaching Science.
·         Discovery approach in Mathematics.
·         Use of materials in teaching mathematics.
·         Testing for understanding, application and problem solving.
·         Use of CAI in teaching Mathematics.
Physical Facilities and Equipment
·         Some buildings need repairs and renovation.
·         The classroom furniture in all training institutions and practice schools is of traditional design. Light movable furniture is required for practicing activity approach and group-work.
·         Science labs need curriculum relevant equipment and workshop tools for devising low-cost teaching materials.
·         Lab attendants need training as lab technicians.
·         Teaching material of daily classroom use such as charts, maps, globes, models are in short supply in most institutions.
·         Computer teacher posts need to be created for teaching computer applications.
·         Internet connections need to be provided.
·         Audio-Video and projection equipment is inadequate.
·         Libraries need to be refurbished with recent publications in education, teaching ESL and teaching of Science and Mathematics. Educational magazines need to be made available.