Teacher Education Institutions in Pakistan

Keywords; Teaching Method, Provincial institute of teacher education PITE, RITE (Regional Institutes of Teacher Education), I.E.R Institute Of Education And Research, AIOU,

AIOU (Allama Iqbal Open University)
The Allama Iqbal Open University was established in May, 1974 with the main objectives of providing educational opportunities to masses and to those who cannot leave their homes and jobs.
 Allam Iqbal Open University (popularize as AIOU), is a public research university located in Islamabad, Pakistan. The university is noted as being one of the world's largest institutions of higher learning. It is also Asia's first Open University with a strong emphasis on providing distance education
The idea of Distance Education was first mooted in UK in late 60s by the British Prime Minister, Mr. Harold Wilson. He was of the view that educational opportunities must be provided to those who might have missed better education due to early employment and wish to upgrade, their knowledge and skills, in their spare times in the evenings at home. The UK Open University was, thus established in 1969.
The AIOU, when established in 1974, was the second Open University in the world and first in Asia
 The AIOU utilizes all possible media for instruction including correspondence materials, radio and TV, satellite transmission, online teaching, non-broadcast media, tutorial instruction and group training workshops and more.
The AIOU started with five courses and an enrolment of less than 1,000 in 1975-76, and it has over the past years expanded in all directions. Presently four sets of faculty in 40 academic departments and an Institute of Mass Education offer a wide range of courses from functional non-credit to M.Phil./Ph.D. level.
AIOU has established 42 regional offices in Pakistan to facilitate decentralized system of education in Pakistan
Approximately 950 examination centres are established yearly at Tehsil and District level with coordination of regional network to facilitate the students.
With its system of reaching the students at their homes or workplaces and the concept of openness, implying lifelong education, the Allama Iqbal Open University is filling the gaps left by the conventional system and taking education to areas and groups unable to benefit from the formal system of education. As an institution of distance and open learning, AIOU makes a commitment to provide high quality educational programmes to its students. In addition the AIOU endeavors to create an environment suitable for learning.
 In recent years, the university's programmes have expanded and still several others are in the process of development to be launched in the forthcoming semesters. The challenge at present for the future of the university is to maintain excellent standard of education by providing high quality tutorial and regional support to the students.

Teaching Method
For teaching various methods are used by AIOU. They are through radio and TV channels, correspondence, internet and study guides
There are 42 AIOU regional centers in Pakistan where students can attend classes. In addition in almost every town of Pakistan, AIOU has appointed Tutors for the students. These qualified tutors provide guidance, teaching and conduct examinations.  For practical courses like information Technology area study centers have been established throughout Pakistan to provide access to computer labs or other labs where required.
Students were provided study guided and reading material
·         Assignments in each subject
·         TV Programme related to the subject
·         Programme on radio
·         At the end of every semester there is a compulsory workshop for each course. Students are asked to give presentation.
Students are evaluated through assignments and summative examination at the end of every semester with the ratio of 30:70. 30% for assignments and 70% for the final examination. To pass a semester the student need to get 40% marks in each subject
PhD Degrees offered by AIOU
 Ph.D. Iqbal Studies
Ph.D. Urdu
Ph.D. Education in Distance and Non-formal Education (DNFE)
Ph.D. Economics (M.Phil. Based)
Ph.D. Chemistry
Ph.D. Statistics
Ph.D. Physics
Ph.D. Food and Nutrition
Ph.D. in Agricultural Extension
Ph.D. Teacher Education
Ph.D. Educational Planning & Management (EPM)
Ph.D. Special Education (M.Phil. based)
Ph.D. in Islamic Law and Jurisprudence
Ph.D. in Pakistani Languages and Literature
MPhil and MS degrees offered by AIOU are:-

M.Phil. Education in Distance and Non-formal Education (DNFE)
M.S (Science Education)
M.Phil. Iqbal Studies
M.Phil. in Islamic Law and Jurisprudence
M.Phil. Urdu
M.Phil. Educational Planning & Management (EPM)
M.Phil. Physics
M.Phil. Mass Communication
M.Phil. Statistics
M.Phil. Economics
M.Phil. Food and Nutrition
M.Phil. in Pakistani Languages and Literature
M.S. Computer Science
M.Phil. Chemistry
M.Phil. Teacher Education
M.S. Community Health & Nutrition
M.Phil. Pakistani Languages and Literature
Others (education)
Secondary Teacher education
M. Education
Diploma in TEFL
In-service training
Provincial institute of teacher education
PITE was established in 1996 with the help of ADB (Asian Development Bank)
The vision of PITE is to bring about quantitative and qualitative improvement in education in Pakistan in general and Khyber Pukhtunkhwa in particular through creation and provision of continuous professional development opportunities and services to teachers and education managers.
The mission of PITE is to develop the educational institutes KPK to provide better training to prospective teachers, so they have the skills to transfer the culture and belief of the society into the students.
PITE’s objectives are to;
·         Train teachers in effective and innovative instructional strategies
·         Train teachers / managers in educational planning and management
·         Train teachers / managers in instructional assessment and evaluation
·         Develop contextualized instructional material
·         Train Master Trainers

·         Conduct and test innovative Pre-Service & In-Service teacher training programs.
·         Training of Master Trainers.
·         Monitor trainings
·         Design and conduct research in teacher education, evaluation and assessment.
·         Develop training materials, etc.:
·         Serve as a Provincial Resource Center in educational trainings.
·         Coordinate training programs in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa.
·         Conduct/organize workshops/seminars as and when required by the government.
·         Supervise & facilitate bridging Courses for teachers to equate Diploma in Education
·         Design & maintain Teacher Education Management Information System (TEMIS)
Functions of PITE
One of the objectives of the PITE was to develop teacher training material for the improvement of educational institutions and teachers.
Manuals / Modules Developed By PITE:
1     HRM Manual for Principal / Headmaster of GHSS/GHS (M & F)
2     Financial Management for Principal/Headmaster of GHSS / GHS (M & F)
3     Manual on School Management for Middle School Head Teachers
4     Manual on School Management for Primary School Head Teachers
5     Microsoft Office User Specialist (MOUS)
6     Personnel Management (HRD & HRM)
7     Financial Management
8     Academic Management
9     Research Methods, Techniques & Study conduction
10   Civil Service Acts 1973 & Rules made there under
11   Community Participation & Parent Teacher Council (PTC)
12   Manual on School Sanitation & Hygiene Education
13   Manual for Teachers on Child Friendly Schools Concept
14   Manual for Teachers of Rehabilitation Centers
15   Manual on Disaster preparedness and Risk Management
16   Manual on psycho social Training for Teachers
17   Manual on Mine Risk Education for Teachers
18   Manual on Peace Education for Teachers
19   Manual on Multigrade teaching & DRM
20   Manual on Educational Leadership & Management at School level
21   Manual on Teaching in Early Grades
22   Manual on Office Management
23   Manual on Early Childhood Care and Education
24   Manual on Planning Skills
25   Training Manual on Math, Science, English and many more

RITE (Regional Institutes of Teacher Education)
RITE is the abbreviation of Regional Institute for
Teachers’ Education. It has been established in 2002 at different location throughout the province. There are separate RITEs for male and female. In the beginning they were considered only the In-service teachers’ training institutes but now days they are also serving as the pre-service teachers’ training institutes for female students only. There are 20 RITEs in the whole province while serving their duties. The provincial cabinet on 21-08-2002 has approved that all the 10 GECTs (Government Elementary Colleges for Teachers) working for teachers’ trainings will be converted into “Regional Institutes for Teachers’ Education”. The existing RITEs with their location at KPK include;
Details of Regional Institutes of Teacher Education

Plan, arrange, impart & assess pre-service teacher education programmes.
Act as center for in-service teacher training. 
To assist DCTE in:
Curriculum Development & review
Development of Training materials
Planning, designing, conducting & monitoring in- service teacher training
Conduction of Provincial Education Assessment Centre (PEACE) activities.
The teacher education in KPK is in a state of flux. Half of the 20 Regional Institutes of Teacher Education (RITES) providing PTC and CT courses were closed down few years back while classes were suspended in the rest 10 institutes for a period of 3 years beginning September 2002. The Bureau of Curriculum KPK, renamed in 2001 as the Directorate of Curriculum and Teacher Education (DCTE) exercises administrative, financial and academic control over the 20 RITES, (10 closed down), 1 Government College of Physical Education and a Government Agro Technical Teachers Training Centre. Currently Regional Institutes of Teacher Education RITEs have been assigned to conduct Diploma in Education as well as PTC/CT classes.
Training outposts
Training and professional support for quality education is an ever-increasing demand to prevent the increasing shift of students from free public schools to expensive private institutions. The support is required to urgently address the professional needs of head teachers, teachers, supervisors / learning co-coordinators, and other district education managers.
Training outposts were established in govt secondary schools under an ADB assisted program. Many of the TOs have since been converted into Teachers/Tehsil Resource Centers (TRCs) under the ESR Action Plan. There are 380 TRCs in Pakistan. Those set up to date are not fully functional, not having adequate staff or empowered to conduct teacher training. Their buildings are being used by different provincial institutions and donors for their district based cluster-training programs. TRCs are growing but are without standards or quality assurance (AED 2004)
 To extend decentralized capacity building facilities to teachers, head teachers, parents and other education supervisors and managers for addressing quality education.

To develop decentralized capacity building units for addressing professional and information needs in areas of pedagogy and community participation
To serve a variety of clients from public and private sector including local government and NGO institutions.
To undertake contracts with NGOs for training PTAs/SMCs
To be managed as autonomous fee charging units for sustainability          
Governance Structure
 The TRC will be managed by a small board of professionals, ensuring a cross-section of appropriate representatives from government, Local government, NGOs and Private Sector.
Private Teacher Training Institutions
Until the end of the seventies teacher education and training was the sole realm of the federal and provincial governments. In the 1980s private teacher training institutions started to appear on the scene which has considerably deteriorated the quality of teacher education. However, only few of them gained high repute which included the IED, Aga Khan University, the Notre Dame Institute of Education, and the Ali Institute of Education.
A majority of private training institutions are however, commercial enterprises in reality, producing low grade teachers
Factors affecting private sector teacher education programme are;
  • The teaching in the PTC, CT and B.Ed. classrooms is lecturing and dictation. Teaching techniques like group work, problem solving, and activity approach are lectured about, not practiced by the trainers. The trainees are not involved in any of the activities or practical  work suggested in the syllabus
  • Teaching practice is a compulsory component of all teacher education courses  PTC, CT, B.Ed., BS.Ed. A majority of institutions have “attached practicing schools” which are often insufficient due to the large number of trainees particularly in the B.Ed or there are no practical time for the students of those colleges.
Absence of Supervision, Monitoring and Performance Appraisal of Trainers
  • Needs of Physical Facilities and Equipment
  • Science labs need curriculum relevant equipment and workshop tools for devising low cost teaching materials
  • Audio-Video and projection equipment is required
  • Libraries needed recent publications in education, teaching ESL and teaching of Science and Mathematics. Educational magazines need to be made available.
Teaching material of daily classroom use such as charts, maps, globes, models are in short supply in most institutions.
I.E.R institute of education and research
Institute of educational research are the most important institutions in the educational field of Pakistan. These institutions have a pivotal role in the development of teacher’s education/training.
They play very important role in the education system of Pakistan, because these are research institutes, which develop research culture in Pakistan educational intuitions. It helps the prospective and in-services teachers in finding new ways of research and teaching methodologies
IER’s provide experts i.e. educational planners, supervisors, administrators, researchers,  Teachers

The role of IER of KPK:
The department of education was established in 1950 in KPK in university of Peshawar, Its status was then elevated in 1964 as College of Education. It was in 1980 when the Institute was raised to the level of the Institute of Education & Research (IER). Now it has been placed under the Faculty of Social Sciences, after the restructuring of the Faculties of University of Peshawar.
The Institute of Education & Research enjoys a unique position in the KPK, that it imparts training to the prospective and in - service teachers of secondary and higher secondary schools. It offers the courses for the degrees of B.Ed (Bachelors of Education), B.Ed honor and M.Ed. (Masters of Education). The IER also offers M.Phil. and Ph.D. programmes in the discipline of Education.
To upgrade the standard of Education in Pakistan
Preparation of Quality Teachers in the light of the demands of 21st century
  • Objectives
  • Advancing the cause of education, with main stress on teacher education.
  • Development of modern teaching skills and techniques.
  • Development of strategies to replace the conventional system of education based on rote learning and cramming with one that leads to creativity and originality of ideas and thoughts.
  • Development of a culture of research and investigation in an educational setting.
  • Producing skilled and well equipped teachers
Ø  IER University of Peshawar
Ø  IER University of Gomal
Ø  IER Malakand University
Ø  IER Swat University