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1. Need for Sub-Mission on Basic Services to the Urban Poor (BSUP) under Jawahar Lal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM)
BASIC SERVICES TO THE URBAN POOR

As per 2001 population census, 285.35 million people reside in urban areas. It constitutes 27.8% of the total population of the country. In postindependence era while population of India has grown three times, the urban population has grown five times. The rising urban population has also given rise to increase in the number of urban poor. As per 2001 estimates, the slum population is estimated to be 61.8 million. The ever increasing number of slum dwellers causes tremendous pressure on urban basic services and infrastructure. In order to cope with massive problems that have emerged as a result of rapid urban growth, it has become imperative to draw up a coherent urbanization policy/strategy to implement projects in select cities on mission mode.
2. Mission Statement
Reforms driven, fast track, planned development of identified cities with focus on efficiency in urban infrastructure/services delivery mechanism, community participation and accountability of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) towards citizens.
3. Mission Strategy
·         Planned urban perspective frameworks for a period of 20-25 years (with 5 yearly updates) indicating policies, programmes and strategies of meeting fund requirements would be prepared by every identified city. This perspective plan would be followed by preparation of Development Plans integrating land use with services, urban transport and environment management for every five year plan period. In this context, a City Development Plan (CDP) would be required before the city can access Mission funds.
·         Cities will be required to prepare Detailed Project Reports for undertaking projects under identified areas.
·         Private Sector Participation in development, management and financing of Urban Infrastructure would be clearly delineated.
·         Funds for identified cities would be released to the designated State Nodal Agency, which in turn would leverage additional resources from the State Govt., their own funds, funds of implementing agencies and funds from the financial institutions/private sector/capital market and External Aid. A revolving fund would be created to take care of operation and maintenance of various assets created under the Mission.
4. Mission Objectives
·         Focused attention to integrated development of Basic Services to the Urban Poor in the cities covered under the Mission.
·         Provision of Basic Services to Urban Poor including security of tenure at affordable prices, improved housing, water supply, sanitation and ensuring delivery through convergence of other already existing universal services of the Government for education, health and social security. Care will be taken to see that the urban poor are provided housing near their place of occupation.
·         Secure effective linkages between asset creation and asset management so that the Basic Services to the Urban Poor created in the cities, are not only maintained efficiently but also become self-sustaining over time.
·         Ensure adequate investment of funds to fulfill deficiencies in the Basic Services to the Urban Poor.
·         Scale up delivery of civic amenities and provision of utilities with emphasis on universal access to urban poor.
5. Duration of the Mission
The duration of the Mission would be seven years beginning from the year 2005-2006. During this period, the Mission will seek to ensure sustainable development of select cities. An evaluation of the experience of implementation of the Mission would be undertaken before the commencement of Eleventh Five Year Plan and if, necessary, the programme calibrated suitably.
6. Scope of Mission Programme
The main thrust of the sub-Mission on Basic Services to the Urban Poor will be on integrated development of slums through projects for providing shelter, basic services and other related civic amenities with a view to provide utilities to the urban poor.
7. Mission Components
The sub-Mission on Basic Services to the Urban Poor will cover the following:-
(a) Admissible components:-
i. Integrated development of slums, i.e., housing and development of infrastructure projects in the slums in the identified cities.
ii. Projects involving development/improvement/maintenance of basic services to the urban poor.
iii. Slum improvement and rehabilitation projects.
iv. Projects on water supply/sewerage/drainage, communitytoilets/baths, etc.
v. Houses at affordable costs for slum dwellers/ urban poor/EWS/LIG categories.
vi. Construction and improvements of drains/storm water drains.
vii. Environmental improvement of slums and solid waste management.
viii. Street lighting.
ix. Civic amenities, like, community halls, child care centers, etc.
x. Operation and maintenance of assets created under this component.
xi. Convergence of health, education and social security schemes for the urban poor
NOTE: Land cost will not be financed except for acquisition of private land for schemes/ projects in the North Eastern States & hilly States, viz., Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal and Jammu & Kashmir.
(b) Inadmissible Components
Projects pertaining to the following will not be considered :
i) Power
ii) Telecom
iii) Wage employment programme & staff component
iv) Creation of fresh employment opportunities
Note: DPRs will have to be prepared by the implementing agencies for funding under the Mission including specific project components, viz, health, education and social security. However, the schemes of health,education and social security will be funded through convergence of schemes and dovetailing of budgetary provisions available under the programmes of respective sectors (Health, Human Resource Development, Social Justice and Empowerment and Labour, etc.), but will also be monitored by the Ministry of Urban Employment & Poverty Alleviation in so far as urban poor are concerned.
8. Sub-Mission Coverage
·         Keeping in view the paucity of resources and administrative constraints in taking up all cities and towns under this Sub-Mission, only selected cities will be taken up, as per norms/criteria mentioned below .
Category Number-A Cities with 4 million plus population as per 2001 census population
B Cities with 1 million plus but less than 4 million population
C Selected Cities (of religious/historic and tourist importance)
·         List of these cities is at Annexure-A.
·         National Steering Group may consider addition or deletion of cities/towns under Category-C (other than state capitals). Total number of cities under the Mission shall, however, remain about the same i.e. 60.
9. Agenda of Reforms
·         The main thrust of the revised strategy of urban renewal is to ensure improvement in urban governance so that Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) and para-statal agencies become financially sound with enhanced credit rating and ability to access market capital for undertaking new programmes and expansion of services. In this improved environment, public-private participation models for provisioning of various services would also become feasible. To achieve this objective, State Governments, Urban Local Bodies and para-statal agencies will be required to accept implementation of an agenda of reforms. The proposed reforms shall broadly fall into two categories:-
i) Mandatory reforms
ii) Optional reforms
·         List of Mandatory and Optional reforms is at Annexure-B.
·         National Steering Group may add additional reforms to the identified reforms.

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Human existence is dependent on many factors. For existence and sustenance on Earth, human has some basic need like food, shelter and clothing. To meet the need and demand of shelter, we have developed the concept of housing. Housing, which is one of the basic necessities of life, is a serious problem facing our country now days.
PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP FOR URBAN HOUSING IN INDIA

As 2012 (12th Plan Five Year), the housing shortage is of the order of 26 million units for urban areas. It is supposed that the housing needs of the rural folk are negligible which might not be the case and may need further exploration. To meet such a huge need and ever increasing demand for improved and affordable housing is a pressing need of the hour.
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Last few weeks I was busy editing a book and for refreshment I thought of reading this short novel. The novel titled ‘The Bounce’ is really a chronicles the life and adventures of a computer programmer, Raj, as he roams across four nations. The lead character of the noble is representative of the India technocrats who are providing their awesome services across the world. The novel is a natural outcome of the rich experiences gained by the character. The power of love and affection has been duly portrayed in this novel. The lead character named Raj is mad after his beloved and he even moved backed to India from America leaving aside the luxuries of life and the bounties of the new job. This is a reminder for many youths of the Indian and South Asia youths who settle in USA forgetting everything in India.
The travelogue is filled with different flavors as the character enjoyed lovely time with his beloved in Canada, a wonderful country in the world but Indian say it is second Punjab in the world.

This semi-autobiographical novel blurs the boundary between fiction and memoir. This is one of the art of the writing of the fiction which makes one believe that is the story of readers. The author has been able to keep readers spell bound throughout the novel. The use of simple narrative in the novel makes it enjoyable by all readers. The novel is a wonderful portrayal of the life and adventures of those in the global offshoring industry. This story will surely appeal to those interested in understanding the mind of an Indian immigrant, and to those interested in embracing Indian culture.
After reading the novel, I found it to be a fitting bounce back from harsh and cruel world of today. The author has written this novel in a vivid manner with due clarity. The short book is almost a metaphor for the life of the baby Surya, infinitely precious in its words but brief in its time. The author manages to show the idea that pain, while part of life, does not define us, and presents us with the opportunity to dig deep into the things which really matter - love, family, core values, etc. - to find the courage to be transformed, change, and persevere despite the scarring.
The reader will be able to experience the whole spectrum of human emotion -- humor, joy, love, hope, sorrow, shock, anger and ultimately revelation. These emotions are interwoven with fascinating revelations about various parts of the world, such as Switzerland, Canada, India, and parts of the United States in a form which makes readers keep his/her eyes glued to pages of the novel.
What I will like to conclude about this novel is that it is well-written, well-structured and apart from Raj and Priya’s story, it contains interesting facts about today’s world, as experienced professions who move from one city to other and even from one country to other spanning continents. This is a classical explanation of the joys and plight of youths working in multinational companies who move from homeland to other countries and experience different cultures and lifestyles.
Kudos to author!
Shashikant Nishant Sharma
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If media is called the 4th pillar of democracy then it won’t be wrong to call science & technology the 5th pillar of democracy as it can help in effective monitoring of the implementation of programmes and policies of the government. 
Science and Technology


Thus, it can help in bring greater transparency in the governance and help in combating the corruption which has got institutionalized in the governance system. One way or the other science and technology is already there in the form of media and communication channels. We can harness the vast potential of science and technology in fighting corruption through cctv camera and making available the information at the disposal of common masses and the agencies involved in combating corruption like CBI and CAG. Corruption arises when there is weak monitoring and vigilance system and also when there is deterioration in the moral and ethical values of man. 

Science and technology can hardly help in restoring the moral values but it can surely be of great help in effective monitoring and vigilance to reduce the prevalent corruption from government offices in particular and society in general. If the public knows that they have been allotted this much of fund then they can demand that from the concerned offices and department. The monitoring of projects and related accounts then become vital to fill any loopholes in the system which corrupt person can take advantage of. Science and technology can aid and strengthened the existing anti-corruption mechanism of the governance and administration.

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Sense of People First
The field of physical planning is multi-disciplined and to plan better for enhanced living condition for the human beings, planners need to keep in mind a number of planning guidelines and development parameters. There are many theories that guide the planning process and many techniques to achieve the objectives of the planning.
It has been practice of most of the planner to plan when some government agency wish to achieve some objectives after diagnosing the socio-economic and spatial character of the city and then prescribing the remedies. In western world, planners are now getting people centric and now they are not planning for people but planning with people. Who can know his problems better the person himself. The residents well know what their problems are and probably some of them know the solution but could not do anything due to various reasons. Planners have to become the engine of change and voice of the people so that the people can live in a city which is planned, developed and maintained by themselves.  Delhi government has initiated ‘Bhagidaari Scheme to make citizens a partner in the maintenance of city. The Local Area Plan preparation is an ambitious programme to make plan keeping in view the ground realities and with due citizen participation by the elected local bodies but the plan is not evolving the way it should evolve. Planners must have a global thinking and outlook but he must plan according to the need of the local people with their participation to enhance their sense of acceptance and integration of their views in the planning and development of the area in which they reside.
By Shashikant Nishant Sharma
Urban Planner and Consultant
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The combined efficiency of both the public and private sector players in any field of vocation has potential of making miracle. The enhanced efficiency and effectiveness of the private management and the public service spirit of public sector agencies can be galvanized into a strategy called Public Private Partnership (PPP). After the liberalization, privatization and globalization of India economy since 1992 has resulted in increasing focus on Public-Private Partnerships for Municipal Services.
Municipal Services
  Several Cities across the world and in India too have forged partnerships with private sector for delivery of various services.
The need for Municipal Partnerships for the delivery of municipal services emerges from four basic facts
(i)     The gap in the services is fairly high;
(ii)  There are significant leakages in the delivery of Municipal Services in terms of both technial and financial management.  Therefore, the efficiency needs to be improved;
(iii)  Municipal resources are limited and are not growing in real terms;
(iv)   Increasing role of municipal services in the overall context of productivity, equity and poverty alleviation.
 
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The wise distribution of different resources utilization and planning can help in reducing the consumption of energy. The judicious implementation of neighbourhood concept of planning can help in achieving this objective. Here, again, author would like to give example from Delhi, a role model planning of city in independent India. 

The wise distribution of different resources utilization and planning
In Delhi the whole city has been divided into 15 planning zones and each planning zones further into different sub-zones. The idea was to translate the provisions of the master plan to the ground level and use the concept of self-sufficient units of development. The zones have been provided with all the basic physical, social, commercial and recreational uses in such a manner to make them self-sustaining and thus reducing the dependence of different areas on other areas which may ultimately results in use of more travelling time. The rain-water harvesting for ensuring groundwater recharge and regulated development controls to minimize the haphazard growth of urban heat lands. Energy saved is energy produced must be practiced rather than professed.
by Shashikant Nishant Sharma
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The field of physical planning is multi-disciplined and to plan better for enhanced living condition for the human beings, planners need to keep in mind a number of planning guidelines and development parameters. There are many theories that guide the planning process and many techniques to achieve the objectives of the planning. Here, in this short article, we will discuss how some core values of the planning can be achieved if we adopt the specific senses of planning guidelines. Planning is an objective as well as subjective process of rational decision making to achieve some tangible development in a given time frame with the available minimum resources to ensure inclusive social upliftment. First and foremost thing that every planner must keep in his mind that the plan and policy guidelines will take the physical form and it is his responsibility to foresee the future implication while proposing something.
Sense of Utility for Planning


First sense of planning is ‘Sense of Utility’. Planners must keep in mind the utility of available space. The plan may not be for optimal utility at the time being but it should leave some scope for future readjustment and evolution of space in the realm of time. During my stay and study in Delhi over last few years, I have seen how the space demarcated for the median long ago has been wisely utilized for the construction of elevated Metro Rail network in the city. The wise use of the plantation strip to segregate the footpath from the vehicular traffic and use of the below space for construction of sewer/drainage network is a wonderful example of utility of space.  Planning should add value to the life of the resident and must act as rejuvenating bloodstream of the economy.
By Shashikant Nishant Sharma
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The increasing number of vehicles far exceeds the number of population increase in most part of the world. India has witnessed sharp increase in the number of vehicles in contrast with the growth of the population. The national population of Indian has doubled in last 30-35 years whereas the number of vehicles has increased many times around 20 times more than what existed three decades ago. This makes us think about the measures to make it sustainable in the long run. Most of the urban problems are caused by this increasing number of vehicles. The most prominent among them are air pollution, noise pollution, traffic congestion, high energy consumption etc.
Managing Urban Transport for Sustainability

Therefore, it is evident that we must have a comprehensive plan for tackling the menace of increasing vehicular population. There can be many processes and regulations to contain the number of increasing vehicles. One of the most recommended solutions is the introduction of public transport and mass transit system in all urban centres. Other can be limiting the number of vehicles registration, using congestion pricing, car-pooling, peak-hour charge on the private transport etc. To reduce the pollution caused by the ever-increasing vehicular population is the use of compressed natural gas (CNG), successfully implemented in Delhi, use of other alternate sources of energy which are less polluting than the conventional sources of energy like bio-diesel, ethanol, hydrogen and even water (An innovator in Pakistan has come out with this concept and he has demonstrated use of water as a fuel) but we have to think something more as our cities are already facing the crisis of drinking water. Some of the developed nations are successfully using the bio-diesel and ethanol for running pollution free diesel. USA, Canada and New Zealand are doing it successfully.

Spatial planning and integrated landuse planning has immense potential of reducing the dependence on the vehicles. The judicious planning of spaces for living, work and recreation can do wonders. This will help in reducing the travel demands which are mostly undertaken to meet the natural requirement of living, work and recreation. The concept of compact cities can be further explored to reduce the dependence on motor vehicles. The indirect result of compact cities should also be kept in mind like increased demand of energy, intensive use of existing resources and utilities.
"The present scenario in the developing world needs a comprehensive outlook and holistic planning approach based on the optimal resource utilization for the sustenance of the human civilization."
By Shashikant Nishant Sharma
Urban Planner and Consultant

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Master plan is a long term planning, generally for 20 years. It is also a comprehensive planning for service area as per likely spread of city in next 20 years. It describes all works required in next 20 years in phased manner. The designs and estimates are prepared approximately. It finalizes some of the main parameters so that advance action can be taken.
Master Plan for Delhi 2021
Master Plan for Delhi 2021

"A Master Plan is the long term perspective plan for guiding the sustainable planned development of the city. This document lays down the planning guidelines, policies, development code and space requirements for various socio-economic activities supporting the city population during the plan period. It is also the basis for all infrastructure requirements." defined in Master Plan Preparation Committee
  • Master Plan for Delhi 2021 is consistent with the provisions of Delhi Development Act, 1957. Prepared by Delhi Development Authority and approved by the Central Government under Section 11A(2) of Delhi Development Act 1957 and notified on 7th February 2007 (The Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part II–Section 3 Subsection (ii) No. 125 (Magha 18, 1928) vide S.O. 141-(E).
  • Plan has all the required sections:
■    Introduction
■    Regional and Sub Regional Frame
■    Population and Employment
■    Delhi Urban Area 2021
■    Shelter
■    Trade and Commerce
■    Wholesale Trade
■    Industry
■    Government Offices
■    Environment
■    Conservation and Heritage
■    Urban Design
■    Transportation
■    Social Infrastructure
■    Physical Infrastructure
■    Mixed Use
■    Landuse Plan
■    Development Code
■    Plan Review and Monitoring
■    Maps
■    Annexures: Perspective Plans of Physical Infrastructure and Gazette notificaiton
■    List of members
Land Use Plan-MPD 2021
Source: Master Plan for Delhi-2021
  • Plan is based on the long term vision statement ‘to make Delhi a global metropolis and a world-class city, where all the people would be engaged in productive work with a better quality of life, living in a sustainable environment.’
  • Plan considers the character of the planning jurisdiction and its suitability for particular uses, judged in terms of such factors as trends in land and population development.
But the population of Delhi in 2001 was 138 lakh as against the MPD-2001 projection of128 lakh. Thus, we can say that the projected population was not in tune with the population growth that took place. Hence,
  • Plan has well demarcated zoning to make the development a comprehensive in nature to absorb the needs of the different areas of the city.
The NCT of Delhi has been divided into 15 Zones from A to H and J to P, of which 8 Zones are in the urban area, one in Riverbed and remaining 6 in the rural area. So far, Zonal Plans in respect of 11 zones (including sub cities of Dwaraka, Rohini and Narela) have been notified with the approval of the Government of India.
  • Plan will, in accordance with present and future needs, best promote public health, safety, morals, order, convenience, prosperity, and general welfare.
The experience of the past two Master Plans shows that projections regarding various basic infrastructure services have been made with reference to the population growth projections and the increased urbanization requirements. However, the infrastructure provisions especially those related to water and power have not matched the pace of development.
  • Methodology of the plan preparation is more participatory in nature as compared to other plan preparation exercises.
Keeping in view the democratic procedure and statutory obligations, the Draft Plan was  prepared after obtaining the views of the public. It also included extensive consultations at the pre-planning stage by involving local bodies, Government of NCT of Delhi, public sector agencies, professional groups, resident welfare associations, elected representatives, etc.
12 study groups set up with experts and stakeholders on various aspects such as shelter, demography, conservation, transportation, industry, environment, mixed use, infrastructure, trade and commerce etc.
The Draft Master Plan was notified for inviting public objections / suggestions through Gazette Notification dated 16.03.2005 and public notice in newspapers on 08.04.2005. In response, about 7000 objections / suggestions were received, which were considered by the Board of Enquiry which met on 17 occasions and also afforded personal hearing to about 611 persons / organizations.
Plan includes any areas outside of the municipal boundaries that, in the planning authority's jurisdiction, refered as planning area.
POLICY ZONES
The Regional Plan 2021 has been drawn up with reference to the following four Policy
Zones:-
  1. NCT of Delhi.
  2. Central National Capital Region - Central NCR
iii. Highway Corridor Zone
  1. Rest of NCR.
  • Plan includes maps, plats, charts, and descriptive, explanatory, and other related matter and shall show the planning authority's recommendations for the physical development of the planning jurisdiction.
  • Plan includes classification and allocation of land for different landuses and purposes pertinent to the future development of the planning jurisdiction.
  1. The following critical areas have been the focal points of the Plan:
(a) Land Policy:
The land policy would be based on the optimum utilisation of available resources, both,public and private in land assembly, development and housing.
(b) Public Participation and Plan Implementation:
  • Decentralised local area planning by participatory approach;
  • Performance oriented planning and development, with focus on implementation andmonitoring.
(c) Redevelopment:
Incentivised redevelopment with additional FAR has been envisaged as a major element of city development covering all the areas;
  • Planned Areas: Influence Zone along MRTS and Major Transport Corridor; underutilised / low-density areas; Special Area; shopping / commercial centres; Industrial areas / clusters and resettlement colonies.
  • Unplanned Areas: Villages; unauthorised colonies and JJ Clusters.
(d) Shelter:
In 2001, about 702 sq km of area was estimated to have been built up, accommodating about 138 lakh population. To accommodate the projected population of 230 lakh by the year 2021, a three-pronged strategy is recommended:
  1. i) To encourage the population to deflect in the NCR towns;
  2. ii) To increase the population holding capacity of the area within existing urban limit sthrough redevelopment; and
iii) Extension of the present urban limits to the extent necessary.
  • Shift from plotted housing to group housing for optimal utilization of land;
  • Private sector participation for development / redevelopment of housing;
  • Removing unnecessary controls (like height) for optimum utilization of land and to facilitate creation of 'signature' projects.
  • Enhancement of ground coverage, FAR and height for all categories of residential plots.
(e) Housing for poor
  • In-situ slum rehabilitation, including using land as a resource for private sector participation;
  • In order to prevent growth of slums, mandatory provision of EWS housing / slum rehabilitation in all group housing to the extent of 15% of permissible FAR or35% of dwelling units on the plot, whichever is higher.
  • Housing for urban poor to the extent of 50-55% of total;
From the past experiences of the planning for the housing need of the urban poor and slum improvement, the plan has shown a dismal picture.
  • Recategorisation of housing types, developent control norms and differential densities to make EWS /LIG housing viable and economical.
(f) Environment:
  • Special emphasis on conservation of the Ridge.
  • Rejuvenation of River Yamuna through a number of measures including ensuring adequate flow in river by release of water by riparian states, refurbishment of trunk sewers, treatment of drains, sewering of unsewered areas, treatment of industrial affluent, recycling of treated effluent and removal of coliforms at STPs.
  • Provision of lung spaces / recreational areas and green belt to the extent of 15 to20% of land use.
  • Multipurpose grounds: A special category for marriages / public functions.
The previous Master Plan proposals for retention of Green Belt have not been maintained and a considerable part has already been utilised for both, planned and unplanned developments.
The development taking place in the cathcment area of Yamuna is also a cause of concern and there is no strong policy measures to contain it.
(g) Unauthorised Colonies:
Unauthorised colonies, which are to be regularised as per government policy, should be effectively incorporated in the mainstream of urban development. This requires provision of infrastructure development, services and facilities for which differential norms and procedures have been devised.
(h) Mixed Use:
  • To meet the growing demand of commercial activities and overcome the shortfall of available commercial space, a liberalized provision of Mixed Use in residential areas has been adopted adhering to the requisites of the environment, while achieving better synergy between workplace, residence and transportation.
  • 2183 streets have been notified by the GNCTD vide notification dated 15.09.06 for local commercial and mixed-use activities.
  • Small shops of daily needs have been permitted on ground floor, in residential areas.
(i) Trade & Commerce:
  • District & Community Centres are proposed to be developed as facility corridors along major transport networks to prevent unintended and unplanned ribbon development and for better synergy between public transport and work centres.
  • Development of Integrated Freight Complexes / Wholesale Markets at the urban periphery.
  • Mandatory provisions for service and repair activities.
  • Informal shops, weekly markets, handicrafts bazaars, used books / furniture / building materials bazaars to be developed.
  • Enhancement of FAR.
There is existance of non-hierarchial commercial centres like Malls which are not accommodated in the develpment controls and guidelines leading to unregulated growth and shilfting of such develpment of other urban centres like NOIDA and Gurgaon.
(j) Informal Sector:
  • The informal and organised sector is a major source of employment in the economicfabric of the city for which the following approach is proposed:
  • Earmarking of 'Hawking' and 'No Hawking' Zones at neighbourhood and clusterlevels.
This exercise of alltoting the hawkers zone is not yet implemented inspite of the the fact that it was proposed in the earlier Master Plan and there was a Central Government Guideline for earmaking of Spaces for Hawkers and Street Vendors.
  • The weekly markets to be identified and planned / developed.
  • New areas for informal trade to be developed and integrated with housing,commercial, institutional and industrial areas.
  • Provision of common basic services like toilets, water points, etc.
  • Institutionalizing designs of stalls, push-carts and mobile vans.
  • Involvement of NGOs envisaged.
(k) Industry:
  • Environment as a major concern and listing of prohibited industries.
  • Modernisation / up-gradation of existing industries including non-conforming industrial centres.
  • Special provisions for service and repair centres.
  • Inclusion of new activities like IT industry, etc.
  • Enhancement of FAR.
The issue of industries in Delhi has been a subject of extensive debate, controversyand concern over the past decade. This has centred mainly on the aspects of pollution andnegative environmental impact of industries, the existence and continued growth of industriesin non-conforming areas and the issue of classification and permissibility with reference tohousehold industries. Serious concern has been expressed regarding the continued existenceand further proliferation of industries in contravention of Master Plan provisions.
(l) Conservation of Heritage:
  • Identification of heritage zones and archaeological parks.
  • Development of Special Conservation plans for listed buildings and precincts.
(m) Transportation:
  • The proposals include the following:
  • Unified Metro Transport Authority
  • Synergy between landuse and transport
  • A new parking policy including private sector development of parking facilities, increase in norms for parking space, multi level parking and underground parking.
  • Integrated multimodal public transport system to reduce dependence on personalised
vehicles.
  • Road and rail based mass transport system to be a major mode of public transport, optimal use of existing road network and development of missing links.
  • Restructuring of existing network through expressways, elevated roads, arterial roads,distributor roads and relief roads.
  • Provision for introducing cycle tracks, pedestrian and disabled friendly features in arterial and sub-arterial roads.
(n) Health Infrastructure:
  • Health facilities proposed to achieve norms of 5 beds / 1000 population
  • Enhancement of FAR for hospitals and other health facilities.
  • Nursing Homes, clinics etc. also allowed under relaxed Mixed Use norms
(o) Educational Facilities:
  • Rationalisation of planning norms with enhanced floor area.
  • Locating new school sites adjacent to parks / playgrounds.
  • Provision for vocational and other educational facilities.
  • Schools and training centres for mentally / physically challenged with differential development norms.
(p) Disaster Management:
  • Disaster Management centre provided in each administrative zone.
  • Building regulations for safety of structures as per seismic zone.
  • Land Use zoning as per microzonation.
Delhi Master Plan is among the few master plans which talks or tries to take care of the disaster mangement in the city planning aspect.
(q) Provision of Sports Facilities:
  • Provisions for sports infrastructure for local, national and international events.
  • Incentives provided for sports facilities and swimming pools in schools, clubs.
(r) Focus on Infrastructure Development:
  • Perspective Plans for Water, Power, Drainage & Solid Waste Management of Service Agencies part of MPD-2021. Alternative Sources of energy and new technology. ThePlan gives emphasis on energy conservation, efficiency and exploring alternative sources of energy.
  • Realistic standards of water supply for equitable distribution.
(s) Urban Design:
  • Emphasis on the controlled development in many areas.
  • Provision for visual integration and experinece of space. Delhi Urban Arts Commission is doing a good job in ensuring implementation of urban design parapeters.
  • Plan includes the general location, character, and extent of streets, railroads, airports, bridges, waterways, and waterfront developments; sanitary sewers and water supply systems; facilities for flood prevention, drainage, pollution prevention, and maintenance of water levels; and public utilities and structures.
  • Plan includes recommendations as to the general character, extent, and layout of redevelopment or rehabilitation of inner city areas; and the removal, relocation, widening, narrowing, vacating, abandonment, change of use, or extension of streets, grounds, open spaces, buildings, utilities, or other facilities.
  • For a local unit of government that has adopted a zoning ordinance, the Master Plan includes a zoning plan for various zoning districts controlling the height, area, bulk, location, and use of buildings and premises. The zoning plan shall include an explanation of how the land use categories on the future land use map relate to the districts on the zoning map.
  • Plan includes recommendations for implementing any of the master plan's proposals.
  • Plan Monitoring and Mid Term Plan review is a good feature and Mid Term Review is going on from last year.
By Shashikant Nishant Sharma
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The sustenance of human on the Earth depends on the availability of food and energy resources. The commendable works undertaken through Global investment in clean energy which recently climbed to a record $250 billion last year is a clear indication that we are moving in right direction. International Solar Energy Society is going a great job in promoting the use of non-conventional sources of energy and trying to bring consensus between different governments for adoption and technology transfer between the member countries to achieve accelerated attainment of energy from the renewable sources.
Renewable Energy


There are still large untapped potential of renewable energy in the world to fulfill the energy need of the world for centuries to come. The tapping of this immense source of energy need international collaboration and technology transfer from the developed countries to the developing and the under developed countries of the world who are mostly consuming the remaining non-renewable conventional sources of energy which are not only fast depleting but also leading to pollution of various types. 

There are vast potential in the solar energy, hydro energy, wind energy and waste to energy sectors which can be tapped for the benefit of all. The recent announcement of collaboration of Nepal, Bangladesh and India in developing the hydropower potential is one of such example which if successfully executed will act as a driving force for economic growth of the region falling under the river system of Ganga and Brahmaputra.

The western countries are using waste to energy project successfully and they can share their expertise with the other partners who are willing to develop such technologies can go a long way in solving not only the problem of energy but also the problem of pollution caused by such wastes.
Shashikant Nishant Sharma
Urban Planner and Consultant
 
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This is really a good step taken by the 13th Finance Commission to commission the protection and renovation of historical and cultural monuments strewed around our country. The assistance to Odissa is praiseworthy as it has be lagging behind in projecting her historical and cultural monuments in lime light and attracting domestic and international tourists.

The timely plan preparation and due plan execution will ensure the flow of finance for the development of monuments. There are numerous schemes and projects of the state and central government for promotion and protection of monuments for recreational and aesthetic uses. 
Some of the states are proactive in this regards. Special mention should be made of Delhi, Tamil Naidu, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh who have done really commendable job in invigorating and rejuvenating the historical and cultural monuments for promoting tourism and allied industries in in the sector of hospitality. 

There are many more small and large cultural and historical monuments which are lying in neglect due to the indifference of the local, state or central government due to vagueness of the respective jurisdiction. The Ancient Monuments Protection act tries to define some of the guidelines but it is not a comprehensive one.

The emphasis on tourism sector in City Development Plan preparation has led to recognition and protection of many new monuments under the urban local bodies. There are still many more to be identified and brought under the protection and preservation net of the different tiers of governance and administration.
Shashikant Nishant Sharma
Urban Planner and Consultant
 
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Integrating land use and transport explains the policy which has been developed to reduce car travel and provide more equitable access to jobs and services. Strategies to reduce car travel, make greater use of walking; cycling and public transport and provide more equitable access to jobs and services should be evolved. Government should strive to achieve a range of social, environmental and economic goals including equity, neighbourhood amenity and lower road congestion through coordination and guiding various planning and development agencies. Policies should aims to provide more equitable access to jobs and services, by planning to reduce the need for car trips and promote opportunities for walking, cycling and public transport. At all stages, planning and development decisions have a crucial role in providing a choice of transport modes and managing travel demand.
Land Use and Transport

Land use planning practice should result in urban development and change that moderate car reliance so that other measures to reduce car use and the environmental impact of transport will be effective and affordable. Planning and development must consider all relevant transport modes. In particular, improving access by walking, cycling and public transport must receive equivalent attention, if not greater, consideration than private car access. Transport implications must be thoroughly assessed at all stages of the planning process, to ensure that development proposals will not increase car dependence. In the past, the traffic or transport studies supporting development proposals have focused on accommodating private cars and commercial traffic.

Now, when considering the location and suitability of development, satisfying the demand for car travel or parking must be balanced against reducing the amount of travel generated by development. Polices should aims to reduce car dependency, improve access and maximise the share of travel by public transport, pedestrians and cyclists. Businesses and services which generate transport demand should be in the 'right place' - that is, locations which offer a choice of transport and increase opportunities for multipurpose trips. Vibrant, accessible, mixed use centres closely aligned with the public transport system should be encouraged. Responsive planning, consistent decision-making and good design and management are needed to ensure that: there are development opportunities in centres for businesses and services.

Planning decision makers can limit the supply and increase the cost of parking to influence the choice of transport mode choice. People will be encouraged to use their cars excessively if there is abundant or cheap parking, even in areas with good access by public transport. Local parking policies and codes should reflect the accessibility of public transport, walking and cycling and favour their use. Limit the amount of long-stay parking in destinations which have good alternative access by public transport.

To promote more viable public transport and reduce car dependence, it is important that the location, density, design and development of new residential areas maximise access to public transport. 

 To ensure use of public transport is maximized, building forms and subdivision designs and layouts must encourage walking, cycling and the use of public transport, and bus services must be introduced early in the development process. There should be consultation with transport operators as early as possible and this should continue throughout the planning, development and implementation processes of the development. Improving transport choice provides guidelines for integrating land use and transport. Indian urban growth centres need immediate attention to avoid future urban problem and this can be achieved through the early implementation of working landuse plan and transportation plan for upcoming and growing urban centres.
Shashikant Nishant Sharma
Urban Planner and Consultant
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The need of the hour is to set a good set of good planning practices and commitment to work together to achieve better outcomes in the field of urban and transport planning.  Responsive planning, consistent decision-making, and good design and management of urban infrastructure will go a long way in solving varied urban planning and transportation issues. All planning and development agencies working in various states, territories, and local areas should collaborate to develop a comprehensive and mutually accepted norms for development. Within each state and union territory, local governments should be allowed to play a central role in physical planning for local areas. Landuse and transport planning has a key role to play in delivering social, economic, and environmental sustainability.
Land Use and Transport Planning
Land Use and Transport Planning


Land Use and Transport Planning


However, by shaping the pattern of development and influencing the location, scale, density, design, and mix of land uses, planning can help to facilitate an efficient transport and land use system through consistent application of sound planning principles and development guidelines to ensure the effectiveness of land use and transport policies and help maximize the quality of life of the community. Planning of transport and landuse must also be robust in the face of changes in technology, social conditions, values, resource constraints, and other key factors.

The true test of the integrated planning can be ascertained only if the outcome of the development is directed towards the achievement of sustainable development, equity, amenity, livability, resource Management, cost-effectiveness, efficiency and integration between the public and private sectors. The focus of such planning policies should be directed towards achieving the target in a time bound manner and development of sound planning practices and evolution of processes used for integrated planning. There is a hierarchy of planning activities at the national, state, regional, and local level.  And this calls for an approach which will ensure the integration of individual efforts to the common goal of planning for a better tomorrow. Keeping in view the unbalanced development of different regions of the country, the focus should be on developing an urban and regional form that concentrates the provision of goods and services at hubs, and provides effective transport linkage between those hubs which will further aids to the growth and development of the areas lying in between those hubs.

Land use planning decisions should support the provision of public transport services and other more sustainable transport modes and environmental sustainability of the development. Transport routes and destinations should be managed so that priority can be given to those areas which needs boost for faster development and which helps in balancing the development potential of different regions keeping in view the environmental sustainability of such developments. The focus should be on developing regional and urban structures which make better use of the existing transport infrastructure and urban land and are less dependent on unsustainable forms of transport. Decisions should also take account of future land development to ensure that they do not undermine achievements in maximizing the use of existing infrastructure and land use.

New public transport routes should be planned to ensure safe and convenient passenger accessibility and also to facilitate sustainable urban regeneration. The focus is on integrated planning as a means of achieving a balance between the need to provide for accessibility and mobility and to create a sense of place where vehicle traffic does not dominate and the impact does not affect people's life styles.

The need for accessibility of different sections of the community should be assessed and provision made for them. Key stakeholders and community groups should be engaged in developing a common vision to guide the development of a transport system that provides high levels of accessibility to all. The safety needs of different sections of the community should be assessed and related to routes they use for access to facilities, services and public transport. The focus should be on providing regional and remote communities with efficient, accessible and sustainable transport infrastructure.

Implementation of the integrated development plan will depend on the commitments made at all levels of Government. For example, some States and Union Territories may develop their own frameworks, policies and guidelines. The common integrated development guidelines will help in smoothening the differences between varied agencies working in the field of planning, developing and managing the various forms of infrastructure and natural resources of an area.
Shashikant Nishant Sharma
Urban Planner and Consultant

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Shashikant Nishant Sharma
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Seven out of ten Indian citizens now live in cities or large towns, and the vast majority must deal with the consequences of poor urban planning every day of their lives. Negative aspects of urban living include traffic congestion, noise, poor public transport, urban sprawl, air pollution, a lack of easily accessible shops and services, and a host of other daily inconveniences. In the past, many local and regional decision-makers adopted a 'trial and error' approach to urban development, in which long-term objectives were rarely defined and remedial action was taken only when it became absolutely essential. But dysfunctional cities generate social and environmental problems which, in turn, have a real economic cost. Today, more and more regional and urban decision-makers are recognizing the urgent need to put in place coordinated transport, land use and environmental policies.
Urban Development with Increased Mobility
Urban Development with Increased Mobility


Secondly, some planning authorities and municipalities are trying to develop quality infrastructure to improve the quality of life in India's cities, protect the environment. Transport planning strategies that placed too much emphasis on car use and did not take an integrated approach to the complex needs of a modern city have failed spectacularly. Many of India's cities are reaching crisis point. Choked roads, overburdened public transport systems, pollution, noise and poorly serviced neighbourhoods are making life increasingly unbearable for more and more Indian citizens. One of the keys to successful urban development is forward planning.

   Cities should have short-, medium- and long-term transport and land use strategies ranging from thoughtful planning decisions to widest possible stakeholder consultation to draw up long-term sustainable development domains of Socio-economic development of Indian cities and towns. How the balance between the need and the demand of the improved infrastructure varying  city to city can be met is a serious problem. What matters is to identify transport and land use questions lie at the heart of any serious sustainable urban planning policy, and must be considered together. When a city gives the green light for a construction project - whether it is a housing complex, an apartment building, an office block or a shopping centre - it must also consider how people can get to or from the new premises. If it decides to build a ring road, on the other hand, developers will be keen to benefit from the improved access offered by the new transport link, as demonstrated by the industrial and commercial zones that now ring most major Indian cities. When land use and transport policy decisions are taken they are not done in due consideration of the roads and out-of-town shopping centres. The multi-dimensional handicap imposed on inner city areas increases with a mix of shops, recreational uses, residential neighbourhoods.

Every municipality must have expert from the fields of  environment, sociology and economics, urban planning, transport planning.  Very often the resources of the municipality is not fully utilized on city planning and management, cultural heritage, the built environment and urban transport. These areas need urgent attention to tackle some of the most pressing problems facing Indian cities today.
Serious long-term transport and land use planning strategies need to look around 20 years into the future, so research into these important areas will be needed for some time to come. To support urban planning and economic policies, and their implementation by city remain a key are for research.

Shashikant Nishant Sharma
Urban Planner and Consultant
Sources:
Sharma, S. N. (2013, October). Sustainable Development Strategies and Approaches. International Journal of Engineering & Technical Research, 1(8), 79-83.
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Walking and walkability provide a variety of benefits, including accessibility, transportation cost savings, public health, reduced external transportation costs, more efficient land use, community livability, economic development, and support for equity objectives. Current transportation planning practices tend to undervalue walking.
Sustainable Development and Walkability

Sustainable Development and Walkability


From a conventional planning perspective, walking is a minor mode of travel, and walkability deserves only modest public support. The high value placed on driving and low value placed on walking results from the methods used to measure transport activity. Travel surveys and traffic counts undervalue nonmotorized travel because they ignore or undercount short trips, non-work travel, travel by children, recreational travel and nonmotorized links. We often underestimate the importance of walking in our transportation surveys and we rarely include them in one of the effective and sustainable mode of mobility.

There is often shifting of resources (money and land) away from walking facilities to roads and parking. We intuitively know that transport diversity in general, and walking in particular, are important to society and so favor walkability improvements. Although most travel  surveys indicate that only about 5-10 % of travel is by walking. This is a timely issue because there is growing interest in walking as a form of transport, and recognition of the benefits of Transportation diversity.
Walking is an important form of access, both by itself and in conjunction with other modes (transit, driving, air travel, etc.). But since driving is about ten times faster than walking, this person spends half as much time walking as driving on public facilities, and a modest improvement in walking access (for example, a pedestrian shortcut between their home and local shops) can provide travel time savings that are comparable to a major roadway improvement. Walking accessibility can be evaluated based on the quality of pedestrian conditions and the distribution of destinations, with special consideration to access from origin to destination.

Value of Marginal Changes and Long Term Benefits

The value of marginal changes in walking conditions can be quantified based on changes in travel time costs; based on costs compared with other access options such as driving; and by using contingent valuation surveys to determine the value people place on improved pedestrian accessibility. Although there are many ways to be physically active, walking is one of the most common, and improved walkability is a practical way to increase physical activity. The health benefits of increased walking and improved walkability are potentially quite large. Walking has a relatively high crash fatality rate per mile of travel, but this is offset by reduced risk to other road users and by the fact that pedestrians tend to travel less overall than motorists.
Walkability improvements can help improve land use efficiency and community livability by reducing the amount of land required for Transportation facilities, encouraging more clustered land use patterns, improving local environmental quality and increasing community interaction. Walkability improvements can also support regional economic development by shifting consumer expenditures.

 For example, a particular sidewalk improvement may increase community livability(and therefore property values), improve accessibility, support equity objectives, provide consumer cost savings, benefit the local economy, improve aerobic fitness for some residents, reduce vehicle traffic impacts, and support more efficient land use.  Although only about 5% of trips are made completely by walking, three to six times as many urban trips involve at least one walking link, and 20-40% of travel time is spent walking or waiting.

By this measure, a major share of transport resources should be devoted to walking. However, local governments spend only about a quarter of total transport funds and other levels of government provide far less support for walking.  This discrepancy between the portion of travel by walking and the portion of resources devoted to walking becomes far larger when other public resources devoted to transport are included, such as expenditures on parking facilities and traffic services, and the opportunity cost of public lands devoted to roadways. Including these, less than 2% of total public resources devoted to transport are allocated to walking.
There are several reasons that walking might deserve more than a proportional share of transport resources: If we apply the principle that each mode should receive its proportional share of Transportation resources, this suggests that walking should receive 10-20% of total Transportation resources. These cross subsidies are two or three times greater when other external costs of automobile use are also considered, such as public resources devoted to parking facilities, uncompensated crash damages, and negative environmental impacts. More comprehensive benefit-cost analysis requires better techniques to measure and predict travel impacts of improved walkability, and to evaluate the full economic impacts that result, including indirect and nonmarket impacts that are not usually quantified in transport planning such as environmental, economic development and equity impacts. Conventional transport planning treats walking as a minor mode and recognize only modest benefits from improved walkability and increased walking.This reflects evaluation practices that undercount nonmotorized travel and undervalue walking benefits.

Conclusions

Other perspectives indicate that walking is a critical component of the transport system, and walking conditions have major economic, social and environmental impacts. improved walkability and increased walking can provide a variety of benefits, including accessibility, transport cost savings, improved public health, external cost reductions, more efficient land use, community livability, economic development, and support for equity objectives. Conventional planning practices suggest that the current share of public resources devoted to walking is fair and efficient, but this reflects undercounting of total walking activity, undervaluation of walking benefits, and undervaluation of motor vehicle external costs. More comprehensive evaluation indicates that walking deserves a greater share of transport resources. Recognizing a higher value to walking and walkability could have various effects on Transportation and land use planning, future planners can give due weightage to pedestrian facilities while planning.
Shashikant Nishant Sharma
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Citizen of India is facing a lot of inconveniences due to discontinuation of currency notes of Rs 500 and Rs 1000. Being a currency not of higher denomination it is causing greater inconveniences that were caused by such economic and political measures taken for coins of lower denominations like 5 paisa, 10 paisa, 20, paisa, 25 paisa and 50 paisa. It should be noted that Re 1 (Re) is used only for 1) otherwise Rs or ` (Re1=100 paisa).
Currency notes of 500 and 2000 issued by RBI, India
Currency notes of 500 and 2000 issued by RBI, India

Why Inconveniences due to Change in Currency

Most of the household had kept saving in their home in the form of 500 and 1000 currency notes. For trading in cash of larger amount you traders used to use currency of Rs500 and Rs1000. Indian have a habit of spending in a large number of festivals which are celebrated throughout the year. They need money mostly cash for such purchases.
Many shops do not use point of Sale machines issues by banks and other service providers like Paytm and PayUMoney. So people has to use cash for such transactions.
In India there is bad custom of dowry which is widespread and prevalent. This is a season of marriages and many families are facing cash crunches due to the discontinuation of old Rs500 and Rs100 currency notes.
But there is a ray of hope for bride family as they can submit a form to Collector or District Magistrate to get approval for cash withdrawal of Rs 5 lakh in cash from banks. This information is less circulated and many families are unaware about this provision. 
Those who gets Rs 2000 new currency note then they face a lot of problem in getting changes as the available lower denomination currency of 5, 10, 20, 50, 10 and some 500 are insufficient. 

Malpractices in Market and by Retailers

Many retailers are taking extra money in exchange of Rs 500 and Rs1000. Some of shops near our residence they are taking Rs 100 extra on giving change for Rs500 and Rs 150 on giving change for Rs 1000 old currency notes. Even though all banks are changing the currency and allowing the deposit of the old currency notes in bank branches but you will be amazed to see the long queue in from of banks and ATM. People are waiting in long queue as if the government has allowed citizen to withdraw free money distributed by government. Even after a week of the announcement of the changes in currency the state of affairs has not changed. Government has given deadline for December 30th 2016 for deposit of the old currency of 500 and 1000 and take cash from bank. There is a cap on the limit of the cash that any person can take from bank. That’s many people are forced to fall prey for the malpractices prevalent in market for getting change of currency.

Ray of Hope for Economy

The measures taken by government will give good results in long terms and this is possible due to this strict measure taken by government to discontinue the currency notes of 500 and 1000.
Banks will have larger amount of deposits and this will boost the economic development as more funds will be available for the investment in the development projects. The prices of the commodity will fall and but there will be rise in prices of Gold and silver and government has allowed purchase of gold from the old currency notes.
The citizen will learn to use electronic media of fund transfer and purchase of goods and services using ATM, debit card and credit card will be promoted at larger scale as it is a demand driven development. Online payment gateways will prove to be good medium of serving masses.
Online sales and purchase will boom this will help in long awaited dream of government to make India go digital.  
The prevalence of the forged/fake currency notes of higher denomination has been done away with in a single master stoke of the PM Narendra Modi. If you see some news clippings that people are burning currency notes of 500 or 1000 then straight away think that they are destroying black money or fake currency notes. As the original old notes can be exchanged or deposited without any fear.
The dream of digital India will come true sooner than expected.
This measure will surely eradicate smaller black money holder as the large amount of the black money holders who have accounts in foreign banks, their money will get white without any effort and harassment which general public is facing.
It is irony that who has not dearth of Money like Mr Rahul Gandhi was shown standing in queue for withdrawing money which is nothing but mockery of the plights of the general public.
A news showed CM Arvind Kejriwal burning Currency of higher denomination which is a form of protest but not a patriotic act. Such acts in the name of opposition should never be considered good.
Some news clippings on TV channels showed that some Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP) leaders has prior information about the changes in the government policy about currency if that news is true then that must be condemned.

Conclusions

After all, the measures taken by government for curbing the menace of black money and forged currency proved to be good and it is showing results slowly. Some inconveniences is being faced by many person but this will be short term and citizen should keep patience and wait for the good results that these measures will bring to our economy.

Shashikant Nishant Sharma
Policy Analyst and Planning Consultant


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In a relief for the Centre and the Tamil Nadu (TN) government, the Supreme Court (SC) on 6 May 2013 approved the commissioning of the Kudankulam nuclear plant.
Kundukulam Nuclear Power Plant
Kundukulam Nuclear Power Plant


What Dispute all about in Kundukulam

The supreme court has approved the commissiong of the controversial Kudankulam nucler plant. The supreme court said that the Kudankulam plant is safe and necessary for public interest and economic growth of the country. The apex bench has observed that the nuclear plants are needed in the country for the present and future generation and the plant has been set up by the government for the welfare of the people. In the last three months a bench of justices had marathon arguments and consultation with various parties. Anti - nuclear activists had filed a petition challenging the project. They also raised questions about the disposal of nuclear plant wastes and the plant's impact on the environment and the safety of the people residing nearby. The centre, Tamil Nadu government and nuclear power corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) have to operates the nuclear power plant for meeting the ever increasing energy demands of the growing economy.
But on the other hand, India has not progressed at desired pace in the Renewable Energy resources. The Coal is running out which is the major ingredient for power. Hydro projects are not enough to power our country. The Nuclear energy is the need of the hour and of course safety is paramount. The legendary former President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam has given a certificate on this project. He is the most respected and trusted Nuclear Scientist across the globe. People all over the country and especially in rural areas are facing acute power cuts of over 16 hours per day. Commissioning of this project will at least bring down the cuts.
Good decision-Too much of Hue and cry and spreading unwanted propaganda for the sake of vested interest, Not looking into the benefit of whole state and our country. There are very old plant functioning without any danger then why to go after this modern plant.
Great relief for the people of TN who have been reeling under heavy load shedding for the last two years. The judges have arrived at the decision only after careful scrutiny of the details provided by experts of Nuclear Energy, which includes the technocrats from NPCIL. Even our most revered Dr. Kalam, had visited the plant personally and had vouched the absolute safety of the plant. As usual, in any development process, there is bound to be vested interest and this plant was no exception. As was visualised, the protesters were receiving funds from overseas for their agitation and it was proved last month when few lakhs were found to be credited into the account of the lady movement organizers from Britain.


Brief side of Anti- Nuclear Power Plan Agitation

It is hoped that the agitators will now at least respect of the judgement of the Supreme Court, which must have taken the decision after taking into account all aspects. Moreover, the Govt. would not be spending crores of rupees without weighing the pros and cons of the project. In spite of all safety measures, planes crash, trains meet with accident, natural calamities claims hundreds of lives at a time. Electric power is no more a luxury but an essential thing for everybody. Anticipating some disaster despite assurance from all authorities, stalling the commissioning of the plant is not in national interest. The SC has also said in its judgement that the Kudankulam plant is safe and secure and it is necessary for larger public interest and economic growth of the country.
All the nuclear power plants cannot be compared to accidents which happened in Japan. There are lot more factors. Kudankulam is located at a much safer earthquake zone. In a developing nation like India, we need such plants. Apart from that, govt can look into harnessing more of solar energy and wind energy. In developed nations like Germany, one can see solar panels on 30-40% houses. India receives rich solar power and has long coastlines to harness wind energy. Subsidy should also be provided for the time being, so that these energies are affordable for common men. Anyway, good decision by SC.
Shashikant Nishant Sharma
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